Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: Apple juice

42 Statistical Screening of Medium Components on Ethanol Production from Cashew Apple Juice using Saccharomyces diasticus

Authors: Karuppaiya Maruthai, Viruthagiri Thangavelu, Manikandan Kanagasabai

Abstract:

In the present study, effect of critical medium components (a total of fifteen components) on ethanol production from waste cashew apple juice (CAJ) using yeast Saccharomyces diasticus was studied. A statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) was used for the design of experiments. The design contains a total of 32 experimental trails. The effect of medium components on ethanol was studied at two different levels such as low concentration level (-) and high concentration levels (+). The dependent variables selected in this study were ethanol concentration (g/L) and cellmass concentration (g/L). Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). In general, initial substrate concentration significantly influenced the microbial growth and product formation. Of the medium components evaluated, CAJ concentration, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, and malt extract showed significant effect on ethanol fermentation. A second-order polynomial model was used to predict the experimental data and the model fitted the data with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.98). Maximum ethanol (15.3 g/L) and biomass (6.4 g/L) concentrations were obtained at the optimum medium composition and at optimum condition (temperature-30°C; initial pH-6.8) after 72 h fermentation using S.diasticus.

Keywords: cashew apple juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast, response surface methodology

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41 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: Apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity.

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40 In Vivo Evaluation of Stable Cream Containing Flavonoids on Hydration and TEWL of Human Skin

Authors: Haji M Shoaib Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Fatima Rasool, Barkat Ali Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Shuaib Khan

Abstract:

Antioxidants contribute to endogenous photoprotection and are important for the maintenance of skin health. The study was carried out to compare the skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) effects of a stable cosmetic preparation containing flavonoids, following two applications a day over a period of tenth week. The skin trans-epidermal water loss and skin hydration effect was measured at the beginning and up to the end of study period of ten weeks. Any effect produced was measured by Corneometer and TEWA meter (Non-invasive probe). Two formulations were developed for this study design. Formulation one the control formulation in which no apple juice extract( Flavonoids) was incorporated while second one was the active formulation in which the apple juice extract (3%) containing flavonoids was incorporated into water in oil emulsion using Abil EM 90 as an emulsifier. Stable formulations (control and Active) were applied on human cheeks (n = 12) for a study period of 10 weeks. Result of each volunteer of skin hydration and TEWL was measured by corneometer and TEWA meter. By using ANOVA and Paired sample t test as a statistical evaluation, result of both base and formulation were compared. Statistical significant results (p≤0.05) were observed regarding skin hydration and TEWL when two creams, control and Formulation were compared. It showed that desired formulation (Active) may have interesting application as an active moisturizing cream on healthy skin.

Keywords: Apple juice extract, TEWL, Corneometer, flavonoids.

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39 Experimental Study of Kiwi Juice under Sonication and Carbonation

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar, A. Afsari

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the experimental impacts of ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them on the quality of fresh kiwi juice. Today, non-thermal methods like ultrasonic, which have imperceptible effects on some properties of the juice such as taste, flavor and color, are commonly used for killing microorganisms.In this paper, some properties of kiwi fruit juice under ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them has been researched. Those properties include pH, acidity, transparency and Brix. Its impact on microorganisms has been studied as well.The results show that using a combination of carbonate and sonicate make the cavitation more severe without a perceptible effect on nonactivation of microorganisms.

Keywords: carbonate, juice, inactivation, ultrasonic

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38 An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Approach to Develop an Electronic Instrument to Study Apple Bruise Damage

Authors: Paula Pascoal-Faria, Rúben Pereira, Elodie Pinto, Miguel Belbut, Ana Rosa, Inês Sousa, Nuno Alves

Abstract:

Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact, the latter being the most common source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important challenge. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to better understand the impact caused when an apple is dropped from different heights onto a plastic surface and a conveyor belt. Results showed that the extent of fruit damage is significantly higher for plastic surface, being dependent on the height. In order to support the development of a biomimetic electronic device for the determination of fruit damage, the mechanical properties of the apple fruit were determined using mechanical tests. Preliminary results showed different values for the Young’s modulus according to the zone of the apple tested. Along with the mechanical characterization of the apple fruit, the development of the first two prototypes is discussed and the integration of the results obtained to construct the final element model of the apple is presented. This work will help to reduce significantly the bruise damage of fruits or vegetables during the entire processing which will allow the introduction of exportation destines and consequently an increase in the economic profits in this sector.

