Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1258

Search results for: Personal Information Leakage Problem

1258 Application of “Multiple Risk Communicator“ to the Personal Information Leakage Problem

Authors: Mitsuhiro Taniyama, Yuu Hidaka, Masato Arai, Satoshi Kai, Hiromi Igawa, Hiroshi Yajima, Ryoichi Sasaki

Abstract:

Along with the progress of our information society, various risks are becoming increasingly common, causing multiple social problems. For this reason, risk communications for establishing consensus among stakeholders who have different priorities have become important. However, it is not always easy for the decision makers to agree on measures to reduce risks based on opposing concepts, such as security, privacy and cost. Therefore, we previously developed and proposed the “Multiple Risk Communicator" (MRC) with the following functions: (1) modeling the support role of the risk specialist, (2) an optimization engine, and (3) displaying the computed results. In this paper, MRC program version 1.0 is applied to the personal information leakage problem. The application process and validation of the results are discussed.

Keywords: Decision Making, Personal Information Leakage Problem, Risk Communication, Risk Management

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1257 Off-State Leakage Power Reduction by Automatic Monitoring and Control System

Authors: S. Abdollahi Pour, M. Saneei

Abstract:

This paper propose a new circuit design which monitor total leakage current during standby mode and generates the optimal reverse body bias voltage, by using the adaptive body bias (ABB) technique to compensate die-to-die parameter variations. Design details of power monitor are examined using simulation framework in 65nm and 32nm BTPM model CMOS process. Experimental results show the overhead of proposed circuit in terms of its power consumption is about 10 μW for 32nm technology and about 12 μW for 65nm technology at the same power supply voltage as the core power supply. Moreover the results show that our proposed circuit design is not far sensitive to the temperature variations and also process variations. Besides, uses the simple blocks which offer good sensitivity, high speed, the continuously feedback loop.

Keywords: leakage current, leakage power monitor, body biasing, low power

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1256 Personal Health Assistance Service Expert System (PHASES)

Authors: Chakkrit Snae, Michael Brueckner

Abstract:

In this paper the authors present the framework of a system for assisting users through counseling on personal health, the Personal Health Assistance Service Expert System (PHASES). Personal health assistance systems need Personal Health Records (PHR), which support wellness activities, improve the understanding of personal health issues, enable access to data from providers of health services, strengthen health promotion, and in the end improve the health of the population. This is especially important in societies where the health costs increase at a higher rate than the overall economy. The most important elements of a healthy lifestyle are related to food (such as balanced nutrition and diets), activities for body fitness (such as walking, sports, fitness programs), and other medical treatments (such as massage, prescriptions of drugs). The PHASES framework uses an ontology of food, which includes nutritional facts, an expert system keeping track of personal health data that are matched with medical treatments, and a comprehensive data transfer between patients and the system.

Keywords: Personal health assistance service, expert system, ontologies, knowledge management, information technology.

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1255 Social Network Analysis & Information Disclosure: A Case Study

Authors: Shilpi Sharma, J. S. Sodhi

Abstract:

The advent of social networking technologies has been met with mixed reactions in academic and corporate circles around the world. This study explored the influence of social network in current era, the relation being maintained between the Social networking site and its user by the extent of use, benefits and latest technologies. The study followed a descriptive research design wherein a questionnaire was used as the main research tool. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 16. Data was gathered from 1205 users and analyzed in accordance with the objectives of the study. The analysis of the results seem to suggest that the majority of users were mainly using Facebook, despite of concerns raised about the disclosure of personal information on social network sites, users continue to disclose huge quantity of personal information, they find that reading privacy policy is time consuming and changes made can result into improper settings.

Keywords: Social Networking Sites, Privacy Policy, Disclosure of Personal Information.

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1254 Information Retrieval in the Semantic LIFE Personal Digital Memory Framework

Authors: Hanh Huu Hoang, Tho Manh Nguyen

Abstract:

Ever increasing capacities of contemporary storage devices inspire the vision to accumulate (personal) information without the need of deleting old data over a long time-span. Hence the target of SemanticLIFE project is to create a Personal Information Management system for a human lifetime data. One of the most important characteristics of the system is its dedication to retrieve information in a very efficient way. By adopting user demands regarding the reduction of ambiguities, our approach aims at a user-oriented and yet powerful enough system with a satisfactory query performance. We introduce the query system of SemanticLIFE, the Virtual Query System, which uses emerging Semantic Web technologies to fulfill users- requirements.

