Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: Marco E. O. Jardim

57 Microclimate Variations in Rio de Janeiro Related to Massive Public Transportation

Authors: Marco E. O. Jardim, Frederico A. M. Souza, Valeria M. Bastos, Myrian C. A. Costa, Nelson F. F. Ebecken

Abstract:

Urban public transportation in Rio de Janeiro is based on bus lines, powered by diesel, and four limited metro lines that support only some neighborhoods. This work presents an infrastructure built to better understand microclimate variations related to massive urban transportation in some specific areas of the city. The use of sensor nodes with small analytics capacity provides environmental information to population or public services. The analyses of data collected from a few small sensors positioned near some heavy traffic streets show the harmful impact due to poor bus route plan.

Keywords: Big data, IoT, public transportation, public health system.

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56 Stability Analysis of a Tricore

Authors: C. M. De Marco Muscat-Fenech, A.M. Grech La Rosa

Abstract:

The application of stability theory has led to detailed studies of different types of vessels; however, the shortage of information relating to multihull vessels demanded further investigation. This study shows that the position of the hulls has a very influential effect on both the transverse and longitudinal stability of the tricore. HSC stability code is applied for the optimisation of the hull configurations. Such optimization criteria would undoubtedly aid the performance of the vessel for both commercial or leisure purposes

Keywords: Stability, Multihull, Tricore

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55 Uncertainty of the Brazilian Earth System Model for Solar Radiation

Authors: Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Claudineia Brazil, Deivid Pires, Rafael Haag, Elton Gimenez Rossini

Abstract:

This study evaluated the uncertainties involved in the solar radiation projections generated by the Brazilian Earth System Model (BESM) of the Weather and Climate Prediction Center (CPTEC) belonging to Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5), with the aim of identifying efficiency in the projections for solar radiation of said model and in this way establish the viability of its use. Two different scenarios elaborated by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were evaluated: RCP 4.5 (with more optimistic contour conditions) and 8.5 (with more pessimistic initial conditions). The method used to verify the accuracy of the present model was the Nash coefficient and the Statistical bias, as it better represents these atmospheric patterns. The BESM showed a tendency to overestimate the data ​​of solar radiation projections in most regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and through the validation methods adopted by this study, BESM did not present a satisfactory accuracy.

Keywords: Climate changes, projections, solar radiation, uncertainty.

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54 Resistance Analysis for a Trimaran

Authors: C. M. De Marco Muscat-Fenech, A. M. Grech La Rosa

Abstract:

Although a lot of importance has been given to resistance analysis for various vessel types, explicit guidelines applied to multihull vessels have not been clearly defined.  The purpose of this investigation is to highlight the importance of the vessel’s layout in terms of three axes, the transverse (separation), the longitudinal (stagger) and the vertical (draught) with respect to resistance analysis. When a vessel has the potential to experience less resistance at a particular range of speeds a vast selection of opportunities are made available for both the commercial and leisure market.

Keywords: Multihull, Reistance, Trimaran.

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53 Validation and Projections for Solar Radiation up to 2100: HadGEM2-AO Global Circulation Model

Authors: Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Claudineia Brazil, Deivid Pires, Rafael Haag, Elton Gimenez Rossini

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to evaluate the results of solar radiation projections between 2006 and 2013 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The projections are provided by the General Circulation Models (MCGs) belonging to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5). In all, the results of the simulation of six models are evaluated, compared to monthly data, measured by a network of thirteen meteorological stations of the National Meteorological Institute (INMET). The performance of the models is evaluated by the Nash coefficient and the Bias. The results are presented in the form of tables, graphs and spatialization maps. The ACCESS1-0 RCP 4.5 model presented the best results for the solar radiation simulations, for the most optimistic scenario, in much of the state. The efficiency coefficients (CEF) were between 0.95 and 0.98. In the most pessimistic scenario, HADGen2-AO RCP 8.5 had the best accuracy among the analyzed models, presenting coefficients of efficiency between 0.94 and 0.98. From this validation, solar radiation projection maps were elaborated, indicating a seasonal increase of this climatic variable in some regions of the Brazilian territory, mainly in the spring.