Keywords: Apple, fruit damage, impact during crop and post-crop, mechanical characterization of the apple, numerical evaluation of fruit bruise damage, electronic device.

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37 Study of Polyphenol Profile and Antioxidant Capacity in Italian Ancient Apple Varieties by Liquid Chromatography

Authors: A. M. Tarola, R. Preti, A. M. Girelli, P. Campana

Abstract:

Safeguarding, studying and enhancing biodiversity play an important and indispensable role in re-launching agriculture. The ancient local varieties are therefore a precious resource for genetic and health improvement. In order to protect biodiversity through the recovery and valorization of autochthonous varieties, in this study we analyzed 12 samples of four ancient apple cultivars representative of Friuli Venezia Giulia, selected by local farmers who work on a project for the recovery of ancient apple cultivars. The aim of this study is to evaluate the polyphenolic profile and the antioxidant capacity that characterize the organoleptic and functional qualities of this fruit species, besides having beneficial properties for health. In particular, for each variety, the following compounds were analyzed, both in the skins and in the pulp: gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, phlorizin, phloretin and quercetin to highlight any differences in the edible parts of the apple. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a diode array UV detector (DAD), the antioxidant capacity was estimated using an in vitro essay based on a Free Radical Scavenging Method and the total phenolic compounds was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. From the results, it is evident that the catechins are the most present polyphenols, reaching a value of 140-200 μg/g in the pulp and of 400-500 μg/g in the skin, with the prevalence of epicatechin. Catechins and phlorizin, a dihydrohalcone typical of apples, are always contained in larger quantities in the peel. Total phenolic compounds content was positively correlated with antioxidant activity in apple pulp (r2 = 0,850) and peel (r2 = 0,820). Comparing the results, differences between the varieties analyzed and between the edible parts (pulp and peel) of the apple were highlighted. In particular, apple peel is richer in polyphenolic compounds than pulp and flavonols are exclusively present in the peel. In conclusion, polyphenols, being antioxidant substances, have confirmed the benefits of fruit in the diet, especially as a prevention and treatment for degenerative diseases. They demonstrated to be also a good marker for the characterization of different apple cultivars. The importance of protecting biodiversity in agriculture was also highlighted through the exploitation of native products and ancient varieties of apples now forgotten.

Keywords: Apple, biodiversity, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, HPLC-DAD, characterization.

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36 Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

Authors: Sigita Boca, Ruta Galoburda, Inta Krasnova, Dalija Seglina, Aivars Aboltins, Imants Skrupskis

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added gelatin, xantan gum, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were whisked obtaining dessert. Pectin, pH and soluble dry matter of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Pectin content in frozen apple mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the fresh sample. The viscosity of apple desserts immediately after their preparation depends on the physico-chemical properties of apples and the texturizers used in the production.

Keywords: Apple variety, apparent viscosity, hydrocolloids, pectin, texturizers.

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35 Utilization Juice Wastes as Corn Replacement in the Broiler Diet

Authors: Yose Rizal, Maria Endo Mahata, Mira Andriani, Guoyao Wu

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted with 80 unsexed broilers of the Arbor Acress strain to determine the capability of a carrot and fruit juice wastes mixture (carrot, apple, manggo, avocado, orange, melon and Dutch egg plant) in the same proportion for replacing corn in broiler diet. This study involved a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of juice wastes mixture in diets) and 4 replicates per treatment. Diets were isonitrogenous (22% crude protein) and isocaloric (3000 kcal/kg diet). Measured variables were feed consumption, average daily gain, feed conversion, as well as percentages of abdominal fat pad, carcass, digestive organs (liver, pancreas and gizzard), and heart. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance for CRD. Increasing juice wastes mixture levels in diets increased feed consumption (P<0.05) and average daily gain (P<0.01), while improving feed utilization efficiency (P<0.05). These treatments also affected (P<0.05) abdominal fat pad percentage but had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass, liver, pancreas, gizzard or heart percentages. In conclusion, up to 20% of juice wastes mixture could be included for the broiler diet to effectively replace up to 40% corn in the diet.