Keywords: Ontology-based Information Retrieval, Digital Memories, SemanticLIFE.

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1253 Media and Information Literacy (MIL) for Thai Youths

Authors: Waralak Vongdoiwang Siricharoen, Nattanun Siricharoen

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to determine the role of media that influence the values, attitudes and behaviors of Thai youths. Analytical qualitative research techniques were used for this purpose. Data collection based techniques was used which were individual interviews and focus group discussions with journalists, sample of high school and university students, and parents. The results show that “Social Media" is still the most popular media for Thai youths. It is also still in the hands of the marketing business and it can motivate Thai youths to do so many things. The main reasons of media exposure are to find quality information that they want quickly, get satisfaction and can use social media to get more exciting and to build communities. They believe that the need for media and information literacy skills is defined as making judgments, personal integrity, training of family and the behavior of close friends.

Keywords: Media and Information Literacy, Making Judgments, Personal integrity, Behavior of close friends

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1252 Developing the Personal, Dissolving the Political

Authors: James Moir

Abstract:

The emergence of person-centred discourse based around notions of 'personal development planning- and 'work'life balance' has taken hold in education and the workplace in recent years. This paper examines this discourse with regard to recent developments in higher education as well as the inter-related issue of work-life balance in occupational careers. In both cases there have been national and trans-national policy initiatives directed towards improving both personal opportunities and competitive advantage in a global knowledge-based economy. However, despite an increasing concern with looking outward at this globalised educational and employment marketplace, there is something of a paradox in encouraging people to look inward at themselves in order to become more self-determined. This apparent paradox is considered from a discourse analytic perspective in terms of the ideological effects of an increasing concern with the personal world. Specifically, it is argued that there are tensions that emerge from a concern with an innerdirected process of self-reflection that dissolve any engagement with wider political issues that impact upon educational and career development.

Keywords: Personal development planning, higher education, work-life balance, career.

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1251 Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Woosuk Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Seungmo Kim, Minjun Kim, Jinhan Lee, Youngdo Jo, Jongsam Moon, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector’s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.

Keywords: Gas leakage detector, inspection instrument, extracting numerals, concentration.

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1250 Low Leakage MUX/XOR Functions Using Symmetric and Asymmetric FinFETs

Authors: Farid Moshgelani, Dhamin Al-Khalili, Côme Rozon

Abstract:

In this paper, FinFET devices are analyzed with emphasis on sub-threshold leakage current control. This is achieved through proper biasing of the back gate, and through the use of asymmetric work functions for the four terminal FinFET devices. We are also examining different configurations of multiplexers and XOR gates using transistors of symmetric and asymmetric work functions. Based on extensive characterization data for MUX circuits, our proposed configuration using symmetric devices lead to leakage current and delay improvements of 65% and 47% respectively compared to results in the literature. For XOR gates, a 90% improvement in the average leakage current is achieved by using asymmetric devices. All simulations are based on a 25nm FinFET technology using the University of Florida UFDG model.

Keywords: FinFET, logic functions, asymmetric workfunction devices, back gate biasing, sub-threshold leakage current.

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1249 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md. Noman Habib Khan, S. Khan, T. S. Gunawan, R. I. Boby

Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well known technique in the world which is effective and delivers power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results shown in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) panel, Duty cycle, Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM), Leakage current.

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1248 Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).

Keywords: Personal rhythm, public-key encryption, authentication, digital signature, keystroke dynamics.

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1247 Study on Leakage Current Waveforms of Porcelain Insulator due to Various Artificial Pollutants

Authors: Waluyo, Parouli M. Pakpahan, Suwarno, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of leakage current waveforms which appears on porcelain insulator surface due to existence of artificial pollutants. The tests have been done using the chemical compounds of NaCl, Na2SiO3, H2SO4, CaO, Na2SO4, KCl, Al2SO4, MgSO4, FeCl3, and TiO2. The insulator surface was coated with those compounds and dried. Then, it was tested in the chamber where the high voltage was applied. Using correspondence analysis, the result indicated that the fundamental harmonic of leakage current was very close to the applied voltage and third harmonic leakage current was close to the yielded leakage current amplitude. The first harmonic power was correlated to first harmonic amplitude of leakage current, and third harmonic power was close to third harmonic one. The chemical compounds of H2SO4 and Na2SiO3 affected to the power factor of around 70%. Both are the most conductive, due to the power factor drastically increase among the chemical compounds.

