Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: S.S.Rattan

9 Effect of L/D Ratio on the Performance of a Four-Lobe Pressure Dam Bearing

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. S. Rattan, N. P. Mehta

Abstract:

A four-lobe pressure dam bearing which is produced by cutting two pressure dams on the upper two lobes and two relief-tracks on the lower two lobes of an ordinary four-lobe bearing is found to be more stable than a conventional four-lobe bearing. In this paper a four-lobe pressure dam bearing supporting rigid and flexible rotors is analytically investigated to determine its performance when L/D ratio is varied in the range 0.75 to 1.5. The static and dynamic characteristics are studied at various L/D ratios. The results show that the stability of a four-lobe pressure dam bearing increases with decrease in L/D ratios both for rigid as well as flexible rotors.

Keywords: Four-lobe pressure dam bearing, finite-elementmethod, L/D ratio.

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8 Kinematic Analysis of 2-DOF Planer Robot Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Jolly Shah, S.S.Rattan, B.C.Nakra

Abstract:

Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the forward and inverse kinematics of 2-DOF robotic manipulator with revolute joints. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) model is used to model robot links and joints. Also forward and inverse kinematics solution has been achieved using Artificial Neural Networks for 2-DOF robotic manipulator. It shows that by using artificial neural network the solution we get is faster, acceptable and has zero error.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Forward Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics, Robotic Manipulator

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7 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Mixture of Methyl Acetate with Isopropylbenzene at 97.3 kPa

Authors: Seema Kapoor, Baljinder K. Gill, V. K. Rattan

Abstract:

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixture of Methyl acetate and Isopropylbenzene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The mixture shows positive deviation from ideality and does not form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency tests of Herington and Black. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. A comparison of the values of activity coefficients obtained by experimental data with the UNIFAC model has been made.

Keywords: Binary mixture, Isopropylbenzene, Methyl acetate, Vapor-liquid equilibrium.

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6 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixture of 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Cumene

Authors: V. K. Rattan, Baljinder K. Gill, Seema Kapoor

Abstract:

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for binary mixture of 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Cumene at 97.3 kPa. The data were obtained using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The mixture shows slight negative deviation from ideality. The system does not form an azeotrope. The experimental data obtained in this study are thermodynamically consistent according to the Herington test. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, and NRTL equations. Excess Gibbs free energy has been calculated from the experimental data. The values of activity coefficients have also been obtained by the UNIFAC group contribution method.

Keywords: Binary mixture, 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, Cumene, Vapor-liquid equilibrium, UNIFAC, Excess Gibbs free energy.

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5 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa

Authors: Baljinder K. Gill, V. K. Rattan, Seema Kapoor

Abstract:

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The binary mixture of n-Butylamine + Cumene shows positive deviation from ideality. Triethylamine + Cumene mixture shows negligible deviation from ideality. None of the systems form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency test of Herington. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. The activity coefficient values obtained by the UNIFAC model are also reported.

Keywords: Binary mixture, cumene, n-butylamine, triethylamine, vapor-liquid equilibrium.

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4 Refractive Index, Excess Molar Volume and Viscometric Study of Binary Liquid Mixture of Morpholine with Cumene at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, and 308.15 K

Authors: B. K. Gill, Himani Sharma, V. K. Rattan

Abstract:

Experimental data of refractive index, excess molar volume and viscosity of binary mixture of morpholine with cumene over the whole composition range at 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K and normal atmospheric pressure have been measured. The experimental data were used to compute the density, deviation in molar refraction, deviation in viscosity and excess Gibbs free energy of activation as a function of composition. The experimental viscosity data have been correlated with empirical equations like Grunberg- Nissan, Herric correlation and three body McAllister’s equation. The excess thermodynamic properties were fitted to Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The variation of these properties with composition and temperature of the binary mixtures are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

Keywords: Cumene, excess Gibbs free energy, excess molar volume, morpholine.

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3 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradient.

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2 Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Tania Bose, Minto Rattan, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, functionally graded isotropic material, steady-state, thermal gradation.

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1 Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter

Authors: Aka S. Koffi, N’Goran Yao, Philippe Bastide, Denis Bruneau, Diby Kadjo

Abstract:

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize the product is still hard to perform. Automatic fermenters are not rentable for most of producers. Heat (T>45°C) and acidity produced during the fermentation by microbiology activity of yeasts and bacteria are enabling the emergence of potential flavor and taste of future chocolate. In this study, a cylindro-rotative fermenter (FCR-V1) has been built and coconut fibers were used in its structure to confine heat. An axis of rotation (360°) has been integrated to facilitate the turning and homogenization of beans in the fermenter. This axis permits to put fermenter in a vertical position during the anaerobic alcoholic phase of fermentation, and horizontally during acetic phase to take advantage of the mid height filling. For circulation of air flow during turning in acetic phase, two woven rattan with grid have been made, one for the top and second for the bottom of the fermenter. In order to reduce air flow during acetic phase, two airtight covers are put on each grid cover. The efficiency of the turning by this kind of rotation, coupled with homogenization of the temperature, caused by the horizontal position in the acetic phase of the fermenter, contribute to having a good proportion of well-fermented beans (83.23%). In addition, beans’pH values ranged between 4.5 and 5.5. These values are ideal for enzymatic activity in the production of the aromatic compounds inside beans. The regularity of mass loss during all fermentation makes it possible to predict the drying surface corresponding to the amount being fermented.

Keywords: Cocoa fermentation, fermenter, microbial activity, temperature, turning.

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