Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 255

Search results for: Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)

255 FWM Wavelength Conversion Analysis in a 3-Integrated Portion SOA and DFB Laser using Coupled Wave Approach and FD-BPM Method

Authors: M. K. Moazzam, A. Salmanpour, M. Nirouei

Abstract:

In this paper we have numerically analyzed terahertzrange wavelength conversion using nondegenerate four wave mixing (NDFWM) in a SOA integrated DFB laser (experiments reported both in MIT electronics and Fujitsu research laboratories). For analyzing semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), we use finitedifference beam propagation method (FDBPM) based on modified nonlinear SchrÖdinger equation and for distributed feedback (DFB) laser we use coupled wave approach. We investigated wavelength conversion up to 4THz probe-pump detuning with conversion efficiency -5dB in 1THz probe-pump detuning for a SOA integrated quantum-well

Keywords: distributed feedback laser, nondegenerate fourwave mixing, semiconductor optical amplifier, wavelengthconversion

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254 Analysis of Flow in Cylindrical Mixing Chamber

Authors: Václav Dvořák

Abstract:

The article deals with numerical investigation of axisymmetric subsonic air to air ejector. An analysis of flow and mixing processes in cylindrical mixing chamber are made. Several modes with different velocity and ejection ratio are presented. The mixing processes are described and differences between flow in the initial region of mixing and the main region of mixing are described. The lengths of both regions are evaluated. Transition point and point where the mixing processes are finished are identified. It was found that the length of the initial region of mixing is strongly dependent on the velocity ratio, while the length of the main region of mixing is dependent on velocity ratio only slightly.

Keywords: Air ejector, mixing chamber, CFD.

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253 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by weight. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples, prepared using dry-mixing approach, demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties comparing to wet-mixing samples.

Keywords: Geopolymer, mechanical properties, nanosilica.

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252 Strong Law of Large Numbers for *- Mixing Sequence

Authors: Bainian Li, Kongsheng Zhang

Abstract:

Strong law of large numbers and complete convergence for sequences of *-mixing random variables are investigated. In particular, Teicher-s strong law of large numbers for independent random variables are generalized to the case of *-mixing random sequences and extended to independent and identically distributed Marcinkiewicz Law of large numbers for *-mixing.

Keywords: mixing squences, strong law of large numbers, martingale differences, Lacunary System

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251 Numerical Analysis of All-Optical Microwave Mixing and Bandpass Filtering in an RoF Link

Authors: S. Khosroabadi, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

In this paper, all-optical signal processors that perform both microwave mixing and bandpass filtering in a radio-over-fiber (RoF) link are presented. The key device is a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) which performs all-optical microwave mixing. An up-converted microwave signal is obtained and other unwanted frequency components are suppressed at the end of the fiber span.

Keywords: Microwave mixing, bandpass filtering, all-optical, signal processing, MZM.

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250 Size Control of Nanoparticles Using a Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Erika Katayama, Mitsuhiro Matsuzawa

Abstract:

We have developed a microfluidic device system for the continuous producting of nanoparticles, and we have clarified the relationship between the mixing performance of reactors and the particle size. First, we evaluated the mixing performance of reactors by carring out the Villermaux–Dushman reaction and determined the experimental conditions for producing AgCl nanoparticles. Next, we produced AgCl nanoparticles and evaluated the mixing performance and the particle size. We found that as the mixing performance improves the size of produced particles decreases and the particle size distribution becomes sharper. We produced AgCl nanoparticles with a size of 86 nm using the microfluidic device that had the best mixing performance among the three reactors we tested in this study; the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the size distribution of the produced nanoparticles was 26.1%.

Keywords: Microfluidic, Mixing, Nanoparticle, Silver Chloride.

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249 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder

Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia

Abstract:

In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.

Keywords: Interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process.

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248 Hydrodynamics of Bubbly Flow in a Modified Reactor

Authors: M. Sivaiah, R. Parmar, S. K. Majumder

Abstract:

This article reports on hydrodynamic, mass transfer performances of fine bubble in a modified reactor. The quality of mixing in the modified reactor is discussed in the paper. Mass transfer efficiency based on quality of mixing is enunciated. To interpret the gas phase volume fraction and the quality of mixing is the empirical models for the modified system are developed.

