Search results for: perturb and observe
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 225

Search results for: perturb and observe

225 Comparative Study of IC and Perturb and Observe Method of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.

Keywords: Incremental conductance Algorithm, Perturb and Observe Algorithm, Photovoltaic System and Simulation Results.

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224 Implementation of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module with IC and P&O Method

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of renewable energy resources instead of pollutant fossil fuels and other forms has increased. Photovoltaic generation is becoming increasingly important as a renewable resource since it does not cause in fuel costs, pollution, maintenance, and emitting noise compared with other alternatives used in power applications. In this paper, Perturb and Observe and Incremental Conductance methods are used to improve energy conversion efficiency under different environmental conditions. PI controllers are used to control easily DC-link voltage, active and reactive currents. The whole system is simulated under standard climatic conditions (1000 W/m2, 250C) in MATLAB and the irradiance is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 300 W/m2. The use of PI controller makes it easy to directly control the power of the grid connected PV system. Finally the validity of the system will be verified through the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Incremental conductance algorithm, modeling of PV panel, perturb and observe algorithm, photovoltaic system and simulation results.

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223 Comparison between the Conventional Methods and PSO Based MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Ramdan B. A. Koad, Ahmed. F. Zobaa

Abstract:

Since the output characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) system depends on the ambient temperature, solar radiation and load impedance, its maximum power point (MPP) is not constant. Under each condition PV module has a point at which it can produce its MPP. Therefore, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is needed to uphold the PV panel operating at its MPP. This paper presents comparative study between the conventional MPPT methods used in (PV) system: Perturb and Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IncCond), andParticle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithmfor (MPPT) of (PV) system. To evaluate the study, the proposed PSO MPPT is implemented on a DC-DC cuk converter and has been compared with P&O and INcond methods in terms of their tracking speed, accuracy and performance by using the Matlab tool Simulink. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm is simple, and is superior to the P&O and IncCond methods.

Keywords: Incremental Conductance (IncCond) Method, Perturb and Observe (P&O) Method, Photovoltaic Systems (PV) and Practical Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSO).

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222 Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Zahzouh Zoubir, Bouzaouit Azzeddine, Gahgah Mounir

Abstract:

The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.

Keywords: MPPT, active power filter, PV array, perturb and observe algorithm, PWM-control.

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221 Energy Management System in HEV Using PI Controller

Authors: S. Saravanan, G. Sugumaran

Abstract:

Nowadays the use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing dramatically. The HEV is mainly dependent on electricity and there is always a need for storage of charge. Fuel Cell (FC), Batteries and Ultra Capacitor are being used for the proposed HEV as an electric power source or as an energy storage unit. The aim of developing an energy management technique is to utilize the sources according to the requirement of the vehicle with help of controller. This increases the efficiency of hybrid electric vehicle to reduce the fuel consumption and unwanted emission. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) in FC is done using (Perturb & Observe) algorithm. In this paper, the control of automobiles at variable speed is achieved effectively.

Keywords: Batteries, Energy Management System (EMS), Fuel Cell (FC), Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).

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220 Modeling and Design of MPPT Controller Using Stepped P&O Algorithm in Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: R. Prakash, B. Meenakshipriya, R. Kumaravelan

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV) system by using improved mathematical model. The model is used to study different parameter variations and effects on the PV array including operating temperature and solar irradiation level. In this paper stepped P&O algorithm is proposed for MPPT control. This algorithm will identify the suitable duty ratio in which the DC-DC converter should be operated to maximize the power output. Photo voltaic array with proposed stepped P&O-MPPT controller can operate in the maximum power point for the whole range of solar data (irradiance and temperature).

Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV), Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), Boost converter, Stepped Perturb & Observe method (Stepped P&O).

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219 Bipolar PWM and LCL Filter Configuration to Reduce Leakage Currents in Transformerless PV System Connected to Utility Grid

Authors: Shanmuka Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper  presents PV system without considering transformer connected to electric grid. This is considered more economic compared to present PV system. The problem that occurs when transformer is not considered appears with a leakage current near capacitor connected to ground. Bipolar Pulse Width Modulation (BPWM) technique along with filter L-C-L configuration in the circuit is modeled to shrink the leakage current in the circuit. The DC/AC inverter is modeled using H-bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module which is controlled using proposed Bipolar PWM control technique. To extract maximum power, Maximum Power Point Technique (MPPT) controller is used in this model. Voltage and current regulators are used to determine the reference voltage for the inverter from active and reactive current where reactive current is set to zero. The PLL is modeled to synchronize the measurements. The model is designed with MATLAB Simulation blocks and compared with the methods available in literature survey to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, PV, pulse width modulation, PWM, perturb and observe, phase locked loop.