Keywords: climate change, projections, solar radiation, validation.

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52 Dynamics In Production Processes

Authors: Marco Kennemann, Steffen C. Eickemeyer, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

An increasingly dynamic and complex environment poses huge challenges to production enterprises, especially with regards to logistics. The Logistic Operating Curve Theory, developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA) of the Leibniz University of Hanover, is a recognized approach to describing logistic interactions, nevertheless, it reaches its limits when it comes to the dynamic aspects. In order to facilitate a timely and optimal Logistic Positioning a method is developed for quickly and reliably identifying dynamic processing states.

Keywords: Dynamics, Logistic Operating Curves, Production Logistics, Production Planning and Control

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51 A Retrospective of High-Lift Device Technology

Authors: Andrea Dal Monte, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the most adopted technical solutions for the enhancement of the lift force of a wing. In fact, during several flight conditions (such as take off and landing), the lift force needs to be dramatically enhanced. Both trailing edge devices (such as flaps) and leading edge ones (such as slats) are described. Finally, the most advanced aerodynamic solutions to avoid the separation of the boundary layer from aircraft wings at high angles of attack are reviewed.

Keywords: High lift devices, Trailing Edge devices, Leading Edge devices, Boundary Layer Control devices

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50 Experimental Tests of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Twisted Blades

Authors: Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

An experimental campaign of measurements for a Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is presented for open field conditions. The turbine is characterized by a twisted bladed design, each blade being placed at a fixed distance from the rotational shaft. The experimental setup to perform the acquisitions is described. The results are lower than expected, due to the high influence of the wind shear.

Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbine, Darrieus wind turbine, twisted blades, experimental measurements, wind shear.

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49 The Synthetic T2 Quality Control Chart and its Multi-Objective Optimization

Authors: Francisco Aparisi, Marco A. de Luna

Abstract:

In some real applications of Statistical Process Control it is necessary to design a control chart to not detect small process shifts, but keeping a good performance to detect moderate and large shifts in the quality. In this work we develop a new quality control chart, the synthetic T2 control chart, that can be designed to cope with this objective. A multi-objective optimization is carried out employing Genetic Algorithms, finding the Pareto-optimal front of non-dominated solutions for this optimization problem.

Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, Quality Control, SPC, Synthetic T2 control chart.

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48 Dynamically Monitoring Production Methods for Identifying Structural Changes relevant to Logistics

Authors: Marco Kennemann, Steffen C. Eickemeyer, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Due to the growing dynamic and complexity within the market environment production enterprises in particular are faced with new logistic challenges. Moreover, it is here in this dynamic environment that the Logistic Operating Curve Theory also reaches its limits as a method for describing the correlations between the logistic objectives. In order to convert this theory into a method for dynamically monitoring productions this paper will introduce methods for reliably and quickly identifying structural changes relevant to logistics.

Keywords: Dynamics, Logistic Operating Curves, Production Logistics, Production Planning and Control

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47 Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Tip Devices on the Power Coefficient of a VAWT

Authors: Federico Amato, Gabriele Bedon, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The aerodynamic performances of vertical axis wind turbines are highly affected by tip vortexes. In the present work, different tip devices are considered and simulated against a baseline rotor configuration, with the aim of identifying the best tip architecture. Three different configurations are tested: winglets, an elliptic termination and an aerodynamic bulkhead. A comparative analysis on the most promising architectures is conducted, focusing also on blade torque evolution during a full revolution of the rotor blade. The most promising technology is concluded to be a well designed winglet.