Keywords: average daily gain, feed consumption, feedconversion, juice waste mixture

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34 Effect of Various Pollen Sources to Ability Fruit Set and Quality in ‘Long Red B’ Wax Apple

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung-Ruey

Abstract:

By hand pollination was conducted to evaluated different pollen sources and their affects on fruit set and quality of wax apple. The following parameters were recorded: fruit set, seed set, fruit characteristics. Results showed that fruit set percentage with seed were significantly high in ‘Long Red B’ when ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were used as pollen parents. Pollen of ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ resulted in high fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, bigger flesh thickness, better total soluble solids as compared with other pollens. The observation of pollen-growth in vitro revealed that pollen germination at 15% sucrose concentration are required for optimum pollen germination with the high pollen germination were found in ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’. From the result, we concluded that ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were proved to be good pollinizers in ‘Long Red B’. Therefore, artificial cross-pollination using ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ as pollinizers were strongly recommended for ‘Long Red B’ cultivar in wax apple orchard.

Keywords: Wax apple, pollination, pollen source, in vitro, fruit quality.

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33 Effect of S-Girdling on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung –Ruey, Yen

Abstract:

The study was performed to evaluate the effect of Sgirdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D application, fruit thinning plus bagging on growth and quality of wax apple fruit. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The 2,4-D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. The physical and biochemical quality characteristics of the fruits were recorded. The results showed that no significant effect on number of bud among treatments. S-girdling, 2,4-D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. Moreover, S-girdling enhanced faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter than the control treatment. It was also observed that Sgirdling greatly increased fruit set, fruit weight as well as total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, and titratable acidity. In conclusion, S-girdling had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed. Application 2,4-D was also recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, and fruit quality in wax apple.

Keywords: Wax apple, S-girdling, 2, 4-D, fruit bagging, fruit thinning.

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32 Effect of Pectinase on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Juice from Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Fruits

Authors: Idoko J. O., Achusi N.

Abstract:

A procedure for the preparation of clarified Pawpaw Juice was developed. About 750ml Pawpaw pulp was measured into 2 measuring cylinders A & B of capacity 1 litre heated to 400C, cooled to 200C. 30mls pectinase was added into cylinder A, while 30mls distilled water was added into cylinder B. Enzyme treated sample (A) was allowed to digest for 5hours after which it was heated to 900C for 15 minutes to inactivate the enzyme. The heated sample was cooled and with the aid of a mucillin cloth the pulp was filtered to obtain the clarified pawpaw juice. The juice was filled into 100ml plastic bottles, pasteurized at 950C for 45 minutes, cooled and stored at room temperature. The sample treated with 30mls distilled water also underwent the same process. Freshly pasteurized sample was analyzed for specific gravity, titratable acidity, pH, sugars and ascorbic acid. The remaining sample was then stored for 2 weeks and the above analyses repeated. There were differences in the results of the freshly pasteurized samples and stored sample in pH and ascorbic acid levels, also sample treated with pectinase yielded higher volumes of juice than that treated with distilled water.

Keywords: Juice, pawpaw, pectinase.

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31 Colour Stability of Wild Cactus Pear Juice

Authors: Kgatla T.E, Howard S.S., Hiss D.C.

Abstract:

Prickly pear (Opuntia spp) fruit has received renewed interest since it contains a betalain pigment that has an attractive purple colour for the production of juice. Prickly pear juice was prepared by homogenizing the fruit and treating the pulp with 48 g of pectinase from Aspergillus niger. Titratable acidity was determined by diluting 10 ml prickly pear juice with 90 ml deionized water and titrating to pH 8.2 with 0.1 N NaOH. Brix was measured using a refractometer and ascorbic acid content assayed spectrophotometrically. Colour variation was determined colorimetrically (Hunter L.a.b.). Hunter L.a.b. analysis showed that the red purple colour of prickly pear juice had been affected by juice treatments. This was indicated by low light values of colour difference meter (CDML*), hue, CDMa* and CDMb* values. It was observed that non-treated prickly pear juice had a high (colour difference meter of light) CDML* of 3.9 compared to juice treatments (range 3.29 to 2.14). The CDML* significantly (p<0.05) decreased as the juice was preserved. Spectrophotometric colour analysis showed that browning was low in all treated prickly juice samples as indicated by high values at 540 nm and low values at 476 nm (browning index). The brightness of prickly pear had been affected by acidification compared to other juice treatments. This study presents evidence that processing has a positive effect on the colour quality attribute that offers a clear advantage for the production of red-purple prickly pear juice.