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218 Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism: Proposal for Environmental and Sociocultural Indicators

Authors: Miguel José Oliveira, Fátima Farinha, Elisa M. J. da Silva, Rui Lança, Manuel Duarte Pinheiro, Cátia Miguel

Abstract:

The Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism (OBSERVE) will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of this region. The OBSERVE tool is designed to provide data and maintain an up-to-date, consistent set of indicators defined to describe the region on the environmental, sociocultural, economic and institutional domains. This ongoing two-year project has the active participation of the Algarve’s stakeholders, since they were consulted and asked to participate in the discussion for the indicators proposal. The environmental and sociocultural indicators chosen must indicate the characteristics of the region and should be in alignment with other global systems used to monitor the sustainability. This paper presents a review of sustainability indicators systems that support the first proposal for the environmental and sociocultural indicators. Others constraints are discussed, namely the existing data and the data available in digital platforms in a format suitable for automatic importation to the platform of OBSERVE. It is intended that OBSERVE will be a valuable tool to assess the sustainability of the region of Algarve.

Keywords: Sustainability, observatory, environmental indicators, sociocultural indicators, development, tourism, Algarve.

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217 The Employee's Right to Observe the Religious Worship Day: Position of the Portuguese Constitutional Court

Authors: Susana Sousa Machado

Abstract:

The present article seeks to carry out along the lines of interpretation of the recent Portuguese Constitutional Court case law on the possibility of an employee to observe a worship day imposed by religious beliefs. In this approach to the question, considerations on the subject of the relationship between religious freedom and labour relations will inevitably arise. We intend to draw conclusions of practical application from the court decisions on the matter of freedom of religion.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion, Religion Beliefs, Workplace, Worship Day.

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216 Numerical Evaluation of Turbulent Friction on Walls in the Penstock of the Trois-Gorges Dam by the Swamee-Jain Method

Authors: T. Tchawe Moukam, N. Ngongang François, D. Thomas, K. Bienvenu, T. -Toko Dénis

Abstract:

Since the expression of the coefficient of friction by Colebrook-White which turns out to be an implicit equation, equations have been developed to facilitate their applicability. In this work, this equation was applied to the penstock of the Three Gorges dam in order to observe the evolution of the turbulent boundary layer and the friction along the walls. Thus, the study is being carried out using a 3D digital approach in FLUENT in order to take into account the wall effects. It appears that according to the position of the portions, we have a variation in the evolutions of the turbulent friction and of the values of the boundary layer. We also observe that the inclination of the pipe has a significant influence on this turbulent friction; similarly, one could not make a fair evaluation of the latter without specifying the choice and location of the wall.

Keywords: Hydroelectric dam, penstock, turbulent friction, boundary layer, CFD.

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215 Why Developing Countries Are Lesser Innovators

Authors: Abdul Waheed

Abstract:

In this paper, we observe that developed countries are generally equipped with innovation capabilities and produce major chunk of the world-s knowledge and technology. The contribution of developing countries, on the other hand, is insignificant, and most of them far behind the global technological front. More specifically, we empirically observe that the developing world neither contributes substantially to the world-s scientific publications nor to the R&D activities. They also have lesser “absorptive capacity" and “technological capability", and their “innovation systems" are plagued with many problems. Finally, we argue that these countries can break the shackles and improve their innovation capabilities by pursuing genuine innovation policies on long-term basis with honesty and commitment.

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, Developing countries, Scientific publications, Technological capability

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214 Stagnation in Brownfield Redevelopment

Authors: B. Glumac, Q. Han, W. Schaefer

Abstract:

Purpose of this paper is two-folded. At first it explains the major problems that are causing stagnation in brownfield redevelopment. In addition, these problems given the context of the present multi-actor built environment are becoming more complex to observe. Therefore, this paper suggests also a prospective decisionmaking approach that is the most appropriate to observe and react on the given stagnation problems. Such an approach should be regarded as prescriptive-interactive decision-making approach, a barely established branch. This approach should offer models that have prescriptive as well as an interactive component enabling them to successfully cope with the multi-actor environment. Overall, this paper provides up-to-date insight on the brownfield stagnation by gradually introducing the nowadays major problems and offers a prospective decision-making approach how these problems could be tackled.

Keywords: BR, decision-making approach, stagnation, the Netherlands.