Keywords: Darrieus Wind Turbine, Tip Devices, Tip Vortexes, Winglet, Elliptic Termination, Aerodynamic Bulkhead

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46 Design and Social Innovation: A Systemic Approach

Authors: Marco Ogê Muniz, Luiz Fernando Gonçalves De Figueiredo

Abstract:

Design, as an area of knowledge, is subject to changes that affect it through different approaches, both theoretical and practical; its include matters related with responsibility, environment, social worries, and things alike. Commensurately, such contemporary aspects open room for social initiatives. This scenario begins to be looked at, especially in creative communities. Such proposal for a systemic approach of design is seen as a way to involve the stakeholders in the processes of investigation and of social innovation, which can decisively contribute for the development of traditional local communities. As a theoretical basis for the research, this paper outlines some especial features of design and social innovation, in their particular and in their complementary aspects, as well as in the way they relate with each other.

Keywords: Responsible design, social innovation, creative community, systemic approach, network.

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45 Enabling Integration across Heterogeneous Care Networks

Authors: Federico Cabitza, Marco P. Locatelli, Marcello Sarini, Carla Simone

Abstract:

The paper shows how the CASMAS modeling language, and its associated pervasive computing architecture, can be used to facilitate continuity of care by providing members of patientcentered communities of care with a support to cooperation and knowledge sharing through the usage of electronic documents and digital devices. We consider a scenario of clearly fragmented care to show how proper mechanisms can be defined to facilitate a better integration of practices and information across heterogeneous care networks. The scenario is declined in terms of architectural components and cooperation-oriented mechanisms that make the support reactive to the evolution of the context where these communities operate.

Keywords: Pervasive Computing, Communities of Care, HeterogeneousCare Networks, Multi-Agent System.

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44 Two Spatial Experiments based on Computational Geometry

Authors: Marco Hemmerling

Abstract:

The paper outlines the relevance of computational geometry within the design and production process of architecture. Based on two case studies, the digital chain - from the initial formfinding to the final realization of spatial concepts - is discussed in relation to geometric principles. The association with the fascinating complexity that can be found in nature and its underlying geometry was the starting point for both projects presented in the paper. The translation of abstract geometric principles into a three-dimensional digital design model – realized in Rhinoceros – was followed by a process of transformation and optimization of the initial shape that integrated aesthetic, spatial and structural qualities as well as aspects of material properties and conditions of production.

Keywords: Architecture, Computer Aided Architectural Design, 3D-Modeling, Rapid Prototyping, CAD/CAM.

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43 Mapping of Solar Radiation Anomalies Based on Climate Change

Authors: Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Claudineia Brazil, Francisco Pereira, Elton Rossini

Abstract:

The use of alternative energy sources to meet energy demand reduces environmental damage. To diversify an energy matrix and to minimize global warming, a solar energy is gaining space, being an important source of renewable energy, and its potential depends on the climatic conditions of the region. Brazil presents a great solar potential for a generation of electric energy, so the knowledge of solar radiation and its characteristics are fundamental for the study of energy use. Due to the above reasons, this article aims to verify the climatic variability corresponding to the variations in solar radiation anomalies, in the face of climate change scenarios. The data used in this research are part of the Intercomparison of Interconnected Models, Phase 5 (CMIP5), which contributed to the preparation of the fifth IPCC-AR5 report. The solar radiation data were extracted from The Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) model using the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios that represent an intermediate structure and a pessimistic framework, the latter being the most worrisome in all cases. In order to allow the use of solar radiation as a source of energy in a given location and/or region, it is important, first, to determine its availability, thus justifying the importance of the study. The results pointed out, for the 75-year period (2026-2100), based on a pessimistic scenario, indicate a drop in solar radiation of the approximately 12% in the eastern region of Rio Grande do Sul. Factors that influence the pessimistic prospects of this scenario should be better observed by the responsible authorities, since they can affect the possibility to produce electricity from solar radiation.

Keywords: Climate change, solar radiation, energy utilization.

