Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 114

Search results for: Carlos Itsuo Yamamoto

114 Analysis of the Performance of a Solar Water Heating System with Flat Collector

Authors: Aurea Lúcia Georgi Vendramin, Carlos Itsuo Yamamoto, Carlos Eduardo Camargo Nogueira, Anderson Miguel Lenz, Samuel N. Souza Melegari

Abstract:

The thermal performance of a solar water heating with 1.00 m2 flat plate collectors in Cascavel - PR, is which presented in this article, paper presents the solution to leverage the marketing of solar heating systems through detailed constituent materials of the solar collector studies, these abundant materials in construction, such as expanded polyethylene, PVC, aluminum and glass tubes, mixing them with new materials to minimize loss of efficiency while decreasing its cost. The system was tested during months and the collector obtained maximum recorded temperature of outlet fluid of 55°C, while the maximum temperature of the water at the bottom of the hot water tank was 35°C. The average daily energy collected was 19.6 MJ/d; the energy supplied by the solar plate was 16.2 MJ/d; the loss in the feed pipe was 3.2 MJ/d; the solar fraction was 32.2%, the efficiency of the collector was 45.6% and the efficiency of the system was 37.8%.

Keywords: Recycled materials, energy efficiency, solar collector.

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113 Non-Invasive Technology on a Classroom Chair for Detection of Emotions Used for the Personalization of Learning Resources

Authors: Carlos Ramirez, Carlos Concha, Benjamin Valdes

Abstract:

Emotions are related with learning processes and physiological signals can be used to detect them for the personalization of learning resources and to control the pace of instruction. A model of relevant emotions has been developed, where specific combinations of emotions and cognition processes are connected and integrated with the concept of 'flow', in order to improve learning. The cardiac pulse is a reliable signal that carries useful information about the subject-s emotional condition; it is detected using a classroom chair adapted with non invasive EMFi sensor and an acquisition system that generates a ballistocardiogram (BCG), the signal is processed by an algorithm to obtain characteristics that match a specific emotional condition. The complete chair system is presented in this work, along with a framework for the personalization of learning resources.

Keywords: Ballistocardiogram, emotions in learning, noninvasive sensors, personalization of learning resources.

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112 Computer Vision Applied to Flower, Fruit and Vegetable Processing

Authors: Luis Gracia, Carlos Perez-Vidal, Carlos Gracia

Abstract:

This paper presents the theoretical background and the real implementation of an automated computer system to introduce machine vision in flower, fruit and vegetable processing for recollection, cutting, packaging, classification, or fumigation tasks. The considerations and implementation issues presented in this work can be applied to a wide range of varieties of flowers, fruits and vegetables, although some of them are especially relevant due to the great amount of units that are manipulated and processed each year over the world. The computer vision algorithms developed in this work are shown in detail, and can be easily extended to other applications. A special attention is given to the electromagnetic compatibility in order to avoid noisy images. Furthermore, real experimentation has been carried out in order to validate the developed application. In particular, the tests show that the method has good robustness and high success percentage in the object characterization.

Keywords: Image processing, Vision system, Automation

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111 Mapping Soil Fertility at Different Scales to Support Sustainable Brazilian Agriculture

Authors: Rachel Bardy Prado, Vinícius de Melo Benites, José Carlos Polidoro, Carlos Eduardo Gonçalves, Alexey Naumov

Abstract:

Most agricultural crops cultivated in Brazil are highly nutrient demanding. Brazilian soils are generally acidic with low base saturation and available nutrients. Demand for fertilizer application has increased because the national agricultural sector expansion. To improve productivity without environmental impact, there is the need for the utilization of novel procedures and techniques to optimize fertilizer application. This includes the digital soil mapping and GIS application applied to mapping in different scales. This paper is based on research, realized during 2005 to 2010 by Brazilian Corporation for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA) and its partners. The purpose was to map soil fertility in national and regional scales. A soil profile data set in national scale (1:5,000,000) was constructed from the soil archives of Embrapa Soils, Rio de Janeiro and in the regional scale (1:250,000) from COMIGO Cooperative soil data set, Rio Verde, Brazil. The mapping was doing using ArcGIS 9.1 tools from ESRI.

