Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1272

Search results for: fuel cell

1272 Thermo Mechanical Design and Analysis of PEM Fuel cell Plate

Authors: Saravana Kannan Thangavelu

Abstract:

Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design of the fuel cell plate.

Keywords: Design optimization, FEA, PEM fuel cell, Thermal stress

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1271 Irreversibility and Electrochemical Modeling of GT-SOFC Hybrid System and Parametric Analysis on Performance of Fuel Cell

Authors: R. Mahjoub, K. Maghsoudi Mehraban

Abstract:

Since the heart of the hybrid system is the fuel cell and it has vital impact on efficiency and performance of cycle, in this study, the major modeling of electrochemical reaction within the fuel cell is analyzed. Also, solid oxide fuel cell is integrated with the gas turbine and thermodynamic analysis on different elements of hybrid system is applied. Next, in predefined operational points of hybrid cycle, the simulation results are obtained. Then, different source of irreversibility in fuel cell is modeled and influence of different major parameters on different irreversibility is computed and applied. Then, the effect of important parameters such as thickness and surface of electrolyte fuel cell are simulated in fuel cell and its dependency to these parameters is explained. At the end of the paper, different impact of parameters on fuel cell with a gas turbine and current density and voltage of fuel cell are simulated.

Keywords: Electrochemical analysis, Gas turbine, Hybrid system, Irreversibility analysis.

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1270 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System

Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra

Abstract:

Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.

Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.

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1269 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace

Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel

Abstract:

In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.

Keywords: Fuel cell dynamics, real time simulation, fuel cell, modelling, testing.

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1268 Evaluation of Model and Performance of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle in Different Drive Cycles

Authors: Fathollah Ommi, Golnaz Pourabedin, Koros Nekofa

Abstract:

In recent years fuel cell vehicles are rapidly appearing all over the globe. In less than 10 years, fuel cell vehicles have gone from mere research novelties to operating prototypes and demonstration models. At the same time, government and industry in development countries have teamed up to invest billions of dollars in partnerships intended to commercialize fuel cell vehicles within the early years of the 21st century. The purpose of this study is evaluation of model and performance of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle in different drive cycles. A fuel cell system model developed in this work is a semi-experimental model that allows users to use the theory and experimental relationships in a fuel cell system. The model can be used as part of a complex fuel cell vehicle model in advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR). This work reveals that the fuel consumption and energy efficiency vary in different drive cycles. Arising acceleration and speed in a drive cycle leads to Fuel consumption increase. In addition, energy losses in drive cycle relates to fuel cell system power request. Parasitic power in different parts of fuel cell system will increase when power request increases. Finally, most of energy losses in drive cycle occur in fuel cell system because of producing a lot of energy by fuel cell stack.

Keywords: Drive cycle, Energy efficiency, energy consumption, Fuel cell system.

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1267 Design and Realization of an Electronic Load for a PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Arafet Bouaicha, Hatem Allegui, Amar Rouane, El-Hassane Aglzim, Abdelkader Mami

Abstract:

In order to further understand the behavior of PEM fuel cell and optimize their performance, it is necessary to perform measurements in real time. The internal impedance measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is of great importance. In this work, we present the impedance measurement method of a PEM fuel cell by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method and the realization steps of electronic load for this measuring technique implementation. The theoretical results are obtained from the simulation of software PSPICE® and experimental tests are carried out using the Ballard Nexa™ PEM fuel cell system.

Keywords: Electronic load, MOS transistor, PEM fuel cell, Impedance measurement, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS).

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1266 Fuel Cell/DC-DC Convertor Control by Sliding Mode Method

Authors: Farzad Abdous

Abstract:

Fuel cell's system requires regulating circuit for voltage and current in order to control power in case of connecting to other generative devices or load. In this paper Fuel cell system and convertor, which is a multi-variable system, are controlled using sliding mode method. Use of weighting matrix in design procedure made it possible to regulate speed of control. Simulation results show the robustness and accuracy of proposed controller for controlling desired of outputs.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, Fuel cell, PEM, Slides mode control.

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1265 Comparison of the DC/DC-Converters for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: Oleksandr Krykunov

Abstract:

The source voltage of high-power fuel cell shows strong load dependence at comparatively low voltage levels. In order to provide the voltage of 750V on the DC-link for feeding electrical energy into the mains via a three phase inverter a step-up converter with a large step-up ratio is required. The output voltage of this DC/DC-converter must be stabile during variations of the load current and the voltage of the fuel cell. This paper presents the methods and results of the calculation of the efficiency and the expense for the realization for the circuits of the DC/DC-converter that meet these requirements.