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42 The Problem of Using the Calculation of the Critical Path to Solver Instances of the Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Marco Antonio Cruz-Chávez, Juan Frausto-Solís, Fernando Ramos-Quintana

Abstract:

A procedure commonly used in Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) to evaluate the neighborhoods functions that use the non-deterministic algorithms is the calculation of the critical path in a digraph. This paper presents an experimental study of the cost of computation that exists when the calculation of the critical path in the solution for instances in which a JSSP of large size is involved. The results indicate that if the critical path is use in order to generate neighborhoods in the meta-heuristics that are used in JSSP, an elevated cost of computation exists in spite of the fact that the calculation of the critical path in any digraph is of polynomial complexity.

Keywords: Job Shop, CPM, critical path, neighborhood, meta-heuristic.

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41 A Retrospective of Wind Turbine Architectural Integration in the Built Environment

Authors: Stefano Degrassi, Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

Since the European renewable energy directives set the target for 22.1% of electricity generation to be supplied by 2010 [1], there has been increased interest in using green technologies also within the urban enviroment. The most commonly considered installations are solar thermal and solar photovoltaics. Nevertheless, as observed by Bahaj et al. [2], small scale turbines can reduce the built enviroment related CO2 emissions. Thus, in the last few years, an increasing number of manufacturers have developed small wind turbines specifically designed for the built enviroment. The present work focuses on the integration into architectural systems of such installations and presents a survey of successful case studies.

Keywords: Wind turbines, architectural integration, wind resources, urban areas, built enviroment, renewable technologies.

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40 Gesture Recognition by Data Fusion of Time-of-Flight and Color Cameras

Authors: Piercarlo Dondi, Luca Lombardi, Marco Porta

Abstract:

In the last years numerous applications of Human- Computer Interaction have exploited the capabilities of Time-of- Flight cameras for achieving more and more comfortable and precise interactions. In particular, gesture recognition is one of the most active fields. This work presents a new method for interacting with a virtual object in a 3D space. Our approach is based on the fusion of depth data, supplied by a ToF camera, with color information, supplied by a HD webcam. The hand detection procedure does not require any learning phase and is able to concurrently manage gestures of two hands. The system is robust to the presence in the scene of other objects or people, thanks to the use of the Kalman filter for maintaining the tracking of the hands.

Keywords: Gesture recognition, human-computer interaction, Time-of-Flight camera.

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39 Application of the Data Distribution Service for Flexible Manufacturing Automation

Authors: Marco Ryll, Svetan Ratchev

Abstract:

This paper discusses the applicability of the Data Distribution Service (DDS) for the development of automated and modular manufacturing systems which require a flexible and robust communication infrastructure. DDS is an emergent standard for datacentric publish/subscribe middleware systems that provides an infrastructure for platform-independent many-to-many communication. It particularly addresses the needs of real-time systems that require deterministic data transfer, have low memory footprints and high robustness requirements. After an overview of the standard, several aspects of DDS are related to current challenges for the development of modern manufacturing systems with distributed architectures. Finally, an example application is presented based on a modular active fixturing system to illustrate the described aspects.

Keywords: Flexible Manufacturing, Publish/Subscribe, Plug & Produce.

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38 Numerical Evaluation of the Contribution of Inertial and Aerodynamic Forces on VAWT Blade Loading

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Stefano De Betta, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

A two-dimensional numerical simulation of the contribution of both inertial and aerodynamic forces on the blade loads of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) is presented. After describing the computational model and the relative validation procedure, a complete campaign of simulations - based on full RANS unsteady calculations - is proposed for a three-bladed rotor architecture characterized by a NACA 0021 airfoil. For each analyzed angular velocity, the combined effect of pressure and viscous forces acting on every rotor blade are compared to the corresponding centrifugal forces, due to the revolution of the turbine, thus achieving a preliminary estimation of the correlation between overall rotor efficiency and structural blade loads.

Keywords: CFD, VAWT, NACA 0021, aerodynamic forces, inertial loadings.

