Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: Arithmetic

101 Two Different Computing Methods of the Smith Arithmetic Determinant

Authors: Xing-Jian Li, Shen Qu

Abstract:

The Smith arithmetic determinant is investigated in this paper. By using two different methods, we derive the explicit formula for the Smith arithmetic determinant.

Keywords: Elementary row transformation, Euler function, Matrix decomposition, Smith arithmetic determinant.

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100 A Processor with Dynamically Reconfigurable Circuit for Floating-Point Arithmetic

Authors: Yukinari Minagi , Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper describes about dynamic reconfiguration to miniaturize arithmetic circuits in general-purpose processor. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operation. The proposed arithmetic circuit performs floating-point arithmetic which is frequently used in science and technology. The data format is floating-point based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: dynamic reconfiguration, floating-point arithmetic, double precision, FPGA

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99 On Some Properties of Interval Matrices

Authors: K. Ganesan

Abstract:

By using a new set of arithmetic operations on interval numbers, we discuss some arithmetic properties of interval matrices which intern helps us to compute the powers of interval matrices and to solve the system of interval linear equations.

Keywords: Interval arithmetic, Interval matrix, linear equations.

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98 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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97 A Reduced-Bit Multiplication Algorithm for Digital Arithmetic

Authors: Harpreet Singh Dhillon, Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A reduced-bit multiplication algorithm based on the ancient Vedic multiplication formulae is proposed in this paper. Both the Vedic multiplication formulae, Urdhva tiryakbhyam and Nikhilam, are first discussed in detail. Urdhva tiryakbhyam, being a general multiplication formula, is equally applicable to all cases of multiplication. It is applied to the digital arithmetic and is shown to yield a multiplier architecture which is very similar to the popular array multiplier. Due to its structure, it leads to a high carry propagation delay in case of multiplication of large numbers. Nikhilam Sutra, on the other hand, is more efficient in the multiplication of large numbers as it reduces the multiplication of two large numbers to that of two smaller numbers. The framework of the proposed algorithm is taken from this Sutra and is further optimized by use of some general arithmetic operations such as expansion and bit-shifting to take advantage of bit-reduction in multiplication. We illustrate the proposed algorithm by reducing a general 4x4-bit multiplication to a single 2 x 2-bit multiplication operation.

Keywords: Multiplication, algorithm, Vedic mathematics, digital arithmetic, reduced-bit.

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96 Membership Surface and Arithmetic Operations of Imprecise Matrix

Authors: Dhruba Das

Abstract:

In this paper, a method has been developed to construct the membership surfaces of row and column vectors and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix. A matrix with imprecise elements would be called an imprecise matrix. The membership surface of imprecise vector has been already shown based on Randomness-Impreciseness Consistency Principle. The Randomness- Impreciseness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of impreciseness using two different laws of randomness. In this paper, the author has shown row and column membership surfaces and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix and demonstrated with the help of numerical example.

Keywords: Imprecise number, Imprecise vector, Membership surface, Imprecise matrix.

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95 Implementation and Analysis of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems over Polynomial basis and ONB

Authors: Yong-Je Choi, Moo-Seop Kim, Hang-Rok Lee, Ho-Won Kim

Abstract:

Polynomial bases and normal bases are both used for elliptic curve cryptosystems, but field arithmetic operations such as multiplication, inversion and doubling for each basis are implemented by different methods. In general, it is said that normal bases, especially optimal normal bases (ONB) which are special cases on normal bases, are efficient for the implementation in hardware in comparison with polynomial bases. However there seems to be more examined by implementing and analyzing these systems under similar condition. In this paper, we designed field arithmetic operators for each basis over GF(2233), which field has a polynomial basis recommended by SEC2 and a type-II ONB both, and analyzed these implementation results. And, in addition, we predicted the efficiency of two elliptic curve cryptosystems using these field arithmetic operators.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem, Crypto Algorithm, Polynomial Basis, Optimal Normal Basis, Security.