Keywords: DC/DC-converter, calculation, efficiency, fuel cell.

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1264 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain

Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.

Keywords: Prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economy.

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1263 On using PEMFC for Electrical Power Generation on More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Jenica Ileana Corcau, Liviu Dinca

Abstract:

The electrical power systems of aircrafts have made serious progress in recent years because the aircrafts depend more and more on the electricity. There is a trend in the aircraft industry to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems, achieving more comfort and monitoring features and enlarging the energetic efficiency. Thus, was born the concept More Electric Aircraft. In this paper is analyzed the integration of a fuel cell into the existing electrical generation and distribution systems of an aircraft. The dynamic characteristics of fuel cell systems necessitate an adaptation of the electrical power system. The architecture studied in this paper consists of a 50kW fuel cell, a dc to dc converter and several loads. The dc to dc converter is used to step down the fuel cell voltage from about 625Vdc to 28Vdc.

Keywords: Electrical power system, More Electric Aircraft, Fuel Cell, dc to dc converter

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1262 Energy Management System in Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery Hybrid Energy Storage

Authors: Vinod Tejwani, Bhavik Suthar

Abstract:

The paper presents and energy management strategy for a Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery hybrid energy storage. The fuel cell hybrid power system is devised basically for emergency power requirements and transient load applications. The power density of an Ultracapacitor is extremely high and for a battery, it is subtle. For a fuel cell, the value of power density is medium. The energy density of these three stockpiling gadgets is contrarily about the power density, i.e. for the batteries it is most noteworthy and for the Ultracapacitor, it is least. Again the fuel cell has medium energy density. The proposed Energy Management System (EMS) is trying to rationalize these parameters viz. the energy density and power density. The working of the fuel cell, Ultracapacitor and batteries are controlled in a coordinated environment in a way to optimize the energy usage and at the same time to get benefits of power and energy density from their inherent characteristics. MATLAB/ Simulink® based test bench is created by using different DC-DC converters for all energy storage devices and an inverter is modeled to supply the time varying load. The results provided by the EMS are highly satisfactory that proves its adaptability.

Keywords: Energy Management System (EMS) Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery, Hybrid Energy Storage.

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1261 Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

Authors: G.R. Ashari, N.Hedayat, S. Shalbaf, E.Hajidavalloo

Abstract:

In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the number of fuel cell stacks to meet them have been estimated. The method involved exergy analysis and entropy generation thorough the months of the year. Results show that all the energy needs of the building can be met with 12 fuel cell stacks at a nominal capacity of 8.5 kW. Exergy analysis of the CHP system shows that the increase in the ambient air temperature from 1oC to 40oC, will have an increase of entropy generation by 5.73%.Maximum entropy generates for 15 hour in 15th of June and 15th of July is estimated to amount at 12624 (kW/K). Entropy generation of this system through a year is estimated to amount to 1004.54 GJ/k.year.

Keywords: CHP mode, entropy, exergy, no of fuel cell stacks.

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1260 Assessment of Solar Hydrogen Production in an Energetic Hybrid PV-PEMFC System

Authors: H. Rezzouk, M. Hatti, H. Rahmani, S. Atoui

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design and analysis of a hybrid PV-Fuel cell energy system destined to power a DC load. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, an electrolyzer and a hydrogen tank. HOMER software is used in this study to calculate the optimum capacities of the power system components that their combination allows an efficient use of solar resource to cover the hourly load needs. The optimal system sizing allows establishing the right balance between the daily electrical energy produced by the power system and the daily electrical energy consumed by the DC load using a 28 KW PV array, a 7.5 KW fuel cell, a 40KW electrolyzer and a 270 Kg hydrogen tank. The variation of powers involved into the DC bus of the hybrid PV-fuel cell system has been computed and analyzed for each hour over one year: the output powers of the PV array and the fuel cell, the input power of the elctrolyzer system and the DC primary load. Equally, the annual variation of stored hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer has been assessed. The PV array contributes in the power system with 82% whereas the fuel cell produces 18%. 38% of the total energy consumption belongs to the DC primary load while the rest goes to the electrolyzer.