Keywords: Colour, Hunter L.a.b, Prickly pear juice, processing, physicochemical.

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30 The Effects of Processing and Preservation on the Sensory Qualities of Prickly Pear Juice

Authors: Kgatla T.E., Howard S.S, Hiss D.C.

Abstract:

Prickly pear juice has received renewed attention with regard to the effects of processing and preservation on its sensory qualities (colour, taste, flavour, aroma, astringency, visual browning and overall acceptability). Juice was prepared by homogenizing fruit and treating the pulp with pectinase (Aspergillus niger). Juice treatments applied were sugar addition, acidification, heat-treatment, refrigeration, and freezing and thawing. Prickly pear pulp and juice had unique properties (low pH 3.88, soluble solids 3.68 oBrix and high titratable acidity 0.47). Sensory profiling and descriptive analyses revealed that non-treated juice had a bitter taste with high astringency whereas treated prickly pear was significantly sweeter. All treated juices had a good sensory acceptance with values approximating or exceeding 7. Regression analysis of the consumer sensory attributes for non-treated prickly pear juice indicated an overwhelming rejection, while treated prickly pear juice received overall acceptability. Thus, educed favourable sensory responses and may have positive implications for consumer acceptability.

Keywords: Consumer acceptability, descriptive test, Prickly pear juice

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29 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied S-Girdling on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality

Authors: Nguyen Minh, Tuan, Chung-Ruey, Yen, Bui Lan, Anh

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluated effect of S-gridling on fruit growth and quality of wax apple. The study was laid in Random completed block design with four replicated. Four treatment were applied as follows: S-girdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D sprayed, fruit thinning plus bagging and the control treatment. 2,4D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, and fruit quality were recorded. The result indicated that S-girdling, 2,4D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. S-girdling improved faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter compared to untreated control. S-girdling also markedly enhanced fruit set, fruit weight, and total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, titratable acidity. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 2,4-D application also increased the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit than control treatment. It was concluded that S-girdling was recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, fruit quality in wax apple. 2,4D application had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed.

Keywords: S-girdling, 2, 4D, wax apple, fruit growth, fruit quality.

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28 Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung–Ruey

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control. Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.

Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality.

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27 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality

Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung-Ruey Yen

Abstract:

The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage. Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30 ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For ‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3 application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.

Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality. Abbreviations: GA3, gibberellic acid; 2, 4-D, 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

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26 Effect of Addition of Separan at Different Concentrations as a Flocculants on Quality of Sugar Cane Juice

Authors: Ghada A. Abdel-Razig , Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E. Babiker & Abu ElGasim A. Yagoub

Abstract:

The study was designed to evaluate the use of low concentrations of separan flocculent (Less than 3 ppm) on physicochemical properties of sugar cane juice. Colour, pH, purity, turbidity, pol, brix, reducing sugars tannins and polyphenols of crushed cane (green and burned) juice, mixed juice and clarified juice were studied. The results showed that pol, brix, reducing sugar and turbidity are higher in crushed cane juice. Clarified burned juice had low turbidity, reducing sugars, pol and brix but had significantly lower pH, purity and colour when compared to crushed juice. Polyphenols of the crushed juice (1.19%) decreased significantly in the clarified juice to 0.006%. Addition of separan at a concentration of 0.015 ppm reduced significantly colour, polyphenols and tannins and reducing sugar compared to the control.

Keywords: Separan, Sugar cane, Reducing sugar, Polyphenols, Clarified juice.

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25 The Effect of Ultrasound on Permeation Flux and Changes in Blocking Mechanisms during Dead-End Microfiltration of Carrot Juice

Authors: A. Hemmati, H. Mirsaeedghazi, M. Aboonajmi

Abstract:

Carrot juice is one of the most nutritious foods that are consumed around the world. Large particles in carrot juice causing turbid appearance make some problems in the concentration process such as off-flavor due to the large particles burnt on the walls of evaporators. Microfiltration (MF) is a pressure driven membrane separation method that can clarify fruit juices without enzymatic treatment. Fouling is the main problem in the membrane process causing reduction of permeate flux. Ultrasound as a cleaning technique was applied at 20 kHz to reduce fouling in membrane clarification of carrot juice using dead-end MF system with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Results showed that application of ultrasound waves reduce diphasic characteristic of carrot juice and permeate flux increased. Evaluation of different membrane fouling mechanisms showed that application of ultrasound waves changed creation time of each fouling mechanism. Also, its behavior was changed with varying transmembrane pressure.