Keywords: agricultural sustainability, fertilizer optimization, GIS, soil attributes.

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110 Management of Multimedia Contents for Distributed e-Learning System

Authors: Kazunari Meguro, Daisuke Yamamoto, Shinichi Motomura, Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We have developed a distributed asynchronous Web based training system. In order to improve the scalability and robustness of this system, all contents and functions are realized on mobile agents. These agents are distributed to computers, and they can use a Peer to Peer network that modified Content-Addressable Network. In the proposed system, only text data can be included in a exercise. To make our proposed system more useful, the mechanism that it not only adapts to multimedia data but also it doesn-t influence the user-s learning even if the size of exercise becomes large is necessary.

Keywords: e-Learning, multimedia, Mobile Agent.

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109 Enhanced Parallel-Connected Comb Filter Method for Multiple Pitch Estimation

Authors: Taro Matsuno, Yuta Otani, Ryo Tanaka, Kaori Ikezaki, Hitoshi Yamamoto, Masaru Fujieda, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

This paper presents an improvement method of the multiple pitch estimation algorithm using comb filters. Conventionally the pitch was estimated by using parallel -connected comb filters method (PCF). However, PCF has problems which often fail in the pitch estimation when there is the fundamental frequency of higher tone near harmonics of lower tone. Therefore the estimation is assigned to a wrong note when shared frequencies happen. This issue often occurs in estimating octave 3 or more. Proposed method, for solving the problem, estimates the pitch with every harmonic instead of every octave. As a result, our method reaches the accuracy of more than 80%.

Keywords: music transcription, pitch estimation, comb filter, fractional delay

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108 Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems

Authors: Masato Sasaki, Masayoshi Yamamoto

Abstract:

The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for WPT via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.

Keywords: Wireless power transfer, orthogonal, omni-directional, efficiency.

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107 Analysis of Aiming Performance for Games Using Mapping Method of Corneal Reflections Based on Two Different Light Sources

Authors: Yoshikazu Onuki, Itsuo Kumazawa

Abstract:

Fundamental motivation of this paper is how gaze estimation can be utilized effectively regarding an application to games. In games, precise estimation is not always important in aiming targets but an ability to move a cursor to an aiming target accurately is also significant. Incidentally, from a game producing point of view, a separate expression of a head movement and gaze movement sometimes becomes advantageous to expressing sense of presence. A case that panning a background image associated with a head movement and moving a cursor according to gaze movement can be a representative example. On the other hand, widely used technique of POG estimation is based on a relative position between a center of corneal reflection of infrared light sources and a center of pupil. However, a calculation of a center of pupil requires relatively complicated image processing, and therefore, a calculation delay is a concern, since to minimize a delay of inputting data is one of the most significant requirements in games. In this paper, a method to estimate a head movement by only using corneal reflections of two infrared light sources in different locations is proposed. Furthermore, a method to control a cursor using gaze movement as well as a head movement is proposed. By using game-like-applications, proposed methods are evaluated and, as a result, a similar performance to conventional methods is confirmed and an aiming control with lower computation power and stressless intuitive operation is obtained.

Keywords: Point-of-gaze, gaze estimation, head movement, corneal reflections, two infrared light sources, game.

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106 Application of Multi-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis to Medical Data

Authors: Naoki Yamamoto, Jun Murakami, Chiharu Okuma, Yutaro Shigeto, Satoko Saito, Takashi Izumi, Nozomi Hayashida

Abstract:

Multi-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) is the extension of the PCA, which is used widely as the dimensionality reduction technique in multivariate data analysis, to handle multi-dimensional data. To calculate the PCA the singular value decomposition (SVD) is commonly employed by the reason of its numerical stability. The multi-dimensional PCA can be calculated by using the higher-order SVD (HOSVD), which is proposed by Lathauwer et al., similarly with the case of ordinary PCA. In this paper, we apply the multi-dimensional PCA to the multi-dimensional medical data including the functional independence measure (FIM) score, and describe the results of experimental analysis.