Keywords: Electrolyzer, Hydrogen, Hydrogen Fueled Cell, Photovoltaic.

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1259 Sampled-Data Control for Fuel Cell Systems

Authors: H. Y. Jung, Ju H. Park, S. M. Lee

Abstract:

Sampled-data controller is presented for solid oxide fuel cell systems which is expressed by a sector bounded nonlinear model. The proposed control law is obtained by solving a convex problem satisfying several linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

Keywords: Sampled-data control, Sector bound, Solid oxide fuel cell, Time-delay.

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1258 Development of Synthetic Jet Air Blower for Air-breathing PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Jongpil Choi, Eon-Soo Lee, Jae-Huk Jang, Young Ho Seo, Byeonghee Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a synthetic jet air blower actuated by PZT for air blowing for air-breathing micro PEM fuel cell. The several factors to affect the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cell such as air flow rate, opening ratio and cathode open type in the cathode side were studied. Especially, an air flow rate is critical condition to improve its performance. In this paper, we developed a synthetic jet air blower to supply a high stoichiometric air flow. The synthetic jet mechanism is a zero mass flux device that converts electrical energy into the momentum. The synthetic jet actuation is usually generated by a traditional PZT actuator, which consists of a small cylindrical cavity, in/outlet channel and PZT diaphragms. The flow rate of the fabricated synthetic jet air blower was 400cc/min at 550Hz and its power consumption was very low under 0.3W. The proposed air-breathing PEM fuel cell which installed synthetic jet air blower was higher performance and stability during continuous operation than the air-breathing fuel cell without auxiliary device to supply the air. The results showed that the maximum power density was 188mW/cm2 at 400mA/cm2. This maximum power density and durability were improved more than 40% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell, Synthetic jet air blower, Opening ratio, Power consumption.

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1257 Comparison between Batteries and Fuel Cells for Photovoltaic System Backup

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Batteries and fuel cells contain a great potential to back up severe photovoltaic power fluctuations under inclement weather conditions. In this paper comparison between batteries and fuel cells is carried out in detail only for their PV power backup options, so their common attributes and different attributes is discussed. Then, the common and different attributes are compared; accordingly, the fuel cell is selected as the backup of Photovoltaic system. Finally, environmental evaluation of the selected hybrid plant was made in terms of plant-s land requirement and lifetime CO2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossilfuel power generating forms.

Keywords: Fuel cell, PV cell, hybrid power plant.

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1256 Automated Buffer Box Assembly Cell Concept for the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu, Alan Murchison

Abstract:

The Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC) is a mid-size hemispherical headed copper coated steel container measuring 2.5 meters in length and 0.5 meters in diameter containing 48 used fuel bundles. The contained used fuel produces significant gamma radiation requiring automated assembly processes to complete the assembly. The design throughput of 2,500 UFCs per year places constraints on equipment and hot cell design for repeatability, speed of processing, robustness and recovery from upset conditions. After UFC assembly, the UFC is inserted into a Buffer Box (BB). The BB is made from adequately pre-shaped blocks (lower and upper block) and Highly Compacted Bentonite (HCB) material. The blocks are practically ‘sandwiching’ the UFC between them after assembly. This paper identifies one possible approach for the BB automatic assembly cell and processes. Automation of the BB assembly will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, automatic assembly cell, used fuel container, buffer box, deep geological repository.

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1255 Electrical Performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Unit with Non-Uniform Inlet Flow and High Fuel Utilization

Authors: Ping Yuan, Mu-Sheng Chiang, Syu-Fang Liu, Shih-Bin Wang, Ming-Jun Kuo

Abstract:

This study investigates the electrical performance of a planar solid oxide fuel cell unit with cross-flow configuration when the fuel utilization gets higher and the fuel inlet flow are non-uniform. A software package in this study solves two-dimensional, simultaneous, partial differential equations of mass, energy, and electro-chemistry, without considering stack direction variation. The results show that the fuel utilization increases with a decrease in the molar flow rate, and the average current density decreases when the molar flow rate drops. In addition, non-uniform Pattern A will induce more severe happening of non-reaction area in the corner of the fuel exit and the air inlet. This non-reaction area deteriorates the average current density and then deteriorates the electrical performance to –7%.