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213 Using Information Theory to Observe Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Limei Li, Yanming Pearl Zhang

Abstract:

This paper takes a philosophical view as axiom, and reveals the relationship between information theory and Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence under real world conditions. This paper also derives the relationship between natural intelligence and nature. According to communication principle of information theory, Natural Intelligence can be divided into real part and virtual part. Based on information theory principle that Information does not increase, the restriction mechanism of Natural Intelligence creativity is conducted. The restriction mechanism of creativity reveals the limit of natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. The paper provides a new angle to observe natural intelligence and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: Natural intelligence, artificial intelligence, creativity, information theory.

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212 Analytical Investigation of the Effects of a Standing Ocean Wave in a Wave-Power Device OWC

Authors: E.G. Bautista, F. Méndez, O. Bautista, J.C. Arcos

Abstract:

In this work we study analytically and numerically the performance of the mean heave motion of an OWC coupled with the governing equation of the spreading ocean waves due to the wide variation in an open parabolic channel with constant depth. This paper considers that the ocean wave propagation is under the assumption of a shallow flow condition. In order to verify the effect of the waves in the OWC firstly we establish the analytical model in a non-dimensional form based on the energy equation. The proposed wave-power system has to aims: one is to perturb the ocean waves as a consequence of the channel shape in order to concentrate the maximum ocean wave amplitude in the neighborhood of the OWC and the second is to determine the pressure and volume oscillation of air inside the compression chamber.

Keywords: Oscillating water column, Shallow flow, Waveenergy.

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211 A Grid Synchronization Method Based on Adaptive Notch Filter for SPV System with Modified MPPT

Authors: Priyanka Chaudhary, M. Rizwan

Abstract:

This paper presents a grid synchronization technique based on adaptive notch filter for SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system along with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) techniques. An efficient grid synchronization technique offers proficient detection of various components of grid signal like phase and frequency. It also acts as a barrier for harmonics and other disturbances in grid signal. A reference phase signal synchronized with the grid voltage is provided by the grid synchronization technique to standardize the system with grid codes and power quality standards. Hence, grid synchronization unit plays important role for grid connected SPV systems. As the output of the PV array is fluctuating in nature with the meteorological parameters like irradiance, temperature, wind etc. In order to maintain a constant DC voltage at VSC (Voltage Source Converter) input, MPPT control is required to track the maximum power point from PV array. In this work, a variable step size P & O (Perturb and Observe) MPPT technique with DC/DC boost converter has been used at first stage of the system. This algorithm divides the dPpv/dVpv curve of PV panel into three separate zones i.e. zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. A fine value of tracking step size is used in zone 0 while zone 1 and zone 2 requires a large value of step size in order to obtain a high tracking speed. Further, adaptive notch filter based control technique is proposed for VSC in PV generation system. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) approach is used to synchronize the interfaced PV system with grid to maintain the amplitude, phase and frequency parameters as well as power quality improvement. This technique offers the compensation of harmonics current and reactive power with both linear and nonlinear loads. To maintain constant DC link voltage a PI controller is also implemented and presented in this paper. The complete system has been designed, developed and simulated using SimPower System and Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. The performance analysis of three phase grid connected solar photovoltaic system has been carried out on the basis of various parameters like PV output power, PV voltage, PV current, DC link voltage, PCC (Point of Common Coupling) voltage, grid voltage, grid current, voltage source converter current, power supplied by the voltage source converter etc. The results obtained from the proposed system are found satisfactory.

Keywords: Solar photovoltaic systems, MPPT, voltage source converter, grid synchronization technique.

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210 Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Moisture Susceptibility and Creep in HMA

Authors: Haider H. Aodah, Yassir Nashaat A. Kareem, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

The present study explains the effect of aggregate gradation on moisture damage in bituminous mixes. Three types of aggregate gradation and two types of binder; VG-30 and Polymer modified bitumen (PMB-40) are used. Moisture susceptibility tests like retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) and static creep test are conducted on Marshall specimens. The creep test was also conducted for conditioned and unconditioned specimens to observe the effect of moisture on creep behaviour. The results indicate that Marshall stability value is higher in PMB-40 mix than VG-30 mixes. Moisture susceptibility of PMB-40 mixes is low when compared with mix using VG-30. The reduction in retained stability, and indirect tensile strength and increase in creep are evaluated for finer, coarser and normal gradation of aggregate to observe the effect of gradation on moisture susceptibility of mixes. The retained stability is least affected when compared with other moisture susceptibility parameters

Keywords: Aggregate gradation, Creep ratio, Retained stability, Stripping, Tensile strength ratio.

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209 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan

Abstract:

Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb.