Keywords: Carrot juice, dead end, microfiltration, ultrasound.

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24 Insights into Smoothies with High Levels of Fibre and Polyphenols: Factors Influencing Chemical, Rheological and Sensory Properties

Authors: Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Shiji Nair, Reginald Wibisono, Sandhya S. Wadhwa, Carl Massarotto, Duncan I. Hedderley, Jing Zhou, Sara R. Jaeger, Virginia Corrigan

Abstract:

Attempts to add fibre and polyphenols (PPs) into popular beverages present challenges related to the properties of finished products such as smoothies. Consumer acceptability, viscosity and phenolic composition of smoothies containing high levels of fruit fibre (2.5-7.5 g per 300 mL serve) and PPs (250-750 mg per 300 mL serve) were examined. The changes in total extractable PP, vitamin C content, and colour of selected smoothies over a storage stability trial (4°C, 14 days) were compared. A set of acidic aqueous model beverages were prepared to further examine the effect of two different heat treatments on the stability and extractability of PPs. Results show that overall consumer acceptability of high fibre and PP smoothies was low, with average hedonic scores ranging from 3.9 to 6.4 (on a 1-9 scale). Flavour, texture and overall acceptability decreased as fibre and polyphenol contents increased, with fibre content exerting a stronger effect. Higher fibre content resulted in greater viscosity, with an elevated PP content increasing viscosity only slightly. The presence of fibre also aided the stability and extractability of PPs after heating. A reduction of extractable PPs, vitamin C content and colour intensity of smoothies was observed after a 14-day storage period at 4°C. Two heat treatments (75°C for 45 min or 85°C for 1 min) that are normally used for beverage production, did not cause significant reduction of total extracted PPs. It is clear that high levels of added fibre and PPs greatly influence the consumer appeal of smoothies, suggesting the need to develop novel formulation and processing methods if a satisfactory functional beverage is to be developed incorporating these ingredients.

Keywords: Apple fibre, apple and blackcurrant polyphenols, consumer acceptability, functional foods, stability.

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23 Performance Enhancement of Membrane Distillation Process in Fruit Juice Concentration by Membrane Surface Modification

Authors: Samir K. Deshmukh, Mayur M. Tajane

Abstract:

In this work Membrane Distillation is applied to concentrate orange Juice. Clarified orange juice (11o Brix) obtained from fresh fruits and a sugar solution was subjected to membrane distillation. The experiments were performed on a flat sheet module using orange juice and sucrose solution as feeds. The concentration of a sucrose solution, used as a model fruit juice and also orange juice, was carried out in a direct contact membrane distillation using hydrophobic PTFE membrane of pore size 0.2 μm and porosity 70%. Surface modification of PTFE membrane has been carried out by treating membrane with alcohol and water solution to make it hydrophilic and then hydrophobicity was regained by drying. The influences of the feed temperature, feed concentration, flow rate, operating time on the permeate flux were studied for treated and non treated membrane. In this work treated and non treated membrane were compared in terms of water flux, Within the tested range, MD with surface modified membrane the water flux has been significantly improved by treating the membrane surface.

Keywords: Membrane Distillation, Surface Modification, Orange Juice. Polytetrafluoroethylene.

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22 Clarification of Synthetic Juice through Spiral Wound Ultrafiltration Module at Turbulent Flow Region and Cleaning Study

Authors: Vijay Singh, Chandan Das

Abstract:

Synthetic juice clarification was done through spiral wound ultrafiltration (UF) membrane module. Synthetic juice was clarified at two different operating conditions, such as, with and without permeates recycle at turbulent flow regime. The performance of spiral wound ultrafiltration membrane was analyzed during clarification of synthetic juice. Synthetic juice was the mixture of deionized water, sucrose and pectin molecule. The operating conditions are: feed flowrate of 10 lpm, pressure drop of 413.7 kPa and Reynolds no of 5000. Permeate sample was analyzed in terms of volume reduction factor (VRF), viscosity (Pa.s), ⁰Brix, TDS (mg/l), electrical conductivity (μS) and turbidity (NTU). It was observe that the permeate flux declined with operating time for both conditions of with and without permeate recycle due to increase of concentration polarization and increase of gel layer on membrane surface. For without permeate recycle, the membrane fouling rate was faster compared to with permeate recycle. For without permeate recycle, the VRF rose up to 5 and for with recycle permeate the VRF is 1.9. The VRF is higher due to adsorption of solute (pectin) molecule on membrane surface and resulting permeateflux declined with VRF. With permeate recycle, quality was within acceptable limit. Fouled membrane was cleaned by applying different processes (e.g., deionized water, SDS and EDTA solution). Membrane cleaning was analyzed in terms of permeability recovery.

Keywords: Synthetic juice, Spiral wound, ultrafiltration, Reynolds No, Volume reduction factor.

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21 Identification of Phenolic Contents in Malaysian Variety of Pummelo (Citrus Grandis L. Osbeck) Fruit Juice Using HPLC-DAD

Authors: N. N. A. K. Shah, R. A. Rahman, R. Shamsuddin, N. M. Adzahan

Abstract:

Pummelo is known to be the largest of all citrus fruits, with expected ratio of 2:1 (w/v) of producing juice, is an attractive opportunity for Malaysia to expand pummelo-s influence and marketability over the international market of juices. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52). Identifications of polyphenols composition were done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). The phenolic compounds that were found in both varieties were hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonones. This study proved that Tambun variety has the highest antioxidant and phenolic compounds in comparison to Ledang variety. However, considerations have to be made to suit consumer-s taste bud and the amount of enzyme needed to clarify the juice for its marketability.

Keywords: Antioxidant, HPLC, phenolic contents and pummelo fruit juice

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20 Influences of Juice Extraction and Drying Methods on the Chemical Analysis of Lemon Peels

Authors: Azza A. Abou-Arab, Marwa H. Mahmoud, Ferial M. Abu-Salem

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the influence of some different juice extraction methods (screw type hand operated juice extractor and pressed squeeze juice extractor) as well as drying methods (microwave, solar and oven drying) on the chemical properties of lemon peels. It could be concluded that extraction of juice by screw type and drying of peel using the microwave drying method were the best preparative processing steps methods for lemon peel utilization as food additives.

Keywords: Lemon peel, extraction of juice methods, chemical analysis.

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19 Seasonal Variations and Different Irrigation Programs on Nutrient Concentrations of 'Starkrimson Delicious' Apple Variety

Authors: Zeliha Küçükyumuk, Cenk Küçükyumuk, İbrahim Erdal, Figen Eraslan

Abstract:

This study was aimed to determine seasonal variations of leaf nutrient concentrations to define nutrient needs related to growing period and to compare irrigation programs in terms of nutrient uptake. In this study,'Starkrimson Delicious' variety grafted onto seedling rootstock was used during 2009-2010 growing seasons. The study was conducted at E─ƒirdir Fruit Growing Research Station. Leaf samples were taken in five different sample seasons (May, June, July, August and September). Four different pan coefficients (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25) were applied during drip irrigation treatments in 7 days irrigation interval. Leaf K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined. The results showed that among the seasonal changes, the highest concentrations of K, Mg, P and Mn in leaves were recorded in May, followed by a decrease in the other months, while in contrast Ca and Fe showed the lowest concentration in May. Results of the study demonstrate that among irrigation programs K and Cu concentration in plants was significantly influenced. Cu concentrations decreased with seasonal variations and different irrigation programs. Thus, nutrient needs of 'Starkrimson Delicious'apple trees at different growth stages should be taken into consideration before making effective fertilization program.

Keywords: Apple orchard, irrigation programs, seasonal variations, nutrient concentrations.

