Search results for: zinc.
154 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates
Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. MoroydorDerun, S. Piskin
Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, theraw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3werecharacterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates.The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result,Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.
Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3688
153 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Modified with Galactose as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Releasing of Zinc Ions
Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Długosz, Marcin Banach
The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. Releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.
Keywords: Nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 268
152 Investigation on the Effectiveness of Zinc Sulphate and Biofertilizer on Mustard Plant
Authors: Khin S. Aye
Abstract:The present work was conducted to find out the effect of biofertilizer formulated with four species of bacteria (two species of Azotobacter and two species of Lysobacter) and zinc sulphate. Field experiments with mustard plant were conducted to study the effectiveness of soil application of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after sowing. Plant height and condition of plant was found to be increased significantly using a mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate than other treatments after 40 days sowing. Three treatments were also used in this field experiment such as bacteria only, zinc sulphate only and mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate. The treatment using a mixture of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer had the best yield (4688.008 kg/ha) within 50 days of sowing and performed better than other treatments. Field experiment using zinc sulphate only was second best yield (3380.75Kg/ha) and biofertilizer only treatment gave (2639.04kg/ha).
Keywords: biofertilizer, zinc sulphate, mustard plant, bacteriaProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2193
151 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces
Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov
The ferrites ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl and HNO3. The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The charging of five zinc sulfide concentrates was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc concentrates after their roasting.
Keywords: Hydrometallurgy, inorganic acids, solubility, zinc ferrite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1613
150 Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio on the Ultrasonic Synthesis of Zinc Borates
Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin
Abstract:Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, the method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to synthesis the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.
Keywords: Zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1798
149 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method
Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin
Abstract:Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be used as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame retardant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2·(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products were analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.
Keywords: Borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1947
148 Low Temperature Solid-State Zinc Borate Synthesis from ZnO and H3BO3
Authors: A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin
Abstract:Zinc borates can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. Zinc borate is white, non-hygroscopic and powder type product. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solidstate processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied at low temperatures of 600oC and 700oC using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with several mole ratios. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result the forms of ZnB4O7, Zn3(BO3)2, ZnB2O4 were synthesized and obtained along with the unreacted ZnO.
Keywords: FT-IR, solid-state method, zinc borate, XRD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2827
147 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath
Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng
This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.
Keywords: Supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1924
146 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus
Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova
The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.
Keywords: Zinc fertilizers, micro and macro elements, Phyllanthus amarus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 459
145 Temperature Effect on the Solid-State Synthesis of Dehydrated Zinc Borates
Authors: N. Tugrul, N. Baran Acarali, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin
Abstract:Turkey has 72 % of total world boron reserves on the basis of B2O3.Borates that is a refined form of boron minerals have a wide range of applications. Zinc borates can be used as multifunctional synergistic additives. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. Zinc borates dehydrate above 290°C and anhydrous zinc borate has thermal resistance about 400°C. Zinc borates can be synthesized using several methods such as hydrothermal and solid-state processes. In this study, the solid-state method was applied between 500 and 800°C using the starting materials of ZnO and H3BO3 with 1:4 mole ratio. The reaction time was determined as 4 hours after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman Spectrometer. As a result the form of ZnB4O7 was synthesized with the highest crystal score at 800°C.
Keywords: Raman, solid-state method, zinc borate, XRD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2154
144 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films
Authors: Z. C. Chang, S. C. Liang
RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.
Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, Doped, SputteringProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2631
143 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property
Authors: Zue Chin Chang
Abstract:RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.
Keywords: Aging, films, Microstructure, Photoelectric Property.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1629
142 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste
Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová
The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.
Keywords: Blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 764
141 Modeling and Prediction of Zinc Extraction Efficiency from Concentrate by Operating Condition and Using Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri, F. Mousavian, V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, N. Ghazinia
PH, temperature and time of extraction of each stage, agitation speed and delay time between stages effect on efficiency of zinc extraction from concentrate. In this research, efficiency of zinc extraction was predicted as a function of mentioned variable by artificial neural networks (ANN). ANN with different layer was employed and the result show that the networks with 8 neurons in hidden layer has good agreement with experimental data.
Keywords: Zinc extraction, Efficiency, Neural networks, Operating condition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1483
140 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus
Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci
This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.