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94 OWA Operators in Generalized Distances

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

Different types of aggregation operators such as the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic mean (Quasi-OWA) operator and the normalized Hamming distance are studied. We introduce the use of the OWA operator in generalized distances such as the quasiarithmetic distance. We will call these new distance aggregation the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic distance (Quasi-OWAD) operator. We develop a general overview of this type of generalization and study some of their main properties such as the distinction between descending and ascending orders. We also consider different families of Quasi-OWAD operators such as the Minkowski ordered weighted averaging distance (MOWAD) operator, the ordered weighted averaging distance (OWAD) operator, the Euclidean ordered weighted averaging distance (EOWAD) operator, the normalized quasi-arithmetic distance, etc.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Distance measures, Quasi- OWA operator.

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93 An Algorithm Proposed for FIR Filter Coefficients Representation

Authors: Mohamed Al Mahdi Eshtawie, Masuri Bin Othman

Abstract:

Finite impulse response (FIR) filters have the advantage of linear phase, guaranteed stability, fewer finite precision errors, and efficient implementation. In contrast, they have a major disadvantage of high order need (more coefficients) than IIR counterpart with comparable performance. The high order demand imposes more hardware requirements, arithmetic operations, area usage, and power consumption when designing and fabricating the filter. Therefore, minimizing or reducing these parameters, is a major goal or target in digital filter design task. This paper presents an algorithm proposed for modifying values and the number of non-zero coefficients used to represent the FIR digital pulse shaping filter response. With this algorithm, the FIR filter frequency and phase response can be represented with a minimum number of non-zero coefficients. Therefore, reducing the arithmetic complexity needed to get the filter output. Consequently, the system characteristic i.e. power consumption, area usage, and processing time are also reduced. The proposed algorithm is more powerful when integrated with multiplierless algorithms such as distributed arithmetic (DA) in designing high order digital FIR filters. Here the DA usage eliminates the need for multipliers when implementing the multiply and accumulate unit (MAC) and the proposed algorithm will reduce the number of adders and addition operations needed through the minimization of the non-zero values coefficients to get the filter output.

Keywords: Pulse shaping Filter, Distributed Arithmetic, Optimization algorithm.

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92 Autonomous Vehicle Navigation Using Harmonic Functions via Modified Arithmetic Mean Iterative Method

Authors: Azali Saudi, Jumat Sulaiman

Abstract:

Harmonic functions are solutions to Laplace’s equation that are known to have an advantage as a global approach in providing the potential values for autonomous vehicle navigation. However, the computation for obtaining harmonic functions is often too slow particularly when it involves very large environment. This paper presents a two-stage iterative method namely Modified Arithmetic Mean (MAM) method for solving 2D Laplace’s equation. Once the harmonic functions are obtained, the standard Gradient Descent Search (GDS) is performed for path finding of an autonomous vehicle from arbitrary initial position to the specified goal position. Details of the MAM method are discussed. Several simulations of vehicle navigation with path planning in a static known indoor environment were conducted to verify the efficiency of the MAM method. The generated paths obtained from the simulations are presented. The performance of the MAM method in computing harmonic functions in 2D environment to solve path planning problem for an autonomous vehicle navigation is also provided.

Keywords: Modified Arithmetic Mean method, Harmonic functions, Laplace’s equation, path planning.

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91 Stepsize Control of the Finite Difference Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh

Abstract:

An important task in solving second order linear ordinary differential equations by the finite difference is to choose a suitable stepsize h. In this paper, by using the stochastic arithmetic, the CESTAC method and the CADNA library we present a procedure to estimate the optimal stepsize hopt, the stepsize which minimizes the global error consisting of truncation and round-off error.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations, optimal stepsize, error, stochastic arithmetic, CESTAC, CADNA.

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90 Relational Framework and its Applications

Authors: Lidia Obojska

Abstract:

This paper has, as its point of departure, the foundational axiomatic theory of E. De Giorgi (1996, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Preprints di Matematica 26, 1), based on two primitive notions of quality and relation. With the introduction of a unary relation, we develop a system totally based on the sole primitive notion of relation. Such a modification enables a definition of the concept of dynamic unary relation. In this way we construct a simple language capable to express other well known theories such as Robinson-s arithmetic or a piece of a theory of concatenation. A key role in this system plays an abstract relation designated by “( )", which can be interpreted in different ways, but in this paper we will focus on the case when we can perform computations and obtain results.