Keywords: multi-dimensional principal component analysis, higher-order SVD (HOSVD), functional independence measure (FIM), medical data, tensor decomposition

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105 Comparison of the Garden City Conceptand Green Belt Concept in Major Asian and Oceanic Cities

Authors: Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to review representative cases of green space development in order to compare the Garden City concept and Green Belt concept as applied and to examine its direction in major Asian and Oceanic cities. The results of previous studies and this study show that there are two major directions in such green-oriented city planning. One direction is toward Multi-Regional Development, and the other focuses on an Environmentally Symbiotic City based on the Garden City concept. In large cities and the suburbs where extremely strong pressure to urbanize makes it impossible to keep Green Belts, it is essential to strictly control land use and adopt the Garden City concept to conserve the urban environment.

Keywords: Garden City, Green Belt, Green City, Green SpaceDevelopment, Major Asian and Oceanic Cities

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104 Anticipating Action Decisions of Automated Guided Vehicle in an Autonomous Decentralized Flexible Manufacturing System

Authors: Rizauddin Ramli, Jaber Abu Qudeiri, Hidehiko Yamamoto

Abstract:

Nowadays the market for industrial companies is becoming more and more globalized and highly competitive, forcing them to shorten the duration of the manufacturing system development time in order to reduce the time to market. In order to achieve this target, the hierarchical systems used in previous manufacturing systems are not enough because they cannot deal effectively with unexpected situations. To achieve flexibility in manufacturing systems, the concept of an Autonomous Decentralized Flexible Manufacturing System (AD-FMS) is useful. In this paper, we introduce a hypothetical reasoning based algorithm called the Algorithm for Future Anticipative Reasoning (AFAR) which is able to decide on a conceivable next action of an Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) that works autonomously in the AD-FMS.

Keywords: Flexible Manufacturing System, Automated GuidedVehicle, Hypothetical Reasoning, Autonomous Decentralized.

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103 Web-GIS based Outdoor Education Program for Junior High Schools

Authors: Noriyoshi Hosoya, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study, focusing on the importance of encouraging outdoor activities for children, aims to propose and implement a Web-GIS based outdoor education program for junior high schools, which will then be evaluated by users. Specifically, for the purpose of improved outdoor activities in the junior high school education, the outdoor education program, with chiefly using the Web-GIS that provides a good information provision and sharing tool, is proposed and implemented before being evaluated by users. The conclusion of this study can be summarized in the following two points. (1) A five -step outdoor education program based on Web-GIS was proposed for a “second school" at junior high schools that was then implemented before being evaluated by teachers as users. (2) Based on the results of evaluation by teachers, it was clear that the general operation of Web-GIS based outdoor education program with them only is difficult due to their lack of knowledge regarding Web-GIS and that support staff who can effectively utilize Web-GIS are essential.

Keywords: Outdoor Education, Web-Based GIS (Geographical Information Systems), Junior High Schools, School Education

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102 An Improved Algorithm for Calculation of the Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion by Using Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: Chiharu Okuma, Naoki Yamamoto, Jun Murakami

Abstract:

As a method of expanding a higher-order tensor data to tensor products of vectors we have proposed the Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion (3OTPE) that did similar expansion as Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD). In this paper we provide a computation algorithm to improve our previous method, in which SVD is applied to the matrix that constituted by the contraction of original tensor data and one of the expansion vector obtained. The residual of the improved method is smaller than the previous method, truncating the expanding tensor products to the same number of terms. Moreover, the residual is smaller than HOSVD when applying to color image data. It is able to be confirmed that the computing time of improved method is the same as the previous method and considerably better than HOSVD.

Keywords: Singular value decomposition (SVD), higher-orderSVD (HOSVD), outer product expansion, power method.

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101 Improving Security by Using Secure Servers Communicating via Internet with Standalone Secure Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of the Internet as a feature to enhance the security of our software that is going to be distributed/sold to users potentially all over the world. By placing in a secure server some of the features of the secure software, we increase the security of such software. The communication between the protected software and the secure server is done by a double lock algorithm. This paper also includes an analysis of intruders and describes possible responses to detect threats.

Keywords: Internet, secure software, threats, cryptography process.