Keywords: Chemical compound, harmonic, porcelain insulator, leakage current.

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1246 An Investigation into Turbine Blade Tip Leakage Flows at High Speeds

Authors: Z. Saleh, E. J. Avital, T. Korakianitis

Abstract:

The effect of the blade tip geometry of a high pressure gas turbine is studied experimentally and computationally for high speed leakage flows. For this purpose two simplified models are constructed, one models a flat tip of the blade and the second models a cavity tip of the blade. Experimental results are obtained from a transonic wind tunnel to show the static pressure distribution along the tip wall and provide flow visualization. RANS computations were carried to provide further insight into the mean flow behavior and to calculate the discharge coefficient which is a measure of the flow leaking over the tip. It is shown that in both geometries of tip the flow separates over the tip to form a separation bubble. The bubble is higher for the cavity tip while a complete shock wave system of oblique waves ending with a normal wave can be seen for the flat tip. The discharge coefficient for the flat tip shows less dependence on the pressure ratio over the blade tip than the cavity tip. However, the discharge coefficient for the cavity tip is lower than that of the flat tip, showing a better ability to reduce the leakage flow and thus increase the turbine efficiency.

Keywords: Gas turbine, blade tip leakage flow, transonic flow.

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1245 Leakage Reduction ONOFIC Approach for Deep Submicron VLSI Circuits Design

Authors: Vijay Kumar Sharma, Manisha Pattanaik, Balwinder Raj

Abstract:

Minimizations of power dissipation, chip area with higher circuit performance are the necessary and key parameters in deep submicron regime. The leakage current increases sharply in deep submicron regime and directly affected the power dissipation of the logic circuits. In deep submicron region the power dissipation as well as high performance is the crucial concern since increasing importance of portable systems. Number of leakage reduction techniques employed to reduce the leakage current in deep submicron region but they have some trade-off to control the leakage current. ONOFIC approach gives an excellent agreement between power dissipation and propagation delay for designing the efficient CMOS logic circuits. In this article ONOFIC approach is compared with LECTOR technique and output results show that ONOFIC approach significantly reduces the power dissipation and enhance the speed of the logic circuits. The lower power delay product is the big outcome of this approach and makes it an influential leakage reduction technique.

Keywords: Deep submicron, Leakage Current, LECTOR, ONOFIC, Power Delay Product

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1244 The Phatic Function and the Socializing Element of Personal Blogs

Authors: Emelia Noronha, Milind Malshe

Abstract:

The phatic function of communication is a vital element of any conversation. This research paper looks into this function with respect to personal blogs maintained by Indian bloggers. This paper is a study into the phenomenon of phatic communication maintained by bloggers through their blogs. Based on a linguistic analysis of the posts of twenty eight Indian bloggers, writing in English, studied over a period of three years, the study indicates that though the blogging phenomenon is not conversational in the same manner as face-to-face communication, it does make ample provision for feedback that is conversational in nature. Ordinary day to day offline conversations use conventionalized phatic utterances; those on the social media are in a perpetual mode of innovation and experimentation in order to sustain contact with its readers. These innovative methods and means are the focus of this study. Though the personal blogger aims to chronicle his/her personal life through the blog, the socializing function is crucial to these bloggers. In comparison to the western personal blogs which focus on the presentation of the ‘bounded individual self’, we find Indian personal bloggers engage in the presentation of their ‘social selves’. These bloggers yearn to reach out to the readers on the internet and the phatic function serves to initiate, sustain and renew social ties on the blogosphere thereby consolidating the social network of readers and bloggers.

Keywords: Personal blogs, phatic, social-selves, blog readers.