Keywords: language, unary relations, arithmetic, computability

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89 New Design Methodologies for High Speed Low Power XOR-XNOR Circuits

Authors: Shiv Shankar Mishra, S. Wairya, R. K. Nagaria, S. Tiwari

Abstract:

New methodologies for XOR-XNOR circuits are proposed to improve the speed and power as these circuits are basic building blocks of many arithmetic circuits. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of various XOR-XNOR circuits. The performance of the XOR-XNOR circuits based on TSMC 0.18μm process models at all range of the supply voltage starting from 0.6V to 3.3V is evaluated by the comparison of the simulation results obtained from HSPICE. Simulation results reveal that the proposed circuit exhibit lower PDP and EDP, more power efficient and faster when compared with best available XOR-XNOR circuits in the literature.

Keywords: Exclusive-OR (XOR), Exclusive-NOR (XNOR), High speed, Low power, Arithmetic Circuits.

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88 A Robust Redundant Residue Representation in Residue Number System with Moduli Set(rn-2,rn-1,rn)

Authors: Hossein Khademolhosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

The residue number system (RNS), due to its properties, is used in applications in which high performance computation is needed. The carry free nature, which makes the arithmetic, carry bounded as well as the paralleling facility is the reason of its capability of high speed rendering. Since carry is not propagated between the moduli in this system, the performance is only restricted by the speed of the operations in each modulus. In this paper a novel method of number representation by use of redundancy is suggested in which {rn- 2,rn-1,rn} is the reference moduli set where r=2k+1 and k =1, 2,3,.. This method achieves fast computations and conversions and makes the circuits of them much simpler.

Keywords: Binary to RNS converter, Carry save adder, Computer arithmetic, Residue number system.

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87 Research of Ring MEMS Rate Integrating Gyroscopes

Authors: Hui Liu, Haiyang Quan

Abstract:

This paper To get the angle value with a MEMS rate gyroscope in some specific field, the usual method is to make an integral operation to the rate output, which will lead the error cumulating effect. So the rate gyro is not suitable. MEMS rate integrating gyroscope (MRIG) will solve this problem. A DSP system has been developed to implement the control arithmetic. The system can measure the angle of rotation directly by the control loops that make the sensor work in whole-angle mode. Modeling the system with MATLAB, desirable results of angle outputs are got, which prove the feasibility of the control arithmetic.

Keywords: Rate gyroscope, Rate integrating gyroscope, Whole angle mode, MATLAB modeling, DSP control.

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86 Compensated CIC-Hybrid Signed Digit Decimation Filter

Authors: Vishal Awasthi, Krishna Raj

Abstract:

In this paper, firstly, we present the mathematical modeling of finite impulse response (FIR) filter and Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) filter for sampling rate reduction and then an extension of Canonical signed digit (CSD) based efficient structure is presented in framework using hybrid signed digit (HSD) arithmetic. CSD representation imposed a restriction that two non-zero CSD coefficient bits cannot acquire adjacent bit positions and therefore, represented structure is not economical in terms of speed, area and power consumption. The HSD based structure gives optimum performance in terms of area and speed with 37.02% passband droop compensation.

Keywords: Multirate filtering, compensation theory, CIC filter, compensation filter, signed digit arithmetic, canonical signed digit.

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85 Efficient Power-Delay Product Modulo 2n+1 Adder Design

Authors: Yavar Safaei Mehrabani, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

As embedded and portable systems were emerged power consumption of circuits had been major challenge. On the other hand latency as determines frequency of circuits is also vital task. Therefore, trade off between both of them will be desirable. Modulo 2n+1 adders are important part of the residue number system (RNS) based arithmetic units with the interesting moduli set (2n-1,2n, 2n+1). In this manuscript we have introduced novel binary representation to the design of modulo 2n+1 adder. VLSI realization of proposed architecture under 180 nm full static CMOS technology reveals its superiority in terms of area, power consumption and power-delay product (PDP) against several peer existing structures.

Keywords: Computer arithmetic, modulo 2n+1 adders, Residue Number System (RNS), VLSI.

