Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Elizabeth F. Souza

56 Environmental Analysis of the Zinc Oxide Nanophotocatalyst Synthesis

Authors: Natália B. Pompermayer, Mariana B. Porto, Elizabeth F. Souza

Abstract:

Nanophotocatalysts such as titanium (TiO2), zinc (ZnO), and iron (Fe2O3) oxides can be used in organic pollutants oxidation, and in many other applications. But among the challenges for technological application (scale-up) of the nanotechnology scientific developments two aspects are still little explored: research on environmental risk of the nanomaterials preparation methods, and the study of nanomaterials properties and/or performance variability. The environmental analysis was performed for six different methods of ZnO nanoparticles synthesis, and showed that it is possible to identify the more environmentally compatible process even at laboratory scale research. The obtained ZnO nanoparticles were tested as photocatalysts, and increased the degradation rate of the Rhodamine B dye up to 30 times.

Keywords: Environmental impact analysis, inorganic nanoparticles, photocatalysts.

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55 Deniable Authentication Protocol Resisting Man-in-the-Middle Attack

Authors: Song Han, Wanquan Liu, Elizabeth Chang

Abstract:

Deniable authentication is a new protocol which not only enables a receiver to identify the source of a received message but also prevents a third party from identifying the source of the message. The proposed protocol in this paper makes use of bilinear pairings over elliptic curves, as well as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol. Besides the security properties shared with previous authentication protocols, the proposed protocol provides the same level of security with smaller public key sizes.

Keywords: Deniable Authentication, Man-in-the-middleAttack, Cryptography, Elliptic Curves.

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54 Suggestions for the Improvement of the Quality of Public Transportation Service in Campos,Brazil

Authors: D. I. De Souza, G. P. Azevedo, P. Duarte

Abstract:

In this paper the main objective is to analyze the quality of service of the bus companies operating in the city of Campos, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This analysis, based on the opinion of the bus customers, will help to determine their degree of satisfaction with the service provided by the bus companies. The result of this assessment shows that the bus customers are displeased with the quality of service supplied by the bus companies. Therefore, it is necessary to identify alternative solutions to minimize the consequences of the main problems related to customers- dissatisfaction identified in our evaluation and to help the bus companies operating in Campos better fulfill their riders- needs.

Keywords: PubicTransportation, Quality of Service, Riders'Opinion, Bus Companies

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53 Microclimate Variations in Rio de Janeiro Related to Massive Public Transportation

Authors: Marco E. O. Jardim, Frederico A. M. Souza, Valeria M. Bastos, Myrian C. A. Costa, Nelson F. F. Ebecken

Abstract:

Urban public transportation in Rio de Janeiro is based on bus lines, powered by diesel, and four limited metro lines that support only some neighborhoods. This work presents an infrastructure built to better understand microclimate variations related to massive urban transportation in some specific areas of the city. The use of sensor nodes with small analytics capacity provides environmental information to population or public services. The analyses of data collected from a few small sensors positioned near some heavy traffic streets show the harmful impact due to poor bus route plan.

Keywords: Big data, IoT, public transportation, public health system.

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52 Biological Hotspots in the Galápagos Islands: Exploring Seasonal Trends of Ocean Climate Drivers to Monitor Algal Blooms

Authors: Emily Kislik, Gabriel Mantilla Saltos, Gladys Torres, Mercy Borbor-Córdova

Abstract:

The Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is an internationally-recognized region of consistent upwelling events, high productivity, and rich biodiversity. Despite its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition, the archipelago has experienced phytoplankton blooms, especially in the western section between Isabela and Fernandina Islands. However, little is known about how climate variability will affect future phytoplankton standing stock in the Galápagos, and no consistent protocols currently exist to quantify phytoplankton biomass, identify species, or monitor for potential harmful algal blooms (HABs) within the archipelago. This analysis investigates physical, chemical, and biological oceanic variables that contribute to algal blooms within the GMR, using 4 km Aqua MODIS satellite imagery and 0.125-degree wind stress data from January 2003 to December 2016. Furthermore, this study analyzes chlorophyll-a concentrations at varying spatial scales— within the greater archipelago, as well as within five smaller bioregions based on species biodiversity in the GMR. Seasonal and interannual trend analyses, correlations, and hotspot identification were performed. Results demonstrate that chlorophyll-a is expressed in two seasons throughout the year in the GMR, most frequently in September and March, with a notable hotspot in the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Interannual chlorophyll-a trend analyses revealed highest peaks in 2003, 2007, 2013, and 2016, and variables that correlate highly with chlorophyll-a include surface temperature and particulate organic carbon. This study recommends future in situ sampling locations for phytoplankton monitoring, including the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Conclusions from this study contribute to the knowledge of oceanic drivers that catalyze primary productivity and consequently affect species biodiversity within the GMR. Additionally, this research can inform policy and decision-making strategies for species conservation and management within bioregions of the Galápagos.

Keywords: Bioregions, ecological monitoring, phytoplankton, remote sensing.

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51 Developing a Research Framework for Investigating the Transparency of ePortfolios

Authors: Elizabeth Downs, Judith Repman, Kenneth Clark

Abstract:

This paper describes the evolution of strategies to evaluate ePortfolios in an online Master-s of Education (M.Ed.) degree in Instructional Technology. The ePortfolios are required as a culminating activity for students in the program. By using Web 2.0 tools to develop the ePortfolios, students are able to showcase their technical skills, integrate national standards, demonstrate their professional understandings, and reflect on their individual learning. Faculty have created assessment strategies to evaluate student achievement of these skills. To further develop ePortfolios as a tool promoting authentic learning, faculty are moving toward integrating transparency as part of the evaluation process.

Keywords: e-learning evaluation, ePortfolios, transparency, Web 2.0

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50 Comparing the Quality of Service of Bus Companies Operating in two Cities in Brazil

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. Kipper, G. P. Azevedo

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to compare the quality of service of the bus companies operating in the city of Rio Branco, located in the state of Acre with the quality of service of the bus companies operating in the city of Campos, situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro, both cities in Brazil. This comparison, based on the opinion of the bus users, will determine their degree of satisfaction with the service available in both cities. The outcome of this evaluation shows the users unhappy with the quality of the service provided by the bus companies operating in both cities and the need to identify alternative solutions that may minimize the consequences caused by the main problems detected in this work. With these alternatives available, the bus companies will be able to better understand the needs of their customers in terms of manpower, service cost, time schedule, etc.

Keywords: PubicTransportation, Quality of Service, Riders' Opinion, Bus Companies

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49 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, microgenerator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam.

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48 An Optimization Tool-Based Design Strategy Applied to Divide-by-2 Circuits with Unbalanced Loads

Authors: Agord M. Pinto Jr., Yuzo Iano, Leandro T. Manera, Raphael R. N. Souza

Abstract:

This paper describes an optimization tool-based design strategy for a Current Mode Logic CML divide-by-2 circuit. Representing a building block for output frequency generation in a RFID protocol based-frequency synthesizer, the circuit was designed to minimize the power consumption for driving of multiple loads with unbalancing (at transceiver level). Implemented with XFAB XC08 180 nm technology, the circuit was optimized through MunEDA WiCkeD tool at Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment ADE.

Keywords: Divide-by-2 circuit, CMOS technology, PLL phase locked-loop, optimization tool, CML current mode logic, RF transceiver.

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47 Analysis of FWM Penalties in DWDM Systems Based on G.652, G.653, and G.655 Optical Fibers

Authors: Paula B. Harboe, Edilson da Silva, José R. Souza

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the power penalties imposed by four-wave mixing (FWM) on G.652 (Single- Mode Fiber - SMF), G.653 (Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - DSF), and G.655 (Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber - NZDSF) compliant fibers, considering the DWDM grids suggested by the ITU-T Recommendations G.692, and G.694.1, with uniform channel spacing of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 GHz. The mathematical/numerical model assumes undepleted pumping, and shows very clearly the deleterious effect of FWM on the performance of DWDM systems, measured by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results make it evident that non-uniform channel spacing is practically mandatory for WDM systems based on DSF fibers.