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1243 Difference of Properties on Surface Leakage and Discharge Currents of Porcelain Insulator Material

Authors: Waluyo, Ngapuli I. Sinisuka, Suwarno, Maman A. Djauhari

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of comparison between leakage currents and discharge currents. The leakage currents were obtained on polluted porcelain insulator. Whereas, the discharge currents were obtained on lightly artificial polluted porcelain specimen. The conducted measurements were leakage current or discharge current and applied voltage. The insulator or specimen was in a hermetically sealed chamber, and the current waveforms were analyzed using FFT. The result indicated that the leakage current (LC) on low RH condition the fifth harmonic would be visible, and followed by the seventh harmonic. The insulator had capacitive property. Otherwise, on 99% relative humidity, the fifth harmonic would also be visible, and the phase angle reached up to 12.2 degree. Whereas, on discharge current, the third harmonic would be visible, and followed by fifth harmonic. The third harmonic would increase as pressure reduced. On this condition, the specimen had a non-linear characteristics

Keywords: leakage current, discharge current, third harmonic, fifth harmonic, porcelain.

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1242 Investigating the Areas of Self-Reflection in Malaysian Students’ Personal Blogs: A Case Study

Authors: Chen May Oh, Nadzrah Abu Bakar

Abstract:

This case study investigates the areas of self-reflection through the written content of four university students’ blogs. The study was undertaken to explore the categories of self-reflection in relation to the use of blogs. Data collection methods included downloading students’ blog entries and recording individual interviews to further support the data. Data was analyzed using computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, Nvivo, to categories and code the data. The categories of self-reflection revealed in the findings showed that university students used blogs to reflect on (1) life in varsity, (2) emotions and feelings, (3) various relationships, (4) personal growth, (5) spirituality, (6) health conditions, (7) busyness with daily chores, (8) gifts for people and themselves and (9) personal interests. Overall, all four of the students had positive experiences and felt satisfied using blogs for self-reflection.

Keywords: Blogging, personal growth, self-reflection, university students.

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1241 Solid Circulation Rate and Gas Leakage Measurements in an Interconnected Bubbling Fluidized Beds

Authors: Ho-Jung Ryu, Seung-Yong Lee, Young Cheol Park, Moon-Hee Park

Abstract:

Two-interconnected fluidized bed systems are widely used in various processes such as Fisher-Tropsch, hot gas desulfurization, CO2 capture-regeneration with dry sorbent, chemical-looping combustion, sorption enhanced steam methane reforming, chemical-looping hydrogen generation system, and so on. However, most of two-interconnected fluidized beds systems require riser and/or pneumatic transport line for solid conveying and loopseals or seal-pots for gas sealing, recirculation of solids to the riser, and maintaining of pressure balance. The riser (transport bed) is operated at the high velocity fluidization condition and residence times of gas and solid in the riser are very short. If the reaction rate of catalyst or sorbent is slow, the riser can not ensure sufficient contact time between gas and solid and we have to use two bubbling beds for each reaction to ensure sufficient contact time. In this case, additional riser must be installed for solid circulation. Consequently, conventional two-interconnected fluidized bed systems are very complex, large, and difficult to operate. To solve these problems, a novel two-interconnected fluidized bed system has been developed. This system has two bubbling beds, solid injection nozzles, solid conveying lines, and downcomers. In this study, effects of operating variables on solid circulation rate, gas leakage between two beds have been investigated in a cold mode two-interconnected fluidized bed system. Moreover, long-term operation of continuous solid circulation up to 60 hours has been performed to check feasibility of stable operation.

Keywords: Fluidized bed, Gas leakage, Long-term operation, Solid circulation.

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1240 Improved Neutron Leakage Treatment on Nodal Expansion Method for PWR Reactors

Authors: Antonio Carlos Marques Alvim, Fernando Carvalho da Silva, Aquilino Senra Martinez

Abstract:

For a quick and accurate calculation of spatial neutron distribution in nuclear power reactors 3D nodal codes are usually used aiming at solving the neutron diffusion equation for a given reactor core geometry and material composition. These codes use a second order polynomial to represent the transverse leakage term. In this work, a nodal method based on the well known nodal expansion method (NEM), developed at COPPE, making use of this polynomial expansion was modified to treat the transverse leakage term for the external surfaces of peripheral reflector nodes. The proposed method was implemented into a computational system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the effectiveness of this modified treatment of peripheral nodes for practical purposes in PWR reactors.