Keywords: Broiler, Performance, Phytase, Phosphorus, Zinc.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2678
139 Zinc Sulfide Concentrates and Optimization of their Roasting in Fluidezed Bed Reactor
Authors: B.S.Boyanov, M.P.Sandalski, K.I.Ivanov
The production of glass, ceramic materials and many non-ferrous metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, etc.), ferrous metals (pig iron) and others is connected with the use of a considerable number of initial solid raw materials. Before carrying out the basic technological processes (oxidized roasting, melting, agglomeration, baking) it is necessary to mix and homogenize the raw materials that have different chemical and phase content, granulometry and humidity. For this purpose zinc sulfide concentrates differing in origin are studied for their more complete characteristics using chemical, X-ray diffraction analyses, DTA and TGA as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy. The phases established in most concentrates are: β-ZnS, mZnS.nFeS, FeS2, CuFeS2, PbS, SiO2 (α-quartz). With the help of the developed by us a Web-based information system for a continued period of time different mix proportions from zinc concentrates are calculated and used in practice (roasting in fluidized bed reactor), which have to conform to the technological requirements of the zinc hydrometallurgical technological scheme.
Keywords: fluidized bed reactor, roasting, Web-based information system, zinc concentrates.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3020
138 The Impact of Copper and Zinc Deficiency on Milk Production Performances of Intensively Grazed Dairy Cows on the North-East of Romania
Authors: Alina Anton, Gheorghe Solcan, Carmen Solcan
The influence of copper and zinc supplements on milk production performances and health indicators was tested in a 20- week feeding trial, with 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows, devided in four groups (copper, zinc, copper-zinc and control). Correlations of the Cu and Zn plasma values with some animal performance criteria of health (body condition score and somatic cell counts) and production (milk yield, peak milk yield, fat and crude protein content) were done. During the 140 days of the experiment, the two added minerals caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of their plasma values after the peak of the cows’ lactations. It was also observed that subjects that have received copper and zinc supplements had the lowest number of somatic cell counts in milk. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive corellation (p = 0.007, r = + 0.851) between the plasma Zn and the milk production. The improvement of the nutritional status improved the milk production performances of the cows as well as their health performances.
Keywords: Copper, dairy cows, health, milk production, zincProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3133
137 In vitro and in vivo Anticancer Activity of Nanosize Zinc Oxide Composites of Doxorubicin
Authors: E. R. Arakelova, S. G. Grigoryan, F. G. Arsenyan, N. S. Babayan, R. M. Grigoryan, N. K. Sarkisyan
The nanotechnology offers some exciting possibilities in cancer treatment, including the possibility of destroying tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs by targeted drug delivery systems. Considerable achievements in investigations aimed at the use of ZnO nanoparticles and nanocontainers in diagnostics and antitumor therapy were described. However, there are substantial obstacles to the purposes to be achieved by the use of zinc oxide nanosize materials in antitumor therapy. Among the serious problems are the techniques of obtaining ZnO nanosize materials. The article presents a new vector delivery system for the known antitumor drug, doxorubicin in the form of polymeric (PEO, starch-NaCMC) hydrogels, in which nanosize ZnO film of a certain thickness are deposited directly on the drug surface on glass substrate by DC-magnetron sputtering of a zinc target. Anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of those nanosize zinc oxide composites is shown.
Keywords: Anticancer activity, cancer specificity, doxorubicin, zinc oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4031
136 New Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy
Authors: Emma R. Arakelova, Stepan G. Grigoryan, Ashot M. Khachatryan, Karapet E. Avjyan, Lilia M. Savchenko, Flora G. Arsenyan
The paper presents a new drugs delivery system, based on the thin film technology. As a model antitumor drug, highly toxic doxorubicin is chosen. The system is based on the technology of obtaining zinc oxide composite of doxorubicin by deposition of nanosize ZnO films on the surface of doxorubicin coating on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering of zinc targets in Ar:O2 medium at room temperature. For doxorubicin zinc oxide compositions in the form of coatings and gels with 180-200nm thick ZnO films, higher (by a factor 2) in vivo (ascitic Ehrlich's carcinoma) antitumor activity is observed at low doses of doxorubicin in comparison with that of the initial preparation at therapeutic doses. The vector character of the doxorubicin zinc oxide composite transport to tumor tissues ensures the increase in antitumor activity as well as decrease of toxicity in comparison with the initial drug.
Keywords: Antitumor activity, doxorubicin, DC magnetron sputtering, zinc oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3417
135 Combined Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc and Magnesium Borates at 100oC Using ZnO, MgO and H3BO3
Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, N. Baran Acarali, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin
Magnesium borate(MB) istechnical ceramic for high heat-resisting, corrosion-resisting, super mechanical strength, superinsulation, light weight, high strength, and high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB) can be used as multi-functional synergistic additives with flame retardant additives in polymers. The most important properties are low solubility in water and high dehydration temperature. ZB dehydrates above 290°C and anhydrous ZB has thermal resistance about 400°C. In this study, the raw materials of ZnO, MgO and H3BO3 were used with mole ratio of 1:1:9. With the starting materials hydrothermal method was applied at a temperature of 100oC. The reaction time was determined as 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after some preliminary experiments. After the synthesis, the crystal structure and the morphology of the products were examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). As a result, the forms of Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], Admontite [MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)] and Mcallisterite [Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)] were synthesized.