Keywords: Downflow, bubble, hydrodynamics, gas-liquid, mixing, mass transfer, gas holdup

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247 A Corpus-Based Analysis on Code-Mixing Features in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children in Singapore

Authors: Xunan Huang, Caicai Zhang

Abstract:

This paper investigated the code-mixing features in Mandarin-English bilingual children in Singapore. First, it examined whether the code-mixing rate was different in Mandarin Chinese and English contexts. Second, it explored the syntactic categories of code-mixing in Singapore bilingual children. Moreover, this study investigated whether morphological information was preserved when inserting syntactic components into the matrix language. Data are derived from the Singapore Bilingual Corpus, in which the recordings and transcriptions of sixty English-Mandarin 5-to-6-year-old children were preserved for analysis. Results indicated that the rate of code-mixing was asymmetrical in the two language contexts, with the rate being significantly higher in the Mandarin context than that in the English context. The asymmetry is related to language dominance in that children are more likely to code-mix when using their nondominant language. Concerning the syntactic categories of code-mixing words in the Singaporean bilingual children, we found that noun-mixing, verb-mixing, and adjective-mixing are the three most frequently used categories in code-mixing in the Mandarin context. This pattern mirrors the syntactic categories of code-mixing in the Cantonese context in Cantonese-English bilingual children, and the general trend observed in lexical borrowing. Third, our results also indicated that English vocabularies that carry morphological information are embedded in bare forms in the Mandarin context. These findings shed light upon how bilingual children take advantage of the two languages in mixed utterances in a bilingual environment.

Keywords: Code-mixing, Mandarin Chinese, English, bilingual children.

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246 Longitudinal Vortices Mixing in Three-Stream Micromixers with Two Inlets

Authors: Yi-Tun Huang, Chih-Yang Wu, Shu-Wei Huang

Abstract:

In this work, we examine fluid mixing in a full three-stream mixing channel with longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) built on the channel bottom by numerical simulation and experiment. The effects of the asymmetrical arrangement and the attack angle of the LVGs on fluid mixing are investigated. The results show that the micromixer with LVGs at a small asymmetry index (defined by the ratio of the distance from the center plane of the gap between the winglets to the center plane of the main channel to the width of the main channel) is superior to the micromixer with symmetric LVGs and that with LVGs at a large asymmetry index. The micromixer using five mixing modules of the LVGs with an attack angle between 16.5 degrees and 22.5 degrees can achieve excellent mixing over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Here, we call a section of channel with two pairs of staggered asymmetrical LVGs a mixing module. Besides, the micromixer with LVGs at a small attack angle is more efficient than that with a larger attack angle when pressure losses are taken into account.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Mixing, Longitudinal vortex generators, Two stream interfaces.

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245 An Efficient Passive Planar Micromixer with Finshaped Baffles in the Tee Channel for Wide Reynolds Number Flow Range

Authors: C. A. Cortes-Quiroz, A. Azarbadegan, E. Moeendarbary

Abstract:

A new design of a planar passive T-micromixer with fin-shaped baffles in the mixing channel is presented. The mixing efficiency and the level of pressure loss in the channel have been investigated by numerical simulations in the range of Reynolds number (Re) 1 to 50. A Mixing index (Mi) has been defined to quantify the mixing efficiency, which results over 85% at both ends of the Re range, what demonstrates the micromixer can enhance mixing using the mechanisms of diffusion (lower Re) and convection (higher Re). Three geometric dimensions: radius of baffle, baffles pitch and height of the channel define the design parameters, and the mixing index and pressure loss are the performance parameters used to optimize the micromixer geometry with a multi-criteria optimization method. The Pareto front of designs with the optimum trade-offs, maximum mixing index with minimum pressure loss, is obtained. Experiments for qualitative and quantitative validation have been implemented.

Keywords: Computational fluids dynamics, fin-shaped baffle, mixing strategies, multi-objective optimization, passive micromixer.

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244 Turbulent Mixing and its Effects on Thermal Fatigue in Nuclear Reactors

Authors: Eggertson, E.C. Kapulla, R, Fokken, J, Prasser, H.M.