Keywords: Transverse leakage, nodal expansion method, power density, PWR reactors

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1239 Internal Leakage Analysis from Pd to Pc Port Direction in ECV Body Used in External Variable Type A/C Compressor

Authors: Md. Iqbal Mahmud, Haeng Muk Cho, Seo Hyun Sang, Wang Wen Hai, Chang Heon Yi, Man Ik Hwang, Dae Hoon Kang

Abstract:

Solenoid operated electromagnetic control valve (ECV) playing an important role for car’s air conditioning control system. ECV is used in external variable displacement swash plate type compressor and controls the entire air conditioning system by means of a pulse width modulation (PWM) input signal supplying from an external source (controller). Complete form of ECV contains number of internal features like valve body, core, valve guide, plunger, guide pin, plunger spring, bellows etc. While designing the ECV; dimensions of different internal items must meet the standard requirements as it is quite challenging. In this research paper, especially the dimensioning of ECV body and its three pressure ports through which the air/refrigerant passes are considered. Here internal leakage test analysis of ECV body is being carried out from its discharge port (Pd) to crankcase port (Pc) when the guide valve is placed inside it. The experiments have made both in ordinary and digital system using different assumptions and thereafter compare the results.

Keywords: Electromagnetic control valve (ECV), Leakage, Pressure port, Valve body, Valve guide.

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1238 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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1237 The Problem of Power and Management in the Information Society

Authors: Shattyk Aliyev, Zhakypbek Altayev, Pirimbek Suleimenov, Asset Kuranbek, Zhamila Amirkulova

Abstract:

Modern civilization has come in recent decades into a new phase in its development, called the information society. The concept of "information society" has become one of the most common. Therefore, the attempt to understand what exactly the society we live in, what are its essential features, and possible future scenarios, is important to the social and philosophical analysis. At the heart of all these deep transformations is more increasing, almost defining role knowledge and information as play substrata of «information society». The mankind opened for itself and actively exploits a new resource – information. Information society puts forward on the arena new type of the power, at the heart of which activity – mastering by a new resource: information and knowledge. The password of the new power – intelligence as synthesis of knowledge, information and communications, the strength of mind, fundamental sociocultural values. In a postindustrial society, the power of knowledge and information is crucial in the management of the company, pushing into the background the influence of money and state coercion.

Keywords: Information society, philosophy of power, management, globalization and innovation.

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1236 An Experiment on Personal Archiving and Retrieving Image System (PARIS)

Authors: Pei-Jeng Kuo, Terumasa Aoki, Hiroshi Yasuda

Abstract:

PARIS (Personal Archiving and Retrieving Image System) is an experiment personal photograph library, which includes more than 80,000 of consumer photographs accumulated within a duration of approximately five years, metadata based on our proposed MPEG-7 annotation architecture, Dozen Dimensional Digital Content (DDDC), and a relational database structure. The DDDC architecture is specially designed for facilitating the managing, browsing and retrieving of personal digital photograph collections. In annotating process, we also utilize a proposed Spatial and Temporal Ontology (STO) designed based on the general characteristic of personal photograph collections. This paper explains PRAIS system.

Keywords: Ontology, Databases and Information Retrieval, MPEG-7, Spatial-Temporal, Digital Library Designs l, metadata, Semantic Web, semi-automatic annotation

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1235 Terrorism's Fear : Perceived Personal and National Threats

Authors: Gioacchino Lavanco, Floriana Romano, Anna Milio

Abstract:

Terrorism represents an unexpected and unwanted change which challenges one-s social identity. We carried out a study to explore the demographic variables- role on the perception of personal and national threat, and to investigate the effects of perceived terrorist threat on people-s ways of life, moods, opinions and hopes. 313 residents of Palermo (Italy) were interviewed. The results pointed out that the fear of terrorism affects three areas: the cognitive, the emotional and the behavioural one.

Keywords: Disaster, national threat, personal threat, terrorism.

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1234 Realization of Sustainable Urban Society by Personal Electric Transporter and Natural Energy

Authors: Yuichi Miyamoto

Abstract:

In regards to the energy sector in the modern period, two points were raised. First is a vast and growing energy demand, and second is an environmental impact associated with it. The enormous consumption of fossil fuel to the mobile unit is leading to its rapid depletion. Nuclear power is not the only problem. A modal shift that utilizes personal transporters and independent power, in order to realize a sustainable society, is very effective. The author proposes that the world will continue to work on this. Energy of the future society, innovation in battery technology and the use of natural energy is a big key. And it is also necessary in order to save on energy consumption.

