Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: Corn cobs

38 Effect of Temperature and Time on Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Corn Cobs

Authors: Sirikarn Satimanont, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

Lignocellulosic materials are new targeted source to produce second generation biofuels like biobutanol. However, this process is significantly resisted by the native structure of biomass. Therefore, pretreatment process is always essential to remove hemicelluloses and lignin prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis. The goals of pretreatment are removing hemicelluloses and lignin, increasing biomass porosity, and increasing the enzyme accessibility. The main goal of this research is to study the important variables such as pretreatment temperature and time, which can give the highest total sugar yield in pretreatment step by using dilute phosphoric acid. After pretreatment, the highest total sugar yield of 13.61 g/L was obtained under an optimal condition at 140°C for 10 min of pretreatment time by using 1.75% (w/w) H3PO4 and at 15:1 liquid to solid ratio. The total sugar yield of two-stage process (pretreatment+enzymatic hydrolysis) of 27.38 g/L was obtained.

Keywords: Butanol production, Corn cobs, Phosphoric acid, Pretreatment

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37 Characterization of Corn Cobs from Microwave and Potassium Hydroxide Pretreatment

Authors: Boonyisa Wanitwattanarumlug, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Sujitra Wongkasemjit

Abstract:

The complexity of lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The efficient pretreatment of corn cobs using microwave and potassium hydroxide and enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. The objective of this work was to characterize the optimal condition of pretreatment of corn cobs using microwave and potassium hydroxide enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn cobs were submerged in different potassium hydroxide concentration at varies temperature and resident time. The pretreated corn cobs were hydrolyzed to produce the reducing sugar for analysis. The morphology and microstructure of samples were investigated by Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that lignin and hemicellulose were removed by microwave/potassium hydroxide pretreatment. The crystallinity of the pretreated corn cobs was higher than the untreated. This method was compared with autoclave and conventional heating method. The results indicated that microwave-alkali treatment was an efficient way to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis rate by increasing its accessibility hydrolysis enzymes.

Keywords: Corn cobs, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Microwave, Potassium hydroxide, Pretreatment.

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36 Evaluation of Attribute II Bt Sweet Corn Resistance and Reduced-Risk Insecticide Applications for Control of Corn Earworm

Authors: R. Weinzierl, R. Estes, N. Tinsley, M. Keshlaf

Abstract:

The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, is a serious pest of corn. Larval feeding in ear tips destroys kernels and allows growth of fungi and production of mycotoxins. Infested sweet corn is not marketable. Development of improved transgenic hybrids expressing insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) may limit or prevent crop losses. The effectiveness of Attribute® II Bt resistance and applications of Voliam Xpress insecticide were evaluated for effectiveness in controlling corn earworm in plots near Urbana, IL, USA, in 2013. Where no insecticides were applied, ear infestations and kernel damage in Attribute® II ‘Protector’ plots were consistently lower (near zero) than in plots of the non-Bt isoline ‘Garrison.’ Multiple applications of Voliam Xpress significantly reduced the number of corn earworm larvae and kernel damage in the Garrison plots, but infestations and damage in these plots were greater than in Protectorplots that did not receive insecticide applications. Our results indicate that Attribute® II Bt resistance is more effective than multiple applications of an insecticide for preventing losses caused by corn earworm in sweet corn.

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, Helicoverpa zea, insect pest management, transgenic sweet corn.

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35 Kinetic and Optimization Studies on Ethanol Production from Corn Flour

Authors: K. Manikandan, T. Viruthagiri

Abstract:

Studies on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of corn flour, a major agricultural product as the substrate using starch digesting glucoamylase enzyme derived from Aspergillus niger and non starch digesting and sugar fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a batch fermentation. Experiments based on Central Composite Design (CCD) were conducted to study the effect of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, enzyme concentration on Ethanol Concentration and the above parameters were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum values of substrate concentration, pH, temperature and enzyme concentration were found to be 160 g/l, 5.5, 30°C and 50 IU respectively. The effect of inoculums age on ethanol concentration was also investigated. The corn flour solution equivalent to 16% initial starch concentration gave the highest ethanol concentration of 63.04 g/l after 48 h of fermentation at optimum conditions of pH and temperature. Monod model and Logistic model were used for growth kinetics and Leudeking – Piret model was used for product formation kinetics.