Abstract:

The turbulent mixing of coolant streams of different temperature and density can cause severe temperature fluctuations in piping systems in nuclear reactors. In certain periodic contraction cycles these conditions lead to thermal fatigue. The resulting aging effect prompts investigation in how the mixing of flows over a sharp temperature/density interface evolves. To study the fundamental turbulent mixing phenomena in the presence of density gradients, isokinetic (shear-free) mixing experiments are performed in a square channel with Reynolds numbers ranging from 2-500 to 60-000. Sucrose is used to create the density difference. A Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) is used to determine the concentration map of the flow in the cross section. The mean interface width as a function of velocity, density difference and distance from the mixing point are analyzed based on traditional methods chosen for the purposes of atmospheric/oceanic stratification analyses. A definition of the mixing layer thickness more appropriate to thermal fatigue and based on mixedness is devised. This definition shows that the thermal fatigue risk assessed using simple mixing layer growth can be misleading and why an approach that separates the effects of large scale (turbulent) and small scale (molecular) mixing is necessary.

Keywords: Concentration measurements, Mixedness, Stablystratified turbulent isokinetic mixing layer, Wire mesh sensor

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243 Numerical Investigation into Mixing Performance of Electrokinetically-Driven Power-Law Fluids in Microchannel with Patterned Trapezoid Blocks

Authors: Cha’o-Kuang Chen, Ching-Chang Cho

Abstract:

The study investigates the mixing performance of electrokinetically-driven power-law fluids in a microchannel containing patterned trapezoid blocks. The effects of the geometry parameters of the patterned trapezoid blocks and the flow behavior index in the power-law model on the mixing efficiency within the microchannel are explored. The results show that the mixing efficiency can be improved by increasing the width of the blocks and extending the length of upper surface of the blocks. In addition, the results show that the mixing efficiency increases with an increasing flow behavior index. Furthermore, it is shown that a heterogeneous patterning of the zeta potential on the upper surfaces of the trapezoid blocks prompts the formation of local flow recirculations, and therefore improves the mixing efficiency. Consequently, it is shown that the mixing performance improves with an increasing magnitude of the heterogeneous surface zeta potential.

Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Power-law fluid, Electroosmotic flow, Passive mixer, Mixing, Micromixer.

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242 The Convergence Theorems for Mixing Random Variable Sequences

Authors: Yan-zhao Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, some limit properties for mixing random variables sequences were studied and some results on weak law of large number for mixing random variables sequences were presented. Some complete convergence theorems were also obtained. The results extended and improved the corresponding theorems in i.i.d random variables sequences.

Keywords: Complete convergence, mixing random variables, weak law of large numbers.

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241 Likelihood Estimation for Stochastic Epidemics with Heterogeneous Mixing Populations

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

We consider a heterogeneously mixing SIR stochastic epidemic process in populations described by a general graph. Likelihood theory is developed to facilitate statistic inference for the parameters of the model under complete observation. We show that these estimators are asymptotically Gaussian unbiased estimates by using a martingale central limit theorem.

Keywords: statistic inference, maximum likelihood, epidemicmodel, heterogeneous mixing.

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240 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with the serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When convection dominates fluid mixing, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller centerline radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major segment repeating units with a larger centerline radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: Microfluidics, mixing, non-Newtonian fluids, curved channel, vortex.

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239 Robust Design of Electroosmosis Driven Self-Circulating Micromixer for Biological Applications

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Emily Earl, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

One of the issues that arises with microscale lab-on-a-chip technology is that the laminar flow within the microchannels limits the mixing of fluids. To combat this, micromixers have been introduced as a means to try and incorporate turbulence into the flow to better aid the mixing process. This study presents an electroosmotic micromixer that balances vortex generation and degeneration with the inlet flow velocity to greatly increase the mixing efficiency. A comprehensive parametric study was performed to evaluate the role of the relevant parameters on the mixing efficiency. It was observed that the suggested micromixer is perfectly suited for biological applications due to its low pressure drop (below 10 Pa) and low shear rate. The proposed micromixer with optimized working parameters is able to attain a mixing efficiency of 95% in a span of 0.5 seconds using a frequency of 10 Hz, a voltage of 0.7 V, and an inlet velocity of 0.366 mm/s.