Keywords: Natural energy, Modal shift, Personal transporter, Battery.

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1233 A Power-Gating Scheme to Reduce Leakage Power for P-type Adiabatic Logic Circuits

Authors: Hong Li, Linfeng Li, Jianping Hu

Abstract:

With rapid technology scaling, the proportion of the static power consumption catches up with dynamic power consumption gradually. To decrease leakage consumption is becoming more and more important in low-power design. This paper presents a power-gating scheme for P-DTGAL (p-type dual transmission gate adiabatic logic) circuits to reduce leakage power dissipations under deep submicron process. The energy dissipations of P-DTGAL circuits with power-gating scheme are investigated in different processes, frequencies and active ratios. BSIM4 model is adopted to reflect the characteristics of the leakage currents. HSPICE simulations show that the leakage loss is greatly reduced by using the P-DTGAL with power-gating techniques.

Keywords: Leakage reduction, low power, deep submicronCMOS circuits, P-type adiabatic circuits.

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1232 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: End effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor.

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1231 Secure Secret Recovery by using Weighted Personal Entropy

Authors: Leau Y. B., Dinna Nina M. N., Habeeb S. A. H., Jetol B.

Abstract:

Authentication plays a vital role in many secure systems. Most of these systems require user to log in with his or her secret password or pass phrase before entering it. This is to ensure all the valuables information is kept confidential guaranteeing also its integrity and availability. However, to achieve this goal, users are required to memorize high entropy passwords or pass phrases. Unfortunately, this sometimes causes difficulty for user to remember meaningless strings of data. This paper presents a new scheme which assigns a weight to each personal question given to the user in revealing the encrypted secrets or password. Concentration of this scheme is to offer fault tolerance to users by allowing them to forget the specific password to a subset of questions and still recover the secret and achieve successful authentication. Comparison on level of security for weight-based and weightless secret recovery scheme is also discussed. The paper concludes with the few areas that requires more investigation in this research.

Keywords: Secret Recovery, Personal Entropy, Cryptography, Secret Sharing and Key Management.

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1230 Effective Personal Knowledge Management: A Proposed Online Framework

Authors: Shahrinaz Ismail, Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical framework for an effective online personal knowledge management (PKM) of knowledge workers. The development of this framework is prompted by our qualitative research on the PKM processes and cognitive enablers of knowledge workers in eight organisations selected from three main industries in Malaysia. This multiple-case research identifies the relationships between the effectiveness of four online PKM processes: get/retrieve, understand/analyse, share, and connect. It also establishes the importance of cognitive enablers that mediate this relationship, namely, method, identify, decide and drive. Qualitative analysis is presented as the findings, supported by the preceded quantitative analysis on an exploratory questionnaire survey.

Keywords: Bottom-up approach, knowledge organisation, organisational knowledge management, personal knowledge management, software agent technology.

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1229 Transformation of the Business Model in an Occupational Health Care Company Embedded in an Emerging Personal Data Ecosystem: A Case Study in Finland

Authors: Tero Huhtala, Minna Pikkarainen, Saila Saraniemi

Abstract:

Information technology has long been used as an enabler of exchange for goods and services. Services are evolving from generic to personalized, and the reverse use of customer data has been discussed in both academia and industry for the past few years. This article presents the results of an empirical case study in the area of preventive health care services. The primary data were gathered in workshops, in which future personal data-based services were conceptualized by analyzing future scenarios from a business perspective. The aim of this study is to understand business model transformation in emerging personal data ecosystems. The work was done as a case study in the context of occupational healthcare. The results have implications to theory and practice, indicating that adopting personal data management principles requires transformation of the business model, which, if successfully managed, may provide access to more resources, potential to offer better value, and additional customer channels. These advantages correlate with the broadening of the business ecosystem. Expanding the scope of this study to include more actors would improve the validity of the research. The results draw from existing literature and are based on findings from a case study and the economic properties of the healthcare industry in Finland.

Keywords: Ecosystem, business model, personal data, preventive healthcare.

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