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100 Machine Learning in Production Systems Design Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Abu Qudeiri Jaber, Yamamoto Hidehiko Rizauddin Ramli

Abstract:

To create a solution for a specific problem in machine learning, the solution is constructed from the data or by use a search method. Genetic algorithms are a model of machine learning that can be used to find nearest optimal solution. While the great advantage of genetic algorithms is the fact that they find a solution through evolution, this is also the biggest disadvantage. Evolution is inductive, in nature life does not evolve towards a good solution but it evolves away from bad circumstances. This can cause a species to evolve into an evolutionary dead end. In order to reduce the effect of this disadvantage we propose a new a learning tool (criteria) which can be included into the genetic algorithms generations to compare the previous population and the current population and then decide whether is effective to continue with the previous population or the current population, the proposed learning tool is called as Keeping Efficient Population (KEP). We applied a GA based on KEP to the production line layout problem, as a result KEP keep the evaluation direction increases and stops any deviation in the evaluation.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Layout problem, Machinelearning, Production system.

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99 An Experience Report on Course Teaching in Information Systems

Authors: Carlos Oliveira

Abstract:

This paper is a criticism of the traditional model of teaching and presents alternative teaching methods, different from the traditional lecture. These methods are accompanied by reports of experience of their application in a class. It was concluded that in the lecture, the student has a low learning rate and that other methods should be used to make the most engaging learning environment for the student, contributing (or facilitating) his learning process. However, the teacher should not use a single method, but rather a range of different methods to ensure the learning experience does not become repetitive and fatiguing for the student.

Keywords: Educational practices, experience report, IT in education, teaching methods.

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98 Study on Environmental Statement for Home Appliances at Online Stores in Japan

Authors: Syuichi Kubota, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the current situation and problems of environmental statement for major four home appliances (refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners and television receivers) sold at online stores in Japan, and then to suggest how to improve the situation, through a questionnaire survey conducted among businesses that operate online stores and online malls with multiple online stores. Results of the study boil down to: (1) It is found out that environmental statement for the home appliances at online stores have four problems; (i) less information on “three Rs" and “chemical substances" than the one on “energy conservation", (ii) cost for providing environmental statement, (iii) issues associated with a label and mark placement, and (iv) issues associated with energy conservation statement. (2) Improvements are suggested for each of the four problems listed above, and shown are (i) the effectiveness of, and need to promote, a label and mark placement, (ii) cost burden on buyers, and (iii) need of active efforts made by businesses and of dissemination of legal regulations to businesses.

Keywords: Home Appliances, Environmentally-FriendlyProduct, Environmental Statement, Online Store, Japan.

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97 Simulation of Online Communities Using MAS Social and Spatial Organisations

Authors: Maya Rupert, Salima Hassas, Carlos Li, John Sherwood

Abstract:

Online Communities are an example of sociallyaware, self-organising, complex adaptive computing systems. The multi-agent systems (MAS) paradigm coordinated by self-organisation mechanisms has been used as an effective way for the simulation and modeling of such systems. In this paper, we propose a model for simulating an online health community using a situated multi-agent system approach, governed by the co-evolution of the social and spatial organisations of the agents.

Keywords: multi-agent systems, organizations, online communities.

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96 Implementation of a Serializer to Represent PHP Objects in the Extensible Markup Language

Authors: Lidia N. Hernández-Piña, Carlos R. Jaimez-González

Abstract:

Interoperability in distributed systems is an important feature that refers to the communication of two applications written in different programming languages. This paper presents a serializer and a de-serializer of PHP objects to and from XML, which is an independent library written in the PHP programming language. The XML generated by this serializer is independent of the programming language, and can be used by other existing Web Objects in XML (WOX) serializers and de-serializers, which allow interoperability with other object-oriented programming languages.

Keywords: Interoperability, PHP object serialization, PHP to XML, web objects in XML, WOX.