Keywords: Microfluidics, active mixer, pulsed AC electroosmosis flow, micromixer.

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238 Mixing Behaviors of Wet Granular Materials in Gas Fluidized Beds

Authors: Eldin Wee Chuan Lim

Abstract:

The mixing behaviors of dry and wet granular materials in gas fluidized bed systems were investigated computationally using the combined Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM). Dry particles were observed to mix fairly rapidly during the fluidization process due to vigorous relative motions between particles induced by the flow of gas. In contrast, due to the presence of strong cohesive forces arising from capillary liquid bridges between wet particles, the mixing efficiencies of wet granular materials under similar operating conditions were observed to be reduced significantly.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Discrete Element Method, Gas Fluidization, Mixing, Wet particles

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237 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting.

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236 A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model

Authors: Jing Wu, Wei Lv, Yibing Li, Yuanfan You

Abstract:

The separation of speech signals has become a research hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids, speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation. This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation (UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper considers the idea of an improved potential function method to estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm, but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies to any mixing matrix.

Keywords: Clustering algorithm, potential function, speech signal, the UBSS model.

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235 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi

Abstract:

Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer.

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234 Numerical Study of Fluid Mixing in a Grooved Micro-Channel with Wavy Sidewalls

Authors: Yu-Sin Lin, Chih-Yang Wu, Yung-Ching Chu

Abstract:

In this work, we perform numerical simulation of fluid mixing in a floor-grooved micro-channel with wavy sidewalls which may impose perturbation on the helical flow induced by the slanted grooves on the channel floor. The perturbation is caused by separation vortices in the recesses of the wavy-walled channel as the Reynolds number is large enough. The results show that the effects of the wavy sidewalls of the present micromixer on the enhancement of fluid mixing increase with the increase of Reynolds number. The degree of mixing increases with the increase of the corrugation angle, until the angle is greater than 45 degrees. Besides, the pumping pressure of the micromixer increases with the increase of the corrugation angle monotonically. Therefore, we would suggest setting the corrugation angle of the wavy sidewalls to be 45 degrees.

Keywords: Fluid mixing, grooved channel, microfluidics, separation vortex.

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233 CFD Parametric Study of Mixers Performance

Authors: Mikhail Strongin

Abstract:

The mixing of two or more liquids is very common in many industrial applications from automotive to food processing. CFD simulations of these processes require comparison with test results. In many cases it is practically impossible. Therefore, comparison provides with scalable tests.  So, parameterization of the problem is sufficient to capture the performance of the mixer.

However, the influence of geometrical and thermo-physical parameters on the mixing is not well understood.

In this work influence of geometrical and thermal parameters was studied. It was shown that for full developed turbulent flows (Re > 104), Pet»const and concentration of secondary fluid ~ F(r/l).

In other words, the mixing is practically independent of total flow rate and scale for a given geometry and ratio of flow rates of mixing flows. This statement was proved in present work for different geometries and mixtures such as EGR and water-urea mixture.

Present study has been shown that the best way to improve the mixing is to establish geometry with the lowest Pet number possible by intensifying the turbulence in the domain. This is achievable by using step geometry, impinging flow EGR on a wall, or EGR jets, with a strong change in the flow direction, or using swirler like flow in the domain or combination all of these factors. All of these results are applicable to any mixtures of no compressible fluids.  

Keywords: CFD, mixing, fluids, parameterization, scalability.

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232 Ignition Analysis in Supersonic Turbulent Mixing Layer

Authors: A. M. Tahsini

Abstract:

Numerical study of two dimensional supersonic hydrogen-air mixing layer is performed to investigate the effect of turbulence and chemical additive on ignition distance. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics. Advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the fluxes and one equation turbulence model is chosen here to simulate the considered problem. Hydrogen peroxide is used as an additive and the results show that inflow turbulence and chemical additive may drastically decrease the ignition delay in supersonic combustion.