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84 A PN Sequence Generator based on Residue Arithmetic for Multi-User DS-CDMA Applications

Authors: Chithra R, Pallab Maji, Sarat Kumar Patra, Girija Sankar Rath

Abstract:

The successful use of CDMA technology is based on the construction of large families of encoding sequences with good correlation properties. This paper discusses PN sequence generation based on Residue Arithmetic with an effort to improve the performance of existing interference-limited CDMA technology for mobile cellular systems. All spreading codes with residual number system proposed earlier did not consider external interferences, multipath propagation, Doppler effect etc. In literature the use of residual arithmetic in DS-CDMA was restricted to encoding of already spread sequence; where spreading of sequence is done by some existing techniques. The novelty of this paper is the use of residual number system in generation of the PN sequences which is used to spread the message signal. The significance of cross-correlation factor in alleviating multi-access interference is also discussed. The RNS based PN sequence has superior performance than most of the existing codes that are widely used in DS-CDMA applications. Simulation results suggest that the performance of the proposed system is superior to many existing systems.

Keywords: Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA), Multiple-Access Interference (MAI), PN Sequence, Residue Number System (RNS).

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83 A New Block-based NLMS Algorithm and Its Realization in Block Floating Point Format

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

we propose a new normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm, which gives satisfactory performance in certain applications in comaprison with con-ventional NLMS recursion. This new algorithm can be treated as a block based simplification of NLMS algorithm with significantly reduced number of multi¬ply and accumulate as well as division operations. It is also shown that such a recursion can be easily implemented in block floating point (BFP) arithmetic, treating the implementational issues much efficiently. In particular, the core challenges of a BFP realization to such adaptive filters are mainly considered in this regard. A global upper bound on the step size control parameter of the new algorithm due to BFP implementation is also proposed to prevent overflow in filtering as well as weight updating operations jointly.

Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, Block floating point arithmetic, Implementation issues, Normalized least mean square methods

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82 A New Reliability Allocation Method Based On Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Peng Li, Chuanri Li, Tao Li

Abstract:

Reliability allocation is quite important during early design and development stages for a system to apportion its specified reliability goal to subsystems. This paper improves the reliability fuzzy allocation method, and gives concrete processes on determining the factor and sub-factor sets, weight sets, judgment set, and multi-stage fuzzy evaluation. To determine the weight of factor and sub-factor sets, the modified trapezoidal numbers are proposed to reduce errors caused by subjective factors. To decrease the fuzziness in fuzzy division, an approximation method based on linear programming is employed. To compute the explicit values of fuzzy numbers, centroid method of defuzzification is considered. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed reliability allocation method based on fuzzy arithmetic.

Keywords: Reliability allocation, fuzzy arithmetic, allocation weight.

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81 Extended Arithmetic Precision in Meshfree Calculations

Authors: Edward J. Kansa, Pavel Holoborodko

Abstract:

Continuously differentiable radial basis functions (RBFs) are meshfree, converge faster as the dimensionality increases, and is theoretically spectrally convergent. When implemented on current single and double precision computers, such RBFs can suffer from ill-conditioning because the systems of equations needed to be solved to find the expansion coefficients are full. However, the Advanpix extended precision software package allows computer mathematics to resemble asymptotically ideal Platonic mathematics. Additionally, full systems with extended precision execute faster graphical processors units and field-programmable gate arrays because no branching is needed. Sparse equation systems are fast for iterative solvers in a very limited number of cases.

Keywords: Meshless spectrally convergent, partial differential equations, extended arithmetic precision, no branching.

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80 Reliability Evaluation using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers Arithmetic Operations

Authors: G. S. Mahapatra, T. K. Roy

Abstract:

In general fuzzy sets are used to analyze the fuzzy system reliability. Here intuitionistic fuzzy set theory for analyzing the fuzzy system reliability has been used. To analyze the fuzzy system reliability, the reliability of each component of the system as a triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number is considered. Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number and their arithmetic operations are introduced. Expressions for computing the fuzzy reliability of a series system and a parallel system following triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers have been described. Here an imprecise reliability model of an electric network model of dark room is taken. To compute the imprecise reliability of the above said system, reliability of each component of the systems is represented by triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Respective numerical example is presented.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Intuitionistic fuzzy number, Systemreliability, Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number.