Keywords: DWDM systems, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM), G.652, G.653, G.655 compliant fibers, Signal-to-noise ratio.

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46 Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost

Authors: Antônio P. de Araújo Neto, Ruy D. A. da Silva Neto, Juliana R. de Souza, Salete K. P. de Medeiros, João T. N. de Medeiros

Abstract:

The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%, and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation, normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.

Keywords: Microcomposites, microparticles tailings of scheelite, PTFE, tribology.

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45 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, L.Abrunhosa, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa

Abstract:

Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp., Seeds, Silver Nanoparticles, Soybean.

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44 A Model for the Characterization and Selection of Beeswaxes for use as base Substitute Tissue in Photon Teletherapy

Authors: R.M.V. Silva, D.N. Souza

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for the characterization and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators. The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for radiotherapy.

Keywords: Beeswaxes, characterization, model, radiotherapy

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43 Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic Cardiac Phantom for use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Marcos A. Dullius, Ramon C. Fernandes, Divanízia N. Souza

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a dynamic cardiac phantom for quality control in myocardial scintigraphy. The dynamic heart phantom constructed only contained the left ventricle, made of elastic material (latex), comprising two cavities: one internal and one external. The data showed a non-significant variation in the values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained by varying the heart rate. It was also possible to evaluate the ejection fraction (LVEF) through different arrays of image acquisition and to perform an intercomparison of LVEF by two different scintillation cameras. The results of the quality control tests were satisfactory, showing that they can be used as parameters in future assessments. The new dynamic heart phantom was demonstrated to be effective for use in LVEF measurements. Therefore, the new heart simulator is useful for the quality control of scintigraphic cameras.

Keywords: sheart, nuclear medicine, phantom

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42 Effects of Oilfield Water Treated by Electroflocculation and Reverse Osmosis in a Typical Brazilian Semiarid Soil

Authors: P. S. A. Souza, M. R. C. Marques, M. M. Rigo, A. A. Cerqueira, J. L. Paiva, F. Merçon, D. V. Perez

Abstract:

Produced water (PW), which is water extracted along with oil, is the largest waste stream in the oil and gas industry. With the proper treatment, this wastewater can be used in agricultural irrigation. This study evaluated the effects the application of PW treated by electroflocculation (EF) and combined electroflocculation-reverse osmosis (EF-RO) on soil salinity and sodification parameters. Excessive sodium levels in PW treated by EF may affect soil structural stability and plant growth, and tends to accumulate in upper layers, displacing the nutrient K to deeper layers of the soil profile. PW treated by EF-RO did not promote salinization and soil sodification, indicating that this combined technique may be a viable alternative for oily water treatment aiming at irrigation use in semiarid regions.

Keywords: Electroflocculation, irrigation, produced water, reverse osmosis, soil.

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41 Additional Considerations on a Sequential Life Testing Approach using a Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, R. Rocha

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Weibull sampling distribution. The minimum life will be considered equal to zero. We will again provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new type of a low alloy-high strength steel product. To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Underlying Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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40 A Pairing-based Blind Signature Scheme with Message Recovery

Authors: Song Han, Elizabeth Chang

Abstract:

Blind signatures enable users to obtain valid signatures for a message without revealing its content to the signer. This paper presents a new blind signature scheme, i.e. identity-based blind signature scheme with message recovery. Due to the message recovery property, the new scheme requires less bandwidth than the identitybased blind signatures with similar constructions. The scheme is based on modified Weil/Tate pairings over elliptic curves, and thus requires smaller key sizes for the same level of security compared to previous approaches not utilizing bilinear pairings. Security and efficiency analysis for the scheme is provided in this paper.