Keywords: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF), Corn Starch, Ethanol, Logisitic Model.

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34 Comparative Efficacy of Pomegranate Juice, Peel and Seed Extract in the Stabilization of Corn Oil under Accelerated Conditions

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, pomegranate.

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33 Modeling of Compaction Curves for Corn Cob Ash-Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soils

Authors: O. A. Apampa, Y. A. Jimoh, K. A. Olonade

Abstract:

The need to save time and cost of soil testing at the planning stage of road work has necessitated developing predictive models. This study proposes a model for predicting the dry density of lateritic soils stabilized with corn cob ash (CCA) and blended cement - CCA. Lateritic soil was first stabilized with CCA at 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6% of the weight of soil and then stabilized with the same proportions as replacement for cement. Dry density, specific gravity, maximum degree of saturation and moisture content were determined for each stabilized soil specimen, following standard procedure. Polynomial equations containing alpha and beta parameters for CCA and blended CCA-cement were developed. Experimental values were correlated with the values predicted from the Matlab curve fitting tool, and the Solver function of Microsoft Excel 2010. The correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.86 was obtained indicating that the model could be accepted in predicting the maximum dry density of CCA stabilized soils to facilitate quick decision making in roadworks.

Keywords: Corn cob ash, lateritic soil, stabilization, maximum dry density, moisture content.

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32 Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers

Authors: E. Taslak, C. Kocatepe, O. Arıkan, C. F. Kumru

Abstract:

In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.

Keywords: Breakdown voltage, corn oil, dissipation factor, mineral oil, power loss, relative dielectric constant, resistivity.

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31 Energy Requirement for Cutting Corn Stalks (Single Cross 704 Var.)

Authors: M. Azadbakht, A. Rezaei Asl, K. Tamaskani Zahedi

Abstract:

Corn is cultivated in most countries because of high consumption, quality, and food value. This study evaluated needed energy for cutting corn stems in different levels of cutting height and moisture content. For this reason, test device was fabricated and then calibrated. The device works on the principle of conservation of energy. The results were analyzed using split plot design and SAS software. The results showed that effect of height and moisture content and their interaction effect on cutting energy are significant (P<1%). The maximum cutting energy was 3.22 kJ in 63 (w.b.%) moisture content and the minimum cutting energy was 1.63 kJ in 83.25 (w.b.%) moisture content.

Keywords: Cutting energy, Corn stalk, Cutting height, Moisture content, Impact cutting.

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30 Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics

Authors: C. S. Saini

Abstract:

The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, and rehydration ratio and moisture retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial model for the dependent variables was established to fit the experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in 127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126%, bulk density 0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index 39.90%, rehydration ratio 544% and moisture retention 11.90% with 75% desirability.

Keywords: Black gram, corn flour, extrusion, physical characteristics.

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29 Climate Change Effect from Black Carbon Emission: Open Burning of Corn Residues in Thailand

Authors: Kanittha Kanokkanjana, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

This study focuses on emission of black carbon (BC) from field open burning of corn residues. Real-time BC concentration was measured by Micro Aethalometer from field burning and simulated open burning in a chamber (SOC) experiments. The average concentration of BC was 1.18±0.47 mg/m3 in the field and 0.89±0.63 mg/m3 in the SOC. The deduced emission factor from field experiments was 0.50±0.20 gBC/kgdm, and 0.56±0.33 gBC/kgdm from SOC experiment, which are in good agreement with other studies. In 2007, the total burned area of corn crop was 8,000 ha, resulting in an emission load of BC 20 ton corresponding to 44.5 million kg CO2 equivalent. Therefore, the control of open burning in corn field represents a significant global warming reduction option.