Keywords: Performance, Solid oxide fuel cell, non-uniform, fuelutilization

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1254 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nanofiber and Nanofiber/Nanoparticle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon

Abstract:

Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, activate carbon nanofiber, PVA fiber, pan fiber, carbon nanotube, nanoparticle, nanocomposites.

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1253 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

Abstract:

The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository.

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1252 Providing Energy Management of a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Authors: Fatma Keskin Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Ahmet Yigit Arabul, Ali Rifat Boynuegri

Abstract:

On account of the concern of the fossil fuel is depleting and its negative effects on the environment, interest in alternative energy sources is increasing day by day. However, considering the importance of transportation in human life, instead of oil and its derivatives fueled vehicles with internal combustion engines, electric vehicles which are sensitive to the environment and working with electrical energy has begun to develop. In this study, simulation was carried out for providing energy management and recovering regenerative braking in fuel cell-battery hybrid electric vehicle. The main power supply of the vehicle is fuel cell on the other hand not only instantaneous power is supplied by the battery but also the energy generated due to regenerative breaking is stored in the battery. Obtained results of the simulation is analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Electric vehicles, fuel cell, battery, regenerative braking, energy management.

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1251 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang

Abstract:

Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: Bipolar plate, deformation, finite element simulation, fuel cell, locking bolt.

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1250 Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Parameters Based on Modified Particle Swarm Algorithms

Authors: M. Dezvarei, S. Morovati

Abstract:

In recent years, increasing usage of electrical energy provides a widespread field for investigating new methods to produce clean electricity with high reliability and cost management. Fuel cells are new clean generations to make electricity and thermal energy together with high performance and no environmental pollution. According to the expansion of fuel cell usage in different industrial networks, the identification and optimization of its parameters is really significant. This paper presents optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) parameters based on modified particle swarm optimization with real valued mutation (RVM) and clonal algorithms. Mathematical equations of this type of fuel cell are presented as the main model structure in the optimization process. Optimized parameters based on clonal and RVM algorithms are compared with the desired values in the presence and absence of measurement noise. This paper shows that these methods can improve the performance of traditional optimization methods. Simulation results are employed to analyze and compare the performance of these methodologies in order to optimize the proton exchange membrane fuel cell parameters.

Keywords: Clonal algorithm, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, particle swarm optimization, real valued mutation.

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1249 A Predictive control based on Neural Network for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, M. Rezaei, V. Najmi

Abstract:

The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) control system has an important effect on operation of cell. Traditional controllers couldn-t lead to acceptable responses because of time- change, long- hysteresis, uncertainty, strong- coupling and nonlinear characteristics of PEMFCs, so an intelligent or adaptive controller is needed. In this paper a neural network predictive controller have been designed to control the voltage of at the presence of fluctuations of temperature. The results of implementation of this designed NN Predictive controller on a dynamic electrochemical model of a small size 5 KW, PEM fuel cell have been simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Keywords: PEMFC, Neural Network, Predictive Control..

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1248 Numerical Optimization Design of PEM Fuel Cell Performance Applying the Taguchi Method

Authors: Shan-Jen Cheng, Jr-Ming Miao, Sheng-Ju Wu

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is applied Taguchi method on the optimization for PEMFC performance, and a representative Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is selectively performed for statistical analysis. The studied factors in this paper are pressure of fuel cell, operating temperature, the relative humidity of anode and cathode, porosity of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) and conductivity of GDE. The optimal combination for maximum power density is gained by using a three-level statistical method. The results confirmed that the robustness of the optimum design parameters influencing the performance of fuel cell are founded by pressure of fuel cell, 3atm; operating temperature, 353K; the relative humidity of anode, 50%; conductivity of GDE, 1000 S/m, but the relative humidity of cathode and porosity of GDE are pooled as error due to a small sum of squares. The present simulation results give designers the ideas ratify the effectiveness of the proposed robust design methodology for the performance of fuel cell.

Keywords: PEMFC, numerical simulation, optimization, Taguchi method.

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1247 Development of Blower for Air Management System of Fuel Cell Modules

Authors: Joo-Han Kim, Jung-Moo Seo, Ha Gyeong Sung, Se Hyun Rhyu

Abstract:

This study presents a blower for air management system of fuel cell modules. A blower is composed of BLDC motor and impeller. Magnetic equivalent circuit model and finite element analysis are used to design the motor, and an improved structure is considered to reduce a mechanical loss induced from bearing units. Finally, air blower system combined with the motor and an impeller is manufactured and output properties, such as an air pressure and an amount of flowing air, are measured. Through the experimental results, a validity of the simulated one is confirmed.