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95 Evaluation of the Degree of the Sufficiency of Public Green Spaces as an Indicator of Urban Density in the Chubu Metropolitan Area in Japan

Authors: Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study uses GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to conduct an evaluation of the degree of the sufficiency of public green spaces such as parks and urban green areas as an indicator of the density of metropolitan areas, in particular the Chubu metropolitan area, in Japan. To that end, it first grasps the distribution situation of green spaces in the three metropolitan areas in Japan, especially in the Chubu metropolitan area, using GIS digital maps. And based on this result, it conducts a GIS evaluation of the degree of sufficiency of public green spaces and arranges the result for every distance belt from the central part to compare and exam for every distance belt away from the center in the Chubu metropolitan area. Furthermore, after pointing out the insufficient areas of public green spaces based on the result, it also proposes the improvement policy which can be introduced in the Chubu metropolitan area.

Keywords: Public Green Spaces, Urban Density, MetropolitanAreas, Land Use, Urbanization, GIS (Geographic InformationSystems)

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94 Dynamic Interrelationship among the Stock Markets of India, Pakistan and United States

Authors: A. Iqbal, N. Khalid, S. Rafiq

Abstract:

The interrelationship between international stock markets has been a key study area among the financial market researchers for international portfolio management and risk measurement. The characteristics of security returns and their dynamics play a vital role in the financial market theory. This study is an attempt to find out the dynamic linkages among the equity market of USA and emerging markets of Pakistan and India using daily data covering the period of January 2003–December 2009. The study utilizes Johansen (Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, 1988) and Johansen and Juselius (Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52, 1990) cointegration procedure for long run relationship and Granger-causality tests based on Toda and Yamamoto (Journal of Econometrics, 66, 1995) methodology. No cointegration was found among stock markets of USA, Pakistan and India, while Granger-causality test showed the evidence of unidirectional causality running from New York stock exchange to Bombay and Karachi stock exchanges.

Keywords: Causality, Cointegration, India, Pakistan, Stock Markets, US.

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93 Web-GIS based Outdoor Education Program for Elementary Schools

Authors: Noriyoshi Hosoya, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study, focusing on the importance of encouraging outdoor activities for children, aims to propose and implement a Web-GIS based outdoor education program for elementary schools, which will then be evaluated by users. Specifically, for the purpose of improved outdoor activities in the elementary school education, the outdoor education program, with chiefly using the Web-GIS that provides a good information provision and sharing tool, is proposed and implemented before being evaluated by users. Conclusions of the study boil down to: (1) An eight-staged outdoor education program based on the Web-GIS was proposed for a “second school" of an elementary school that was then implemented before being evaluated by users (teachers, instructors, students, and their parents). (2) The program generally received a good evaluation, while a lot of students and their parents evaluated negatively for the degree of discovery and for the degree of interest, respectively, in the questionnaire survey of students and their parents conducted after the “second school". The surveys clearly show that an issue to be solved, from the viewpoint of teachers in particular, is the establishment of the GIS that will easily represent teaching materials developed by teachers and of Web-GIS, and improved significance of the use of GIS and Web-GIS for their widespread.

Keywords: Elementary Schools, School Education, Outdooreducation, Web-GIS

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92 Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).

Keywords: Personal rhythm, public-key encryption, authentication, digital signature, keystroke dynamics.

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91 Effect of Operating Conditions on Forward Osmosis for Nutrient Rejection Using Magnesium Chloride as a Draw Solution

Authors: Yatnanta Padma Devia, Tsuyoshi Imai, Takaya Higuchi, Ariyo Kanno, Koichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Sekine

Abstract:

Advanced treatments such as forward osmosis (FO) can be used to separate or reject nutrients from secondary treated effluents. Forward osmosis uses the chemical potential across the membrane, which is the osmotic pressure gradient, to induce water to flow through the membrane from a feed solution (FS) into a draw solution (DS). The performance of FO is affected by the membrane characteristics, composition of the FS and DS, and operating conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum velocity and temperature for nutrient rejection and water flux performance in FO treatments. MgCl2 was used as the DS in the FO process. The results showed that higher cross flow velocities yielded higher water fluxes. High rejection of nutrients was achieved by using a moderate cross flow velocity at 0.25 m/s. Nutrient rejection was insensitive to temperature variation, whereas water flux was significantly impacted by it. A temperature of 25°C was found to be good for nutrient rejection.

Keywords: Cross flow velocity, forward osmosis, magnesium chloride, temperature.