Keywords: Black carbon, corn field residues, global warming, mitigation option

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28 Development of Corn (Zea mays L.) Stalk Geotextile Net for Soil Erosion Mitigation

Authors: Cristina S. Decano, Vitaliana U. Malamug, Melissa E. Agulto, Helen F. Gavino

Abstract:

This study aimed to introduce new natural fiber to be used in the production of geotextile net for mitigation of soil erosion. Fiber extraction from the stalks was the main challenge faced during the processing of stalks to ropes. Thus, an investigation on the extraction procedures of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk under biological and chemical retting was undertaken. Results indicated significant differences among percent fiber yield as affected by the retting methods used with values of 15.07%, 12.97%, 11.60%, and 9.01%, for dew, water, chemical (1 day after harvest and15 days after harvest), respectively, with the corresponding average extracting duration of 70, 82, 89, and 94 minutes. Physical characterization of the developed corn stalk geotextile net resulted to average mass per unit area of 806.25 g/m2 and 241% water absorbing capacity. The effect of corn stalk geotextile net in mitigating soil erosion was evaluated in a laboratory experiment for 30o and 60o inclinations with three treatments: bare soil (A1), corn stalk geotextile net (A2) and combined cornstalk geotextile net and vegetation cover (A3). Results revealed that treatment A2 and A3 significantly decreased sediment yield and an increase in terms of soil loss reduction efficiency. The cost of corn stalk geotextile net is Php 62.41 per square meter.

Keywords: Corn stalk, natural geotextile, retting, soil erosion.

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27 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: Biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis.

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26 Effects of Hypoxic Duration at Different Growth Stages on Yield Potential of Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: S. Boonlertnirun, R. Suvannasara, K. Boonlertnirun

Abstract:

Hypoxia has negative effects on growth and crop yield, its severity is so varied depending on crop growth stages, duration of hypoxia and crop species. The objective was to evaluate the sensitive growth stage and the duration of hypoxia negatively affecting growth and yield of waxy corn. Pot experiment was conducted using a split plot in randomized complete block with 3 growth stages: V3 (3-4 true leaves), V7 (7-8 true leaves) and R1 (silking stage), and 3 hypoxic durations: 6, 9 and 12 days, in an open –ended outdoor greenhouse during January to March 2013. The results revealed that different growth stages had significantly (p < 0.5) different responses to hypoxia, seeing that the sensitive growth stage affecting plant height, yield and yield components was mostly detected in V7 growth stage whereas leaf greenness and days to silking were sensitive to hypoxia at R1 growth stage. Different hypoxic durations significantly affected yield and yield components, hypoxic duration of 12 days showed the most negative effect greater than the others. In this present study, it can be concluded that waxy corn plants were waterlogged at V7 growth stage for 12 days had the most negative effect on yield and yield components.

Keywords: Hypoxia duration, waxy corn, growth stage.

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25 Effects of PEG and NaCl Stress on Two Cultivars of Corn (Zea mays L.) at Germination and Early Seedling Stages

Authors: A. Farsiani, M. E. Ghobadi

Abstract:

To study on effect of PEG and NaCl stress on germination and early seedling stages on two cultivar of corn, two separated experiment were laid out at physiology laboratory, faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran in 2009. This investigation was performed as factorial experiment under Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Cultivar factor contains of two varieties (sweet corn SC403 and Flint corn SC704) and five levels of stress (0, -2, -4, -6 and -8 bar). The principal aim of current study was to compare the two varieties of maize in relative to the stress conditions. Results indicated that significant decrease was observed in percentage of germination, germination rate, length of radicle and plumule and radicle and plumule dry matter. On the basis of the results, NaCl as compared with PEG had more effect on germination and early seedling stage and sweet corn had more resistant than flint corn in both stress conditions.

Keywords: Corn, Early Seedling Stage, Germination, PEG andNaCl Stress.

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24 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: Antioxidant status, maize corn, drought stress, heavy metal.

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23 Estimation of Critical Period for Weed Control in Corn in Iran

Authors: Sohrab Mahmoodi, Ali Rahimi

Abstract:

The critical period for weed control (CPWC) is the period in the crop growth cycle during which weeds must be controlled to prevent unacceptable yield losses. Field studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the University of Birjand at the south east of Iran to determine CPWC of corn using a randomized complete block design with 14 treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, a critical weed-free period and a critical time of weed removal, were imposed at V3, V6, V9, V12, V15, and R1 (based on phonological stages of corn development) with a weedy check and a weed-free check. The CPWC was determined with the use of 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20% acceptable yield loss levels by non-linear Regression method and fitting Logistic and Gompertz nonlinear equations to relative yield data. The CPWC of corn was from 5- to 15-leaf stage (19-55 DAE) to prevent yield losses of 5%. This period to prevent yield losses of 2.5, 10 and 20% was 4- to 17-leaf stage (14-59 DAE), 6- to 12-leaf stage (25-47 DAE) and 8- to 9-leaf stage (31-36 DAE) respectively. The height and leaf area index of corn were significantly decreased by weed competition in both weed free and weed infested treatments (P<0.01). Results also showed that there was a significant positive correlation between yield and LAI of corn at silk stage when competing with weeds (r= 0.97).