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18 Impact of Nonthermal Pulsed Electric Field on Bioactive Compounds and Browning Activity in Emblica officinalis Juice

Authors: Vasudha Bansal, M. L. Singla, C. Ghanshyam

Abstract:

The effect of nonthermal pulsed electric field (PEF) and thermal treatment (90⁰C for 60s) was studied on quality parameters of emblica officinalis juice for the period of 6 weeks at 4⁰C using monopolar rectangular pulse of 1µs width. The PEF treatment was given using static chamber at 24kV/cm for 500µs. The quality of emblica officinalis juice was investigated in terms of non enzymatic browning index (NEBI), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. ⁰Brix, pH and conductivity were evaluated as physical parameters. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of PEF on the retention of bioactive compounds and retardation of browning activity. The results showed that conventional thermal treatment had led to a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of 48.15% in polyphenol content (129.56 mg of GAE L-1), with higher NEBI and HMF formation (p < 0.05) whilst PEF suppressed NEBI and retained higher polyphenol compounds (168.59 mg GAE L-1) with limiting the loss to 32.56% along maximum free radical scavenging activity (92.07%). However, pH, ⁰brix and electrical conductivity of treated juice samples remain unaffected. Therefore, PEF can be considered as an effective nonthermal treatment for retaining bioactive compounds along suppressing browning of emblica juice.

 

Keywords: Emblica officinalis juice, Free radical scavenging activity, Pulsed electric field, Total polyphenol content.

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17 Forecasting of Grape Juice Flavor by Using Support Vector Regression

Authors: Ren-Jieh Kuo, Chun-Shou Huang

Abstract:

The research of juice flavor forecasting has become more important in China. Due to the fast economic growth in China, many different kinds of juices have been introduced to the market. If a beverage company can understand their customers’ preference well, the juice can be served more attractive. Thus, this study intends to introducing the basic theory and computing process of grapes juice flavor forecasting based on support vector regression (SVR). Applying SVR, BPN, and LR to forecast the flavor of grapes juice in real data shows that SVR is more suitable and effective at predicting performance.

Keywords: Flavor forecasting, artificial neural networks, support vector regression, grape juice flavor.

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16 APPLE: Providing Absolute and Proportional Throughput Guarantees in Wireless LANs

Authors: Zhijie Ma, Qinglin Zhao, Hongning Dai, Huan Zhang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an APPLE scheme that aims at providing absolute and proportional throughput guarantees, and maximizing system throughput simultaneously for wireless LANs with homogeneous and heterogenous traffic. We formulate our objectives as an optimization problem, present its exact and approximate solutions, and prove the existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution. Simulations validate that APPLE scheme is accurate, and the approximate solution can well achieve the desired objectives already.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11e, throughput guarantee, priority.

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15 Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia

Authors: Erik Pontiskoski, Kazuhiro Asakawa

Abstract:

This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies balanced between internal and external resources to launch products that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in mature markets.

Keywords: managerial cognition, open innovation.

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14 Determination and Comparison of Some Elements in Different Types of Orange Juices and Investigation of Health Effects

Authors: F. Demir, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Fruit juices play important roles in human health as being a key part of nutrition. Juice and nectar are two categories of drinks with so many variations for consumers, regardless of age, lifestyle and taste preferences, which they can find their favorites. Juices contain 100% pulp when pulp content of ‘nectar’ changes between 25%-50%. In this study, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) contents in orange juice and nectar is determined for conscious consumption. For this purpose inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is used to find out potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) contents in orange juices and nectar. Furthermore, the daily intake of elements from orange juice and nectar that affects human health is also investigated. From the results of experiments K, Mg and P contents are found in orange juice as 1351; 73,25; 89,27 ppm and in orange nectar as 986; 33,76; 51,30 respectively.

Keywords: Orange juice, nectar, ICP-OES, element.

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13 Kinetic Parameters for Bioethanol Production from Oil Palm Trunk Juice

Authors: A. H. Norhazimah, C. K. M. Faizal

Abstract:

Abundant and cheap agricultural waste of oil palm trunk (OPT) juice was used to produce bioethanol. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a strain of Pichia stipitis were used to produce bioethanol from the OPT juice. Fermentation was conducted at previously optimized condition at 30oC and without shaking. The kinetic parameters were estimated and calculated. Monod equation and Hinshelwood model is used to relate the specific growth to the concentration of the limiting substrate and also to simulate bioethanol production rate. Among the three strains, single S. cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 produce the highest ethanol yield of 0.477 g/l.h within the shortest time (12 h). This yeast also produces more than 20 g/l ethanol concentration within 10 h of fermentation.

Keywords: Oil palm trunk, Pichia stipitis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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