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79 Computationally Efficient Signal Quality Improvement Method for VoIP System

Authors: H. P. Singh, S. Singh

Abstract:

The voice signal in Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) system is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss jitter. The work in this paper presents the implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter for voice quality improvement in the VoIP system through distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm. The VoIP simulations are conducted with AMR-NB 6.70 kbps and G.729a speech coders at different packet loss rates and the performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrowband signal. The results show reduction in the computational complexity in the system and significant improvement in the quality of the VoIP voice signal.

Keywords: VoIP, Signal Quality, Distributed Arithmetic, Packet Loss, Speech Coder.

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78 Accelerating Integer Neural Networks On Low Cost DSPs

Authors: Thomas Behan, Zaiyi Liao, Lian Zhao, Chunting Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, low end Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are applied to accelerate integer neural networks. The use of DSPs to accelerate neural networks has been a topic of study for some time, and has demonstrated significant performance improvements. Recently, work has been done on integer only neural networks, which greatly reduces hardware requirements, and thus allows for cheaper hardware implementation. DSPs with Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) that support floating or fixed point arithmetic are generally more expensive than their integer only counterparts due to increased circuit complexity. However if the need for floating or fixed point math operation can be removed, then simpler, lower cost DSPs can be used. To achieve this, an integer only neural network is created in this paper, which is then accelerated by using DSP instructions to improve performance.

Keywords: Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Integer Neural Network(INN), Low Cost Neural Network, Integer Neural Network DSPImplementation.

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77 A Novel Multiple Valued Logic OHRNS Modulo rn Adder Circuit

Authors: Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Somayyeh Jafarali Jassbi, Keivan Navi

Abstract:

Residue Number System (RNS) is a modular representation and is proved to be an instrumental tool in many digital signal processing (DSP) applications which require high-speed computations. RNS is an integer and non weighted number system; it can support parallel, carry-free, high-speed and low power arithmetic. A very interesting correspondence exists between the concepts of Multiple Valued Logic (MVL) and Residue Number Arithmetic. If the number of levels used to represent MVL signals is chosen to be consistent with the moduli which create the finite rings in the RNS, MVL becomes a very natural representation for the RNS. There are two concerns related to the application of this Number System: reaching the most possible speed and the largest dynamic range. There is a conflict when one wants to resolve both these problem. That is augmenting the dynamic range results in reducing the speed in the same time. For achieving the most performance a method is considere named “One-Hot Residue Number System" in this implementation the propagation is only equal to one transistor delay. The problem with this method is the huge increase in the number of transistors they are increased in order m2 . In real application this is practically impossible. In this paper combining the Multiple Valued Logic and One-Hot Residue Number System we represent a new method to resolve both of these two problems. In this paper we represent a novel design of an OHRNS-based adder circuit. This circuit is useable for Multiple Valued Logic moduli, in comparison to other RNS design; this circuit has considerably improved the number of transistors and power consumption.

Keywords: Computer Arithmetic, Residue Number System, Multiple Valued Logic, One-Hot, VLSI.

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76 Design and Implementation of Reed Solomon Encoder on FPGA

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Mandeep Kaur

Abstract:

Error correcting codes are used for detection and correction of errors in digital communication system. Error correcting coding is based on appending of redundancy to the information message according to a prescribed algorithm. Reed Solomon codes are part of channel coding and withstand the effect of noise, interference and fading. Galois field arithmetic is used for encoding and decoding reed Solomon codes. Galois field multipliers and linear feedback shift registers are used for encoding the information data block. The design of Reed Solomon encoder is complex because of use of LFSR and Galois field arithmetic. The purpose of this paper is to design and implement Reed Solomon (255, 239) encoder with optimized and lesser number of Galois Field multipliers. Symmetric generator polynomial is used to reduce the number of GF multipliers. To increase the capability toward error correction, convolution interleaving will be used with RS encoder. The Design will be implemented on Xilinx FPGA Spartan II.

Keywords: Galois Field, Generator polynomial, LFSR, Reed Solomon.