Keywords: Corn, Critical period, Gompertz, Logistic, Weed control.

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22 Effect of Phosphate Solubilization Microorganisms (PSM) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: Mohammad Yazdani, Mohammad Ali Bahmanyar, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Mohammad Ali Esmaili

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of phosphate solubilization microorganisms (PSM) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of corn Zea mays (L. cv. SC604) an experiment was conducted at research farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran during 2007. Experiment laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of manures (consisted of 20 Mg.ha-1 farmyard manure, 15 Mg.ha-1 green manure and check or without any manures) as main plots and eight levels of biofertilizers (consisted of 1-NPK or conventional fertilizer application; 2-NPK+PSM+PGPR; 3 NP50%K+PSM+PGPR; 4- N50%PK+PSM +PGPR; 5-N50%P50%K+PSM+ PGPR; 6-PK+PGPR; 7- NK+PSM and 8-PSM+PGPR) as sub plots were treatments. Results showed that farmyard manure application increased row number, ear weight, grain number per ear, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index compared to check. Furthermore, using of PSM and PGPR in addition to conventional fertilizer applications (NPK) could improve ear weight, row number and grain number per row and ultimately increased grain yield in green manure and check plots. According to results in all fertilizer treatments application of PSM and PGPR together could reduce P application by 50% without any significant reduction of grain yield. However, this treatment could not compensate 50% reduction of N application.

Keywords: Biofertilizers, corn, PSM, PGPR, grain yield.

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21 Investigation Corn and Soybean Intercropping Advantages in Competition with Redroot Pigweed and Jimsonweed

Authors: M. Rezvani, F. Zaefarian, M. Aghaalikhani, H. Rahimian Mashhadi, E. Zand

Abstract:

The spatial variation in plant species associated with intercropping is intended to reduce resource competition between species and increase yield potential. A field experiment was carried out on corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) intercropping in a replacement series experiment with weed contamination consist of: weed free, infestation of redroot pigweed, infestation of jimsonweed and simultaneous infestation of redroot pigweed and jimsonweed in Karaj, Iran during 2007 growing season. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial experiment with replicated thrice. Significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed in yield in intercropping. Corn yield was higher in intercropping, but soybean yield was significantly reduced by corn when intercropped. However, total productivity and land use efficiency were high under the intercropping system even in contamination of either species of weeds. Aggressivity of corn relative to soybean revealed the greater competitive ability of corn than soybean. Land equivalent ratio (LER) more than 1 in all treatments attributed to intercropping advantages and was highest in 50: 50 (corn/soybean) in weed free. These findings suggest that intercropping corn and soybean increase total productivity per unit area and improve land use efficiency. Considering the experimental findings, corn-soybean intercropping (50:50) may be recommended for yield advantage, more efficient utilization of resources, and weed suppression as a biological control.

Keywords: Corn, soybean, intercropping, redroot pigweed, jimsonweed.

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20 Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung Manure using Eisenia Fetida

Authors: Musaida M. M. Manyuchi, Anthony Phiri, Ngoni Chirinda, Perkins Muredzi, Joseph Govhaand, Thamary Sengudzwa

Abstract:

Waste corn pulp was investigated as a potential feedstock during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. Corn pulp is the major staple food in Southern Africa and constitutes about 25% of the total organic waste. Wastecooked corn pulp was blended with cow dung in the ratio 6:1 respectively to optimize the vermicomposting process. The feedstock was allowed to vermicompost for 30 days. The vermicomposting took place in a 3- tray plastic worm bin. Moisture content, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were monitoreddaily. The NPK content was determined at day 30. During vermicomposting, moisture content increased from 27.68% to 52.41%, temperature ranged between 19- 25◦C, pH increased from 5.5 to 7.7, and electrical conductivity decreased from 80000μS/cm to 60000μS/cm. The ash content increased from 11.40% to 28.15%; additionally the volatile matter increased from 1.45% to 10.02%. An odorless, dark brown vermicompost was obtained. The vermicompost NPK content was 4.19%, 1.15%, and 6.18% respectively.