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37 Unit Testing with Déjà-Vu Objects

Authors: Sharareh Afsharian, Andrea Bei, Marco Bianchi

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce a new unit test technique called déjà-vu object. Déjà-vu objects replace real objects used by classes under test, allowing the execution of isolated unit tests. A déjà-vu object is able to observe and record the behaviour of a real object during real sessions, and to replace it during unit tests, returning previously recorded results. Consequently déjà-vu object technique can be useful when a bottom-up development and testing strategy is adopted. In this case déjà-vu objects can increase test portability and test source code readability. At the same time they can reduce the time spent by programmers to develop test code and the risk of incompatibility during the switching between déjà-vu and production code.

Keywords: Bottom-up testing approach, integration test, testportability, unit test.

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36 Coupling Concept of two Parallel Research Codes for Two and Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

Authors: Luciano Garelli, Marco Schauer, Jorge D’Elia, Mario A. Storti, Sabine C. Langer

Abstract:

This paper discuss a coupling strategy of two different software packages to provide fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The basic idea is to combine the advantages of the two codes to create a powerful FSI solver for two and three dimensional analysis. The fluid part is computed by a program called PETSc-FEM a software developed at Centro de Investigaci´on de M´etodos Computacionales –CIMEC. The structural part of the coupled process is computed by the research code elementary Parallel Solver – (ELPASO) of the Technische Universit¨at Braunschweig, Institut f¨ur Konstruktionstechnik (IK).

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI), Finite Element Method (FEM).

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35 Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Harish Ramesh Babu, Marco Böcker, Mario Raddatz, Sebastian Henkel, Horst Biermann, Uwe Gampe

Abstract:

Thermal power machines are subjected to cyclic loading conditions under elevated temperatures. At these extreme conditions, the durability of the components has a significant influence. The material mechanical behaviour has to be known in detail for a failsafe construction. For this study a nickel-based alloy is considered, the deformation and fatigue behaviour of the material is analysed under cyclic loading. A viscoplastic model is used for calculating the deformation behaviour as well as to simulate the rate-dependent and cyclic plasticity effects. Finally, the cyclic deformation results of the finite element simulations are compared with low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments.

Keywords: Complex low cycle fatigue, elevated temperatures, IN718, viscoplastic.

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34 Comparative Analysis of the Third Generation of Research Data for Evaluation of Solar Energy Potential

Authors: Claudineia Brazil, Elison Eduardo Jardim Bierhals, Luciane Teresa Salvi, Rafael Haag

Abstract:

Renewable energy sources are dependent on climatic variability, so for adequate energy planning, observations of the meteorological variables are required, preferably representing long-period series. Despite the scientific and technological advances that meteorological measurement systems have undergone in the last decades, there is still a considerable lack of meteorological observations that form series of long periods. The reanalysis is a system of assimilation of data prepared using general atmospheric circulation models, based on the combination of data collected at surface stations, ocean buoys, satellites and radiosondes, allowing the production of long period data, for a wide gamma. The third generation of reanalysis data emerged in 2010, among them is the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), these data have a spatial resolution of 0.50 x 0.50. In order to overcome these difficulties, it aims to evaluate the performance of solar radiation estimation through alternative data bases, such as data from Reanalysis and from meteorological satellites that satisfactorily meet the absence of observations of solar radiation at global and/or regional level. The results of the analysis of the solar radiation data indicated that the reanalysis data of the CFSR model presented a good performance in relation to the observed data, with determination coefficient around 0.90. Therefore, it is concluded that these data have the potential to be used as an alternative source in locations with no seasons or long series of solar radiation, important for the evaluation of solar energy potential.

Keywords: Climate, reanalysis, renewable energy, solar radiation.