Keywords: Magnesium borate, zinc borate, XRD, FT-IR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2654
134 Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment
Authors: C. Chaiyaraksa, T. Khamko
Abstract:This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.
Keywords: Heavy metals, limestone, sepiolite, soil, soybean.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 594
133 Effect of Zinc Chloride Activation on Physicochemical Characteristics of Cassava Peel and Waste Bamboo Activated Carbon
Authors: Olayinka Omotosho, Anthony Amori
Cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction are two sources of waste that could constitute serious menace where they exist in large quantities and inadequately handled. The study examined the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbon materials derived from cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction site. Both materials were subjected to carbonization and chemical activation using zinc chloride. Results show that the chemical activation of the materials had a more effect on pore formation in cassava peels than in bamboo materials. Bamboo material exhibited a reverse trend for zinc and sulphate ion decontamination efficiencies as the value of zinc chloride impregnation varied unlike cassava peel carbon biomass which exhibited a more consistent result of decontamination efficiency for the seven contaminants tested. Although waste bamboo biomass exhibited higher adsorption intensity as indicated by values of decontamination for most of the contaminants tested, the cassava peel carbon biomass showed a more balanced adsorption level.
Keywords: Zinc chloride, cassava peels, activated carbon, bamboo waste, SEM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1053
132 Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon
Authors: Gulnaziya Issabayeva, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua
Abstract:commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.
Keywords: Adsorption, biomodification, copper, zinc, palm shell carbon.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1759
131 Effects of Formic Acid on the Chemical State and Morphology of As-synthesized and Annealed ZnO Films
Authors: Chueh-Jung Huang, Chia-Hung Li, Hsueh-Lung Wang, Tsun-Nan Lin
Abstract:Zinc oxide thin films with various microstructures were grown on substrates by using HCOOH-sols. The reaction mechanism of the sol system was investigated by performing an XPS analysis of as-synthesized films, due to the products of hydrolysis and condensation in the sol system contributing to the chemical state of the as-synthesized films. The chemical structures of the assynthesized films related to the microstructures of the final annealed films were also studied. The results of the Zn 2p3/2, C 1s and O1s XPS patterns indicate that the hydrolysis reaction in the sol system is strongly influenced by the HCOOH agent. The results of XRD and FE-SEM demonstrated the microstructures of the annealed films are related to the content of hydrolyzed zinc hydrate (Zn-OH) species present, and that content of the Zn-OH species in the sol system increases the HCOOH adding, and these Zn-OH species existing in the sol phase are responsible for large ZnO crystallites in the final annealed films.
Keywords: zinc oxide, hydrolysis catalyst, zinc acetate source, formic acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1542
130 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity
Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali
Abstract:The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.
Keywords: Nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 401
129 Evaluation of the Possible Effect of Gender, Age and Duration of Diabetes on the Serum Zinc Levels of Diabetic Patients in Murzuk Area-Libya
Authors: Mukhtar H. Hassan, Muhammed A. Basher, Elhadi E. Saad, Almahdi M. Almahdi
Abstract:The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possible effect of some variables such as age, gender, blood sugar level, and duration of diabetes on the serum level of zinc in diabetic individuals from Murzuk area. Serum zinc (Zn), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin HbA1c (HbA1c) were evaluated in 46 type I diabetic subjects (group 1), 48 type II diabetic subjects (group 2) and 43 healthy individuals (control) of both genders aged (30-81) years. Data showed that both diabetic groups have significantly higher (P<0.05) serum levels of Zn, FBS and HbA1c compared with controls. No significant (p>0.05) differences in serum Zn levels were observed between Males and Females. Serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing age. In type II diabetic subjects, serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing duration of disease whereas those in type I were non-significantly increased.