Keywords: Corn pulp, Eisenia fetida, vermicomposting, waste management.

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19 Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation

Authors: D. Khodadadi Dehkordi

Abstract:

This research was planned in order to study the effect of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition, independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent treatments on harvest index was not significant.

Keywords: Corn, Deficit irrigation, Superabsorbent, Yield.

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18 The Effect of Pyridoxine and Different Levels of Nitrogen on Physiological Indices of Corn(Zea Mays L.var.sc704)

Authors: Gholamreza Farrokhi, Babak Paykarestan

Abstract:

One field experiment was conducted on corn (Zea mays L.Var. SC 704) to study the effect of three different basic levels of nitrogen (90, 140and 190 Kg/ha as urea) with 0.01% and 0.02% pyridoxine pre-sowing seed soaking for 8 hours. Water-soaked seeds were treated as controled. biomass production was recorded on 45, 70 and 95 days after sowing. Total dry material (TDM), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) was calculated form 45until 95 days after sowing. Yield and its components such as kernel yield, grain weight, biologic yield, harvest index and protein percentage was measured at harvest. In general, 0.02% pyridoxine and 190 Kg pure nitrogen/ha was shown gave maximum value for growth and yield parameters. N190 + 0.02 % pyridoxine enhanced seed yield and biologic yield by 57.15% and 62.98% compared to 90kg N and water – soaked treatment.

Keywords: Corn, Growth Indices, Nitrogen Levels, Physiological Indices, Pyridoxine.

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17 The Existence of Field Corn Networks on the Thailand-Burma Border under the Patron-Client Contract Farming System

Authors: Kettawa Boonprakarn, Jedsarid Sangkaphan, Bejapornd Deekhuntod, Nuntharat Suriyo

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the existence of field corn networks on the Thailand-Burma border under the patron-client contract farming system. The data of this qualitative study were collected through in-depth interviews with nine key informants.

The results of the study revealed that the existence of the field corn networks was associated with the relationship where farmers had to share their crops with protectors in the areas under the influence of the KNU (Karen National Union) and the DKBA (Democratic Karen Buddhist Army) or Burmese soldiers. A Mae Liang, the person who starts a network has a connection with a Thaokae, Luk Rai Hua Chai or the head of a group of farmers, and farmers. They are under the patron-client system with trust and loyalty that enable the head of the group and the farmers in the Burma border side to remain under the same Mae Liang even though the business has been passed down to later generations.

Keywords: Existence, field-corn networks, patron-client system, contract farming.

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16 The Effect of Application of Biological Phosphate Fertilizer (Fertile 2) and Triple Super Phosphate Chemical Fertilizers on Some Morphological Traits of Corn (SC704)

Authors: M. Mojaddam, M. Araei, T. Saki Nejad, M. Soltani Howyzeh

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of different levels of triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer and biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) on some morphological traits of corn this research was carried out in Ahvaz in 2002 as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 4 replications). The experiment included two factors: first, biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) at three levels of 0, 100, 200 g/ha; second, triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer at three levels of 0, 60, 90 kg/ha of pure phosphorus (P2O5). The obtained results indicated that fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on some morphological traits at 1% probability level. In this regard, P2B2 treatment (100 g/ha biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) and 60 kg/ha triple super phosphate fertilizer) had the greatest plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and ear length. It seems that in Ahvaz weather conditions, decrease of consumption of triple superphosphate chemical fertilizer to less than a half along with the consumption of biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) is highly important in order to achieve optimal results. Therefore, it can be concluded that biological fertilizers can be used as a suitable substitute for some of the chemical fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems.

Keywords: Biological phosphate fertilizer, corn (SC704), morphological, triple super phosphate.