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90 Non Inmersive Virtual Reality for Improving Teaching Processes

Authors: Galeano R. Katherine, Rincon L. David, Luengas. Lely, Guevara. Juan Carlos

Abstract:

The following paper shows an interactive tool which main purpose is to teach how to play a flute. It consists of three stages the first one is the instruction and teaching process through a software application, the second is the practice part when the user starts to play the flute (hardware specially designed for this application) this flute is capable of capturing how is being played the flute and the final stage is the one in which the data captured are sent to the software and the user is evaluated in order to give him / she a correction or an acceptance

Keywords: acoustoelectric devices, computer applications, learning systems, music, technological innovation, virtual reality

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89 Hierarchical Clustering Analysis with SOM Networks

Authors: Diego Ordonez, Carlos Dafonte, Minia Manteiga, Bernardino Arcayy

Abstract:

This work presents a neural network model for the clustering analysis of data based on Self Organizing Maps (SOM). The model evolves during the training stage towards a hierarchical structure according to the input requirements. The hierarchical structure symbolizes a specialization tool that provides refinements of the classification process. The structure behaves like a single map with different resolutions depending on the region to analyze. The benefits and performance of the algorithm are discussed in application to the Iris dataset, a classical example for pattern recognition.

Keywords: Neural networks, Self-organizing feature maps, Hierarchicalsystems, Pattern clustering methods.

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88 Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

Abstract:

The causality between energy consumption and economic growth has been an important issue in the economic literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root and causality tests are applied. The results show that energy consumption and economic growth series are stationary and there is also a causality relationship running from economic growth to electricity consumption. Therefore, any energy conservation policy would have little or no impact at all on economic growth in México.

Keywords: Causality, economic growth, electricity consumption, Mexico.

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87 Characteristics of E-waste Recycling Systems in Japan and China

Authors: Bi Bo, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study aims to identify processes, current situations, and issues of recycling systems for four home appliances, namely, air conditioners, television receivers, refrigerators, and washing machines, among e-wastes in China and Japan for understanding and comparison of their characteristics. In accordance with results of a literature search, review of information disclosed online, and questionnaire survey conducted, conclusions of the study boil down to: (1)The results show that in Japan most of the home appliances mentioned above have been collected through home appliance recycling tickets, resulting in an issue of “requiring some effort" in treatment and recycling stages, and most plants have contracted out their e-waste recycling. (2)It is found out that advantages of the recycling system in Japan include easiness to monitor concrete data and thorough environmental friendliness ensured while its disadvantages include illegal dumping and export. It becomes apparent that advantages of the recycling system in China include a high reuse rate, low treatment cost, and fewer illegal dumping while its disadvantages include less safe reused products, environmental pollution caused by e-waste treatment, illegal import, and difficulty in obtaining data.

Keywords: E-waste, Recycling Systems, Home Appliances, Japan and China.

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86 Control Strategies for a Robot for Interaction with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Vinicius Binotte, Guilherme Baldo, Christiane Goulart, Carlos Valadão, Eliete Caldeira, Teodiano Bastos

Abstract:

Socially assistive robotic has become increasingly active and it is present in therapies of people affected for several neurobehavioral conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In fact, robots have played a significant role for positive interaction with children with ASD, by stimulating their social and cognitive skills. This work introduces a mobile socially-assistive robot, which was built for interaction with children with ASD, using non-linear control techniques for this interaction.

Keywords: Socially assistive robotics, mobile robot, autonomous control, autism.

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85 EU, US and Tax Incentives: An Application

Authors: Carlos F. Liard-Muriente

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the controversial subject of tax incentives to promote regional development. Although extensive research has been conducted, a review of the literature gives an inconclusive answer to whether economic incentives are effective. One reason is the fact that for some researchers “effective" means the significant location of new firms in targeted areas, while for others the creation of jobs regardless if new firms are arriving in a significant fashion. We present this dichotomy by analyzing a tax incentive program via both alternatives: location and job creation. The contribution of the paper is to inform policymakers about the potential opportunities and pitfalls when designing incentive strategies. This is particularly relevant, given that both the US and Europe have been promoting incentives as a tool for regional economic development.

Keywords: Employment, Foreign Investment, Tax Incentives.

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