Keywords: Blind Signature, Message Recovery, Pairings, Elliptic Curves, Blindness

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39 A New Proxy Signature Scheme As Secure As ElGamal Signature

Authors: Song Han, Elizabeth Chang, Jie Wang, Wanquan Liu

Abstract:

Proxy signature helps the proxy signer to sign messages on behalf of the original signer. It is very useful when the original signer (e.g. the president of a company) is not available to sign a specific document. If the original signer can not forge valid proxy signatures through impersonating the proxy signer, it will be robust in a virtual environment; thus the original signer can not shift any illegal action initiated by herself to the proxy signer. In this paper, we propose a new proxy signature scheme. The new scheme can prevent the original signer from impersonating the proxy signer to sign messages. The proposed scheme is based on the regular ElGamal signature. In addition, the fair privacy of the proxy signer is maintained. That means, the privacy of the proxy signer is preserved; and the privacy can be revealed when it is necessary.

Keywords: ElGamal signature, Proxy signature, Security, Hash function, Fair privacy.

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38 A Novel Dosimetry System for Computed Tomography using Phototransistor

Authors: C. M. M. Paschoal, M. L. Sobrinho, D. do N. Souza, J. Antônio Filho, L. A. P. Santos

Abstract:

Computed tomography (CT) dosimetry normally uses an ionization chamber 100 mm long to estimate the computed tomography dose index (CTDI), however some reports have already indicated that small devices could replace the long ion chamber to improve quality assurance procedures in CT dosimetry. This paper presents a novel dosimetry system based in a commercial phototransistor evaluated for CT dosimetry. Three detector configurations were developed for this system: with a single, two and four devices. Dose profile measurements were obtained with them and their angular response were evaluated. The results showed that the novel dosimetry system with the phototransistor could be an alternative for CT dosimetry. It allows to obtain the CT dose profile in details and also to estimate the CTDI in longer length than the 100 mm pencil chamber. The angular response showed that the one device detector configuration is the most adequate among the three configurations analyzed in this study.

Keywords: Computed tomography, dosimetry, photo-transistor

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37 A Hybrid Approach to Fault Detection and Diagnosis in a Diesel Fuel Hydrotreatment Process

Authors: Salvatore L., Pires B., Campos M. C. M., De Souza Jr M. B.

Abstract:

It is estimated that the total cost of abnormal conditions to US process industries is around $20 billion dollars in annual losses. The hydrotreatment (HDT) of diesel fuel in petroleum refineries is a conversion process that leads to high profitable economical returns. However, this is a difficult process to control because it is operated continuously, with high hydrogen pressures and it is also subject to disturbances in feed properties and catalyst performance. So, the automatic detection of fault and diagnosis plays an important role in this context. In this work, a hybrid approach based on neural networks together with a pos-processing classification algorithm is used to detect faults in a simulated HDT unit. Nine classes (8 faults and the normal operation) were correctly classified using the proposed approach in a maximum time of 5 minutes, based on on-line data process measurements.

Keywords: Fault detection, hydrotreatment, hybrid systems, neural networks.

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36 The Influence of Interest, Beliefs, and Identity with Mathematics on Achievement

Authors: Asma Alzahrani, Elizabeth Stojanovski

Abstract:

This study investigated factors that influence mathematics achievement based on a sample of ninth-grade students (N  =  21,444) from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS09). Key aspects studied included efficacy in mathematics, interest and enjoyment of mathematics, identity with mathematics and future utility beliefs and how these influence mathematics achievement. The predictability of mathematics achievement based on these factors was assessed using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. Spearman rank correlations and multiple regression analyses indicated positive and statistically significant relationships between the explanatory variables: mathematics efficacy, identity with mathematics, interest in and future utility beliefs with the response variable, achievement in mathematics.

Keywords: Mathematics achievement, math efficacy, mathematics interest, identity.

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35 Characterization and Development of Anthropomorphic Phantoms Liver for Use in Nuclear Medicine

Authors: Ferreira F. C. L., Souza D. N., Rodrigues T. M. A., Cunha C. J., Dullius M. A., Andrade J. E., Sousa A. H., Vieira J. P. C., Carvalho Júnior A. B., Santos L. P. B., Passos R. O.