Keywords: Fuel cell modules, BLDC motor, Impeller, Air management

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1246 Design and Control of DC-DC Converter for the Military Application Fuel Cell

Authors: Tae-Yeong Lee, Eun-Ju Yoo, Won-Yeong Choi, Young-Woo Park

Abstract:

This paper presents a 24 watts SEPIC converter design and control using microprocessor. SEPIC converter has advantages of a wide input range and miniaturization caused by the low stress at elements. There is also an advantage that the input and output are isolated in MOSFET-off state. This paper presents the PID control through the SEPIC converter transfer function using a DSP and the protective circuit for fuel cell from the over-current and inverse-voltage by using the characteristic of SEPIC converter. Then it derives them through the experiments.

Keywords: DC-DC Converter, Fuel-Cell, Microprocessor Control, Military Converter, SEPIC Converter

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1245 Current Distribution and Cathode Flooding Prediction in a PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: A. Jamekhorshid, G. Karimi, I. Noshadi, A. Jahangiri

Abstract:

Non-uniform current distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells results in local over-heating, accelerated ageing, and lower power output than expected. This issue is very critical when fuel cell experiences water flooding. In this work, the performance of a PEM fuel cell is investigated under cathode flooding conditions. Two-dimensional partially flooded GDL models based on the conservation laws and electrochemical relations are proposed to study local current density distributions along flow fields over a wide range of cell operating conditions. The model results show a direct association between cathode inlet humidity increases and that of average current density but the system becomes more sensitive to flooding. The anode inlet relative humidity shows a similar effect. Operating the cell at higher temperatures would lead to higher average current densities and the chance of system being flooded is reduced. In addition, higher cathode stoichiometries prevent system flooding but the average current density remains almost constant. The higher anode stoichiometry leads to higher average current density and higher sensitivity to cathode flooding.

Keywords: Current distribution, Flooding, Hydrogen energysystem, PEM fuel cell.

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1244 Design and Control of PEM Fuel Cell Diffused Aeration System using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Doaa M. Atia, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. Ahmed, Hassen T. Dorrah

Abstract:

Fuel cells have become one of the major areas of research in the academia and the industry. The goal of most fish farmers is to maximize production and profits while holding labor and management efforts to the minimum. Risk of fish kills, disease outbreaks, poor water quality in most pond culture operations, aeration offers the most immediate and practical solution to water quality problems encountered at higher stocking and feeding rates. Many units of aeration system are electrical units so using a continuous, high reliability, affordable, and environmentally friendly power sources is necessary. Aeration of water by using PEM fuel cell power is not only a new application of the renewable energy, but also, it provides an affordable method to promote biodiversity in stagnant ponds and lakes. This paper presents a new design and control of PEM fuel cell powered a diffused air aeration system for a shrimp farm in Mersa Matruh in Egypt. Also Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques control is used to control the fuel cell output power by control input gases flow rate. Moreover the mathematical modeling and simulation of PEM fuel cell is introduced. A comparison study is applied between the performance of fuzzy logic control (FLC) and neural network control (NNC). The results show the effectiveness of NNC over FLC.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, Diffused aeration system, Artificialintelligence (AI) techniques, neural network control, fuzzy logiccontrol

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1243 ORR Activity and Stability of Pt-Based Electrocatalysts in PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: S. Limpattayanate, M. Hunsom

Abstract:

A comparison of activity and stability of the as-formed Pt/C, Pt-Co and Pt-Pd/C electrocatalysts, prepared by a combined approach of impregnation and seeding, was performed. According to the activity test in a single Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) activity of the Pt-M/C electrocatalyst was slightly lower than that of Pt/C. The j0.9 V and E10 mA/cm2 of the as-prepared electrocatalysts increased in the order of Pt/C > Pt-Co/C > Pt-Pd/C. However, in the medium-to-high current density region, Pt-Pd/C exhibited the best performance. With regard to their stability in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution, the electrochemical surface area decreased as the number of rounds of repetitive potential cycling increased due to the dissolution of the metals within the catalyst structure. For long-term measurement, Pt- Pd/C was the most stable than the other three electrocatalysts.

Keywords: ORR activity, Stability, Pt-based electrocatalysts, PEM fuel cell.

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