Keywords: Ignition, Mixing layer, Numerical simulation, Supersonic combustion, Turbulence

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231 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni

Abstract:

This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: COMSOL, electrokinetic, electroosmotic, microfluidics, zeta potential.

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230 An Investigation into Air Ejector with Pulsating Primary Flow

Authors: Václav Dvořák, Petra Dančová

Abstract:

The article deals with pneumatic and hot wire anemometry measurement on subsonic axi-symmetric air ejector. Performances of the ejector with and without pulsations of primary flow are compared, measuring of characteristic pressures and mass flow rates are performed and ejector efficiency is evaluated. The pulsations of primary flow are produced by a synthetic jet generator, which is placed in the supply line of the primary flow just in front of the primary nozzle. The aim of the pulsation is to intensify the mixing process. In the article we present: Pressure measuring of pulsation on the mixing chamber wall, behind the mixing chamber and behind the diffuser measured by fast pressure transducers and results of hot wire anemometry measurement. It was found out that using of primary flow pulsations yields higher back pressure behind the ejector and higher efficiency. The processes in this ejector and influences of primary flow pulsations on the mixing processes are described.

Keywords: Air ejector, pulsation flow

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229 Turbulence Modeling and Wave-Current Interactions

Authors: A.-C. Bennis, F. Dumas, F. Ardhuin, B. Blanke

Abstract:

The mechanics of rip currents are complex, involving interactions between waves, currents, water levels and the bathymetry, that present particular challenges for numerical models. Here, the effects of a grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing on the wave-current interactions are studied. Near the shore, wave rays diverge from channels towards bar crests because of refraction by topography and currents, in a way that depends on the rip current intensity which is itself modulated by the horizontal mixing. At low resolution with the grid-spacing dependent horizontal mixing, the wave motion is the same for both coupling modes because the wave deviation by the currents is weak. In high resolution case, however, classical results are found with the stabilizing effect of the flow by feedback of waves on currents. Lastly, wave-current interactions and the horizontal mixing strongly affect the intensity of the three-dimensional rip velocity.

Keywords: Numerical modeling, Rip currents, Turbulence modeling, Wave-current interactions.

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228 Evaluation of the Triticale Flour Blend Dough in the Mixing and Fermentation Processes

Authors: Martins Sabovics, Karina Ruse, Evita Straumite, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

The research was accomplished on triticale flour blend, which was made from whole grain triticale, rye, hull-less barley flour and rice, maize flour. The aim of this research was to evaluate physico-chemical and sensory properties of triticale flour blend dough in the mixing and fermentation processes. For dough making was used triticale flour blend, yeast, sugar, salt, and water. In the mixing process ware evaluated moisture, acidity, pH, and dough sensory properties (softness, viscosity, and stickiness), but in the fermentation process ware evaluated volume, moisture, acidity, and pH. During present research was established that increasing fermentation temperature and time, increase dough temperature, volume, moisture, and acidity. The mixing time and fermentation time and temperature have significant effect (p<0.05) on triticale flour blend dough physico-chemical and sensory properties.

Keywords: Dough quality, dough fermentation, dough mixing, triticale flour blend.

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227 Experimental and CFD Investigation of Nozzle Angle in Jet Mixer

Authors: Hamid Rafiei, Reza Janamiri, Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat, Amir Hatampour

Abstract:

In this work, the results of mixing study by a jet mixer in a tank have been investigated in the laboratory scale. The tank dimensions are H/D=1 and the jet entrance have been considered in the center of upper surface of tank. RNG-k-ε model is used as the turbulent model for the prediction of the pattern of turbulent flow inside the tank. For this purpose, a tank with volume of 110 liter is simulated and it has been divided into 410,000 tetrahedral control cells for performing the calculations. The grids at the vicinity of the nozzle and suction pare are finer to get more accurate results. The experimental results showed that in a vertical jet, the lowest mixing time takes place at 35 degree. In addition, mixing time decreased by increasing the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the CFD simulation predicted the items as well a flow patterns precisely that validates the experiments.

Keywords: Jet mixer, CFD, Turbulent model, Nozzle angle, Mixing time, Reynolds Number.

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226 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: Preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement.

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