Abstract:

The objective this study was to characterize and develop anthropomorphic liver phantoms in tomography hepatic procedures for quality control and improvement professionals in nuclear medicine. For the conformation of the anthropomorphic phantom was used in plaster and acrylic. We constructed three phantoms representing processes with liver cirrhosis. The phantoms were filled with 99mTc diluted with water to obtain the scintigraphic images. Tomography images were analyzed anterior and posterior phantom representing a body with a greater degree cirrhotic. It was noted that the phantoms allow the acquisition of images similar to real liver with cirrhosis. Simulations of hemangiomas may contribute to continued professional education of nuclear medicine, on the question of image acquisition, allowing of the study parameters such of the matrix, energy window and count statistics.

Keywords: Nuclear medicine, liver phantom, control quality

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34 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase

Authors: Bruno Henriques, Rafaela Santos, Mihaela Buciumeanu, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel

Abstract:

Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttriastabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 agglomerates.

Keywords: Composite, dental restoration, porcelain, strengthening, toughening, wear, zirconia.

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33 Further Thoughtson a Sequential Life Testing Approach Using an Inverse Weibull Model

Authors: D. I. De Souza, G. P. Azevedo, D. R. Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we will develop further the sequential life test approach presented in a previous article by [1] using an underlying two parameter Inverse Weibull sampling distribution. The location parameter or minimum life will be considered equal to zero. Once again we will provide rules for making one of the three possible decisions as each observation becomes available; that is: accept the null hypothesis H0; reject the null hypothesis H0; or obtain additional information by making another observation. The product being analyzed is a new electronic component. There is little information available about the possible values the parameters of the corresponding Inverse Weibull underlying sampling distribution could have.To estimate the shape and the scale parameters of the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. A new example will further develop the proposed sequential life testing approach.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Inverse Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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32 Dose due the Incorporation of Radionuclides Using Teeth as Bioindicators nearby Caetité Uranium Mines

Authors: Viviane S. Guimarães, Ícaro M. M. Brasil, Simara S. Campos, Roseli F. Gennari, Márcia R. P. Attie, Susana O. Souza.

Abstract:

Uranium mining and processing in Brazil occur in a northeastern area near to Caetité-BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is a pollutant causing health risks to the local population,but those in charge of the complex extraction and production of“yellow cake" for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. This study aimed at identifying potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetité. In this, work,the concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K radioisotopes in the teeth of the Caetité population were determined by ICP-MS. Teeth are used as bioindicators of incorporated radionuclides. Cumulative radiation doses in the skeleton were also determined. The concentration values were below 0.008 ppm, and annual effective dose due to radioisotopes are below to the reference values. Therefore, it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetité increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way.

Keywords: bioindicators, radiation dose, radioisotopesincorporation, uranium.

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31 Determination of the Specific Activity of Soil and Fertilizers in Sergipe - Brazil

Authors: Leandro X. Cardoso, Susana O. Souza, Fernanda C. L. Ferreira, Orlando C. Ferreira, Elenilson Barboza, Carlos E. Alhanati

Abstract:

Measurements of radioactivity in the environment is of great importance to monitor and control the levels of radiation to which man is exposed directly or indirectly. It is necessary to show that regardless of working or being close to nuclear power plants, people are daily in contact with some amount of radiation from the actual environment and food that are ingested, contradicting the view of most of them. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of natural and artificial radiation from radionuclides present in cement, soil and fertilizers used in Sergipe State – Brazil. The radionuclide activitiesmeasured all samples arebelow the Brazilian limit of the exclusion and exemption criteria from the requirement of radiation protection.It was detected Be-7 in organic fertilizers that means a short interval between the brewing processes for use in agriculture. It was also detected an unexpected Cs-137 in some samples; however its activities does not represent risk for the population. Th-231 was also found in samples of soil and cement in the state of Sergipe that is an unprecedented result.

Keywords: Cs-137, Be-7, Th-231 radiation dose, radio isotopes.