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33 Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around a Vertical Flat Plate of Infinite Extent

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Paolo Cioppa, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow field around a thin flat plate of infinite span inclined at 90° to a fluid stream of infinite extent. Numerical predictions have been compared to experimental measurements, in order to assess the potential of the finite volume code of determining the aerodynamic forces acting on a bluff body invested by a fluid stream of infinite extent. Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the flat plate have been investigated, allowing the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and the corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a two-dimensional vertical flat plate.

Keywords: CFD, vertical flat plate, aerodynamic force

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32 Comparison between Lift and Drag-Driven VAWT Concepts on Low-Wind Site AEO

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This work presents a comparison between the Annual Energy Output (AEO) of two commercial vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) for a low-wind urban site: both a drag-driven and a liftdriven concepts are examined in order to be installed on top of the new Via dei Giustinelli building, Trieste (Italy). The power-curves, taken from the product specification sheets, have been matched to the wind characteristics of the selected installation site. The influence of rotor swept area and rated power on the performance of the two proposed wind turbines have been examined in detail, achieving a correlation between rotor swept area, electrical generator size and wind distribution, to be used as a guideline for the calculation of the AEO.

Keywords: Annual Energy Output, micro-generationtechnology, urban environment, Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

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31 Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field

Authors: Daniel Santos, Bruno Ribeiro, Marco Amato, Antonio Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation

Keywords: Collective oscillations, External fields, Dispersion relation.

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30 Embodied Energy in Concrete and Structural Masonry on Typical Brazilian Buildings

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Marlova P. Kulakowski, Luciano G. Breitenbach, Felipe Kirch

Abstract:

The AEC sector has an expressive environmental responsibility. Actually, most building materials have severe environmental impacts along their production cycle. Professionals enrolled in building design may choice the materials and techniques with less impact among the viable options. This work presents a study about embodied energy in materials of two typical Brazilian constructive alternatives. The construction options considered are reinforced concrete structure and structural masonry. The study was developed for the region of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. Results indicated that the energy embodied in these two constructive systems is approximately 1.72 GJ·m-2 and 1.26 GJ·m-2, respectively. It may be concluded that the embodied energy is lower in the structural masonry system, with a reduction around to 1/4 in relation to the traditional option. The results can be used to help design decisions.

Keywords: Civil construction, sustainability, embodied energy.

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29 Contact Drying Simulation of Particulate Materials: A Comprehensive Approach

Authors: Marco Intelvi, Apolinar Picado, Joaquín Martínez

Abstract:

In this work, simulation algorithms for contact drying of agitated particulate materials under vacuum and at atmospheric pressure were developed. The implementation of algorithms gives a predictive estimation of drying rate curves and bulk bed temperature during contact drying. The calculations are based on the penetration model to describe the drying process, where all process parameters such as heat and mass transfer coefficients, effective bed properties, gas and liquid phase properties are estimated with proper correlations. Simulation results were compared with experimental data from the literature. In both cases, simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data. Few deviations were identified and the limitations of the predictive capabilities of the models are discussed. The programs give a good insight of the drying behaviour of the analysed powders.

Keywords: Agitated bed, Atmospheric pressure, Penetrationmodel, Vacuum

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28 A Survey on Usage and Diffusion of Project Risk Management Techniques and Software Tools in the Construction Industry

Authors: Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem, Alberto De Marco

Abstract:

The area of Project Risk Management (PRM) has been extensively researched, and the utilization of various tools and techniques for managing risk in several industries has been sufficiently reported. Formal and systematic PRM practices have been made available for the construction industry. Based on such body of knowledge, this paper tries to find out the global picture of PRM practices and approaches with the help of a survey to look into the usage of PRM techniques and diffusion of software tools, their level of maturity, and their usefulness in the construction sector. Results show that, despite existing techniques and tools, their usage is limited: software tools are used only by a minority of respondents and their cost is one of the largest hurdles in adoption. Finally, the paper provides some important guidelines for future research regarding quantitative risk analysis techniques and suggestions for PRM software tools development and improvement.

Keywords: Construction industry, Project risk management, Software tools, Survey study.

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