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75 Products in Early Development Phases: Ecological Classification and Evaluation Using an Interval Arithmetic Based Calculation Approach

Authors: Helen L. Hein, Joachim Schwarte

Abstract:

As a pillar of sustainable development, ecology has become an important milestone in research community, especially due to global challenges like climate change. The ecological performance of products can be scientifically conducted with life cycle assessments. In the construction sector, significant amounts of CO2 emissions are assigned to the energy used for building heating purposes. Therefore, sustainable construction materials for insulating purposes are substantial, whereby aerogels have been explored intensively in the last years due to their low thermal conductivity. Therefore, the WALL-ACE project aims to develop an aerogel-based thermal insulating plaster that would achieve minor thermal conductivities. But as in the early stage of development phases, a lot of information is still missing or not yet accessible, the ecological performance of innovative products bases increasingly on uncertain data that can lead to significant deviations in the results. To be able to predict realistically how meaningful the results are and how viable the developed products may be with regard to their corresponding respective market, these deviations however have to be considered. Therefore, a classification method is presented in this study, which may allow comparing the ecological performance of modern products with already established and competitive materials. In order to achieve this, an alternative calculation method was used that allows computing with lower and upper bounds to consider all possible values without precise data. The life cycle analysis of the considered products was conducted with an interval arithmetic based calculation method. The results lead to the conclusion that the interval solutions describing the possible environmental impacts are so wide that the result usability is limited. Nevertheless, a further optimization in reducing environmental impacts of aerogels seems to be needed to become more competitive in the future.

Keywords: Aerogel-based, insulating material, early develop¬ment phase, interval arithmetic.

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74 Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis

Authors: Hyun-Ho Lee, Kee-Won Kim

Abstract:

The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.

Keywords: Finite field, Montgomery multiplication, systolic array, cryptography.

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73 A New Approach to Design an Efficient CIC Decimator Using Signed Digit Arithmetic

Authors: Vishal Awasthi, Krishna Raj

Abstract:

Any digital processing performed on a signal with larger nyquist interval requires more computation than signal processing performed on smaller nyquist interval. The sampling rate alteration generates the unwanted effects in the system such as spectral aliasing and spectral imaging during signal processing. Multirate-multistage implementation of digital filter can result a significant computational saving than single rate filter designed for sample rate conversion. In this paper, we presented an efficient cascaded integrator comb (CIC) decimation filter that perform fast down sampling using signed digit adder algorithm with compensated frequency droop that arises due to aliasing effect during the decimation process. This proposed compensated CIC decimation filter structure with a hybrid signed digit (HSD) fast adder provide an improved performance in terms of down sampling speed by 65.15% than ripple carry adder (RCA) and reduced area and power by 57.5% and 0.01 % than signed digit (SD) adder algorithms respectively.

Keywords: Sampling rate conversion, Multirate Filtering, Compensation Theory, Decimation filter, CIC filter, Redundant signed digit arithmetic, Fast adders.

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72 Simulation Based VLSI Implementation of Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System Using Adjusted Binary Code & Golumb Rice Code

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Simulation based VLSI Implementation of FELICS (Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System) Algorithm is proposed to provide the lossless image compression and is implemented in simulation oriented VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated). To analysis the performance of Lossless image compression and to reduce the image without losing image quality and then implemented in VLSI based FELICS algorithm. In FELICS algorithm, which consists of simplified adjusted binary code for Image compression and these compression image is converted in pixel and then implemented in VLSI domain. This parameter is used to achieve high processing speed and minimize the area and power. The simplified adjusted binary code reduces the number of arithmetic operation and achieved high processing speed. The color difference preprocessing is also proposed to improve coding efficiency with simple arithmetic operation. Although VLSI based FELICS Algorithm provides effective solution for hardware architecture design for regular pipelining data flow parallelism with four stages. With two level parallelisms, consecutive pixels can be classified into even and odd samples and the individual hardware engine is dedicated for each one. This method can be further enhanced by multilevel parallelisms.

Keywords: Image compression, Pixel, Compression Ratio, Adjusted Binary code, Golumb Rice code, High Definition display, VLSI Implementation.

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