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30 Characterization of Three Photodetector Types for Computed Tomography Dosimetry

Authors: C. M. M. Paschoal, D. do N. Souza, L. A. P. Santos

Abstract:

In this study three commercial semiconductor devices were characterized in the laboratory for computed tomography dosimetry: one photodiode and two phototransistors. It was evaluated four responses to the irradiation: dose linearity, energy dependence, angular dependence and loss of sensitivity after X ray exposure. The results showed that the three devices have proportional response with the air kerma; the energy dependence displayed for each device suggests that some calibration factors would be applied for each one; the angular dependence showed a similar pattern among the three electronic components. In respect to the fourth parameter analyzed, one phototransistor has the highest sensitivity however it also showed the greatest loss of sensitivity with the accumulated dose. The photodiode was the device with the smaller sensitivity to radiation, on the other hand, the loss of sensitivity after irradiation is negligible. Since high accuracy is a desired feature for a dosimeter, the photodiode can be the most suitable of the three devices for dosimetry in tomography. The phototransistors can also be used for CT dosimetry, however it would be necessary a correction factor due to loss of sensitivity with accumulated dose.

Keywords: Dosimetry, computed tomography, phototransistor, photodiode

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29 Analysis of the Performance of a Solar Water Heating System with Flat Collector

Authors: Aurea Lúcia Georgi Vendramin, Carlos Itsuo Yamamoto, Carlos Eduardo Camargo Nogueira, Anderson Miguel Lenz, Samuel N. Souza Melegari

Abstract:

The thermal performance of a solar water heating with 1.00 m2 flat plate collectors in Cascavel - PR, is which presented in this article, paper presents the solution to leverage the marketing of solar heating systems through detailed constituent materials of the solar collector studies, these abundant materials in construction, such as expanded polyethylene, PVC, aluminum and glass tubes, mixing them with new materials to minimize loss of efficiency while decreasing its cost. The system was tested during months and the collector obtained maximum recorded temperature of outlet fluid of 55°C, while the maximum temperature of the water at the bottom of the hot water tank was 35°C. The average daily energy collected was 19.6 MJ/d; the energy supplied by the solar plate was 16.2 MJ/d; the loss in the feed pipe was 3.2 MJ/d; the solar fraction was 32.2%, the efficiency of the collector was 45.6% and the efficiency of the system was 37.8%.

Keywords: Recycled materials, energy efficiency, solar collector.

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28 The Urban Transportation Systems in Two Cities Located in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

Authors: D. I. De Souza, G. P. Azevedo, R. Rocha

Abstract:

The State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, will hold two important events in the nearby future. In 2014 it will have the final game of the Football World Cup, and in 2016 it will be holding the Olympic Games. Therefore, the public transportation system (mainly buses) is of a major concern to the Rio de Janeiro State authorities-. The main objective of this work is to compare the quality of service of the bus companies operating in the cities of ItaperunaandCampos, both cities situated in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The outcome of thiscomparison, based on the opinion of the bus users, has shownthemdispleased with the quality of the service provided by the bus companies operating in both cities. It is urgent the need to find possible practical alternatives to minimize the consequences of the main problems detected in this work. With these practical alternatives available, we will be able to offer to the Rio de Janeiro State authorities- suggestions about possible solutions to the main problems identified in this survey, as well as the time of implantation and costs of these solutions.

Keywords: Public Transportation, Quality of Service, Riders' Opinion, Bus Companies, Practical Alternatives.

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27 A Phenomic Algorithm for Reconstruction of Gene Networks

Authors: Rio G. L. D'Souza, K. Chandra Sekaran, A. Kandasamy

Abstract:

The goal of Gene Expression Analysis is to understand the processes that underlie the regulatory networks and pathways controlling inter-cellular and intra-cellular activities. In recent times microarray datasets are extensively used for this purpose. The scope of such analysis has broadened in recent times towards reconstruction of gene networks and other holistic approaches of Systems Biology. Evolutionary methods are proving to be successful in such problems and a number of such methods have been proposed. However all these methods are based on processing of genotypic information. Towards this end, there is a need to develop evolutionary methods that address phenotypic interactions together with genotypic interactions. We present a novel evolutionary approach, called Phenomic algorithm, wherein the focus is on phenotypic interaction. We use the expression profiles of genes to model the interactions between them at the phenotypic level. We apply this algorithm to the yeast sporulation dataset and show that the algorithm can identify gene networks with relative ease.

Keywords: Evolutionary computing, gene expression analysis, gene networks, microarray data analysis, phenomic algorithms.

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