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15 Effect of Drought Stress on Nitrogen Components in Corn

Authors: Masoud Rafiee, Fatemeh Abdipoor, Hosain Lari

Abstract:

An attempt was made to study of nitrogen components response of corn (Zea mays L.) to drought stress. A farm research was done in RCBD as split-plot with four replications in Khorramabad, west Iran. Drought stress levels as irrigation regimes after 75 (control), 100, and 120 (stress) mm cumulative evaporation were in main plots, and four seed corn varieties include 500 (medium maturity), 647, 700, and 704 (long maturity) were as subplots. Soluble protein, nitrate and proline amino acid were measured in shoot and root at flowering stage, and grain yield was measured in harvesting stage. As the drought progressed, the amount of nitrate and proline followed an increasing trend, but soluble protein decreased in shoot and root. The highest amount of nitrate and proline was observed in longer maturity varieties than shorter ones, but decrease yield of long maturity varieties was higher than medium maturity varieties in drought condition, because of long duration of stress.

Keywords: Nitrate, Proline, Soluble protein, Yield

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14 Field Application of Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime

Authors: Brian H. Marsh, John H. Grove

Abstract:

Gypsum is being applied to ameliorate subsoil acidity and to overcome the problem of very slow lime movement from surface lime applications. Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime (RCCSL) containing anhydrite was evaluated for use as a liming material with specific consideration given to the movement of sulfate into the acid subsoil. Agricultural lime and RCCSL were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the lime requirement of 6.72 Mg ha-1 to an acid Trappist silt loam (TypicHapuldult). Corn [Zea mays (L.)]was grown following lime material application and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]was grown in the second year.Soil pH increased rapidly with the addition of the RCCSL material. Over time there was no difference in soil pH between the materials but there was with increasing rate. None of the observed changes in plant nutrient concentration had an impact on yield. Grain yield was higher for the RCCSL amended treatments in the first year but not in the second. There was a significant increase in soybean grain yield from the full lime requirement treatments over no lime.

Keywords: Soil acidity, corn, soybean, liming materials.

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13 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

Abstract:

Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: Biomaterials, biopolymer, starch, characterization techniques.

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12 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.

Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.

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11 Comparison of Vermicompost and Vermiwash Bio-Fertilizers from Vermicomposting Waste Corn Pulp

Authors: M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, P. Muredzi, T. Chitambwe

Abstract:

Vermicomposting is the conversion of organic waste into bio-fertilizers through the action of earthworm. This technology is widely used for organic solid waste management. Waste corn pulp blended with cow dung manure was vermicomposted over 30 days using Eisenia fetida earthworms species. pH, temperature, moisture content, and electrical conductivity were daily monitored. The feedstock, vermicompost and vermiwash were analyzed for nutrient composition. The average temperature and moisture content in the vermi-reactor was 22.5°C and 42.5% respectively. The vermicompost and vermiwash had an almost neutral pH whilst the electrical conductivity was 21% higher in the vermicompost. The nitrogen and potassium content was 57% and 79.6% richer in the vermicompost respectively compared to the vermiwash. However, the vermiwash was 84% richer in phosphorous as compared to vermicompost. Furthermore, the vermiwash was 89.1% and 97.6% richer in Ca and Mg respectively and was 97.8% richer in Na salts compared to the vermicompost. The vermiwash also indicated a significantly higher amount of micronutrients. Both bio-fertilizers were rich in nutrients specification for fertilizers.

Keywords: Vermicompost, vermiwash, nutrient composition.

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10 The Potential of Natural Waste (Corn Husk) for Production of Environmental Friendly Biodegradable Film for Seedling

Authors: M. Z. Norashikin, M. Z. Ibrahim

Abstract:

The use of plastic materials in agriculture causes serious hazards to the environment. The introduction of biodegradable materials, which can be disposed directly into the soil can be one possible solution to this problem. In the present research results of experimental tests carried out on biodegradable film fabricated from natural waste (corn husk) are presented. The film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation. The film is shown to be readily degraded within 7-9 months under controlled soil conditions, indicating a high biodegradability rate. The film fabricated was use to produce biodegradable pot (BioPot) for seedlings plantation. The introduction and the expanding use of biodegradable materials represent a really promising alternative for enhancing sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural activities.

Keywords: Environment, waste, plastic, biodegradable.

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9 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang

Abstract:

Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. ceritina Kulesh. and delphinidin-rich extracts from Clitoria ternatea L. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3 and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation. FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding. Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity.

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