Keywords: Blood sugar, diabetes, HbA1c, zinc.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1466
128 Zinc Contaminate on Urban Roadside in Rush Hour, Bangkok, Thailand
Authors: Sivapan Choo-In
This research aims to study the Zinc (Zn) concentration in fine particulate matter on Rajchawithee roadside in rush hour. 30 Samples were collected in Jun to August 2013 by 8 stage non-avaible cascade impactor. Each samples (filter paper) were digest with nitric acid and analyed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zinc determination. The highest value for the mean fraction (18.00 ± 9.28%) is the size 9.0 – 110.0 micron follow by the range 3.3 – 4.7 micron (14.77 ± 14.66 %) and 1.1 – 2.1 micron (14.01 ± 11.77 %). The concentration of Zn in the particulate matter of range 0.43 – 0.7mm, 0.7 – 1.1 mm, 1.1 – 2.1 mm, 2.1 – 3.3 mm, 3.3 – 4.7 mm, 4.7 – 5.8 mm, 5.8 – 9.0 mm, 9.0 – 10.0 mm, were 41.56 – 217.62 mg/m3 (175.86 ±32.25 mg/m3), 152.60 – 217.24 mg/m3 (187.71 ± 17.42 mg/m3), 142.90 – 214.67 mg/m3(180.95 ± 18.71 mg/m3), 155.48 – 218.19 mg/m3(183.22 ± 19.94 mg/m3), 151.72 – 217.39 mg/m3(181.85 ± 17.57 mg/m3), 133.86 – 220.17 mg/m3 (178.78 ± 23.45 mg/m3), 160.00 – 220.35 mg/m3 (182.58 ± 18.08 mg/m3), 153.30 – 226.70 mg/m3 (181.52 ± 20.05 mg/m3), respectively. The Zn concentration in each size of particulate matter was not statistically significant different (p > .005)
Keywords: Air Pollution, Air Quality, Pollution and monitoring.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1749
127 Optimization of Process Parameters using Response Surface Methodology for the Removal of Zinc(II) by Solvent Extraction
Authors: B. Guezzen, M.A. Didi, B. Medjahed
A factorial design of experiments and a response surface methodology were implemented to investigate the liquid-liquid extraction process of zinc (II) from acetate medium using the 1-Butyl-imidazolium di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate [BIm+][D2EHP-]. The optimization process of extraction parameters such as the initial pH effect (2.5, 4.5, and 6.6), ionic liquid concentration (1, 5.5, and 10 mM) and salt effect (0.01, 5, and 10 mM) was carried out using a three-level full factorial design (33). The results of the factorial design demonstrate that all these factors are statistically significant, including the square effects of pH and ionic liquid concentration. The results showed that the order of significance: IL concentration > salt effect > initial pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showing high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.91) and low probability values (P < 0.05) signifies the validity of the predicted second-order quadratic model for Zn (II) extraction. The optimum conditions for the extraction of zinc (II) at the constant temperature (20 °C), initial Zn (II) concentration (1mM) and A/O ratio of unity were: initial pH (4.8), extractant concentration (9.9 mM), and NaCl concentration (8.2 mM). At the optimized condition, the metal ion could be quantitatively extracted.
Keywords: Ionic liquid, response surface methodology, solvent extraction, zinc acetate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1036
126 Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots
Authors: Mehran Bakhshi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mohammadhosein Rahimi
Abstract:The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.
Keywords: Biosynthesis, cadmium cake, cadmium sulfide, nanoparticle, zinc smelter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1366
125 Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Processed Biodegradable Zn-Based Alloy for Biomedical Application
Authors: Maruf Yinka Kolawole, Jacob Olayiwola Aweda, Farasat Iqbal, Asif Ali, Sulaiman Abdulkareem
Zinc is a non-ferrous metal with potential application in orthopaedic implant materials. However, its poor mechanical properties were major challenge to its application. Therefore, this paper studies the mechanical properties of biodegradable Zn-based alloy for biomedical application. Pure zinc powder with varying (0, 1, 2, 3 & 6) wt% of magnesium powders were ball milled using ball-to-powder ratio (B:P) of 10:1 at 350 rpm for 4 hours. The resulting milled powders were compacted and sintered at 300 MPa and 350 °C respectively. Microstructural, phase and mechanical properties analyses were performed following American standard of testing and measurement. The results show that magnesium has influence on the mechanical properties of zinc. The compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus of 210 ± 8.878 MPa, 76 ± 5.707 HV and 45 ± 11.616 GPa respectively as obtained in Zn-2Mg alloy were optimum and meet the minimum requirement of biodegradable metal for orthopaedics application. These results indicate an increase of 111, 93 and 93% in compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus respectively as compared to pure zinc. The increase in mechanical properties was adduced to effectiveness of compaction pressure and intermetallic phase formation within the matrix resulting in high dislocation density for improving strength. The study concluded that, Zn-2Mg alloy with optimum mechanical properties can therefore be considered a potential candidate for orthopaedic application.
Keywords: Biodegradable metal, biomedical application mechanical properties, powder metallurgy, zinc.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 754