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208 Evaluation of Thrombolytic Activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Thai Herbal Prasaplai Formula

Authors: Warachate Khobjai, Suriyan Sukati, Khemjira Jarmkom, Pattaranut Eakwaropas, Surachai Techaoei

Abstract:

The propose of this study was to investigate in vitro thrombolytic activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai, a Thai herbal formulation of Z. cassumunar Roxb. Herbs were extracted with boiling water and concentrated by lyophilization. To observe their thrombolytic potential, an in vitro clot lysis method was applied where streptokinase and sterile distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts from Z. cassumunar Roxb. and Prasaplai formula showed significant thrombolytic activity by clot lysis of 17.90% and 25.21%, respectively, compared to the negative control water (5.16%) while the standard streptokinase revealed 64.78% clot lysis. These findings suggest that Z. cassumunar Roxb. exhibits moderate thrombolytic activity and cloud play an important role in the thrombolytic properties of Prasaplai formula. However, further study should be done to observe in vivo clot dissolving potential and to isolate active component(s) of these extracts.

Keywords: Aqueous extract, prasaplai formula, thrombolytic activity, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

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207 Eye Gesture Analysis with Head Movement for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

Authors: Siti Nor Hafizah bt Mohd Zaid, Mohamed Abdel Maguid, Abdel Hamid Soliman

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents are a major cause of death worldwide. In an attempt to reduce accidents, some research efforts have focused on creating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) able to detect vehicle, driver and environmental conditions and to use this information to identify cues for potential accidents. This paper presents continued work on a novel Non-intrusive Intelligent Driver Assistance and Safety System (Ni-DASS) for assessing driver point of regard within vehicles. It uses an on-board CCD camera to observe the driver-s face. A template matching approach is used to compare the driver-s eye-gaze pattern with a set of eye-gesture templates of the driver looking at different focal points within the vehicle. The windscreen is divided into cells and comparison of the driver-s eye-gaze pattern with templates of a driver-s eyes looking at each cell is used to determine the driver-s point of regard on the windscreen. Results indicate that the proposed technique could be useful in situations where low resolution estimates of driver point of regard are adequate. For instance, To allow ADAS systems to alert the driver if he/she has positively failed to observe a hazard.

Keywords: Head rotation, Eye-gestures, Windscreen, Template matching.

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206 Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

Authors: P. Selvam, S. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit complexities present in the conventional perturb and observation and incremental conductance methods respectively. Hence, in this paper, FLC is proposed for tracking exact MPPT of solar PV power generation system under varying solar irradiation conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed FLC-based MPPT controller is validated through simulation and analysis using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaic.

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205 Alternative Methods to Rank the Impact of Object Oriented Metrics in Fault Prediction Modeling using Neural Networks

Authors: Kamaldeep Kaur, Arvinder Kaur, Ruchika Malhotra

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to rank the impact of Object Oriented(OO) metrics in fault prediction modeling using Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs). Past studies on empirical validation of object oriented metrics as fault predictors using ANNs have focused on the predictive quality of neural networks versus standard statistical techniques. In this empirical study we turn our attention to the capability of ANNs in ranking the impact of these explanatory metrics on fault proneness. In ANNs data analysis approach, there is no clear method of ranking the impact of individual metrics. Five ANN based techniques are studied which rank object oriented metrics in predicting fault proneness of classes. These techniques are i) overall connection weights method ii) Garson-s method iii) The partial derivatives methods iv) The Input Perturb method v) the classical stepwise methods. We develop and evaluate different prediction models based on the ranking of the metrics by the individual techniques. The models based on overall connection weights and partial derivatives methods have been found to be most accurate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS), Backpropagation, Fault Prediction Modeling.

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204 Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor Convection of Newtonian Nanoliquid

Authors: P. G. Siddheshwar, T. N. Sakshath

Abstract:

In the paper we make linear and non-linear stability analyses of Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a Newtonian nanoliquid in a rotating medium (called as Rayleigh-Bénard-Taylor convection). Rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries are considered for investigation. Khanafer-Vafai-Lightstone single phase model is used for studying instabilities in nanoliquids. Various thermophysical properties of nanoliquid are obtained using phenomenological laws and mixture theory. The eigen boundary value problem is solved for the Rayleigh number using an analytical method by considering trigonometric eigen functions. We observe that the critical nanoliquid Rayleigh number is less than that of the base liquid. Thus the onset of convection is advanced due to the addition of nanoparticles. So, increase in volume fraction leads to advanced onset and thereby increase in heat transport. The amplitudes of convective modes required for estimating the heat transport are determined analytically. The tri-modal standard Lorenz model is derived for the steady state assuming small scale convective motions. The effect of rotation on the onset of convection and on heat transport is investigated and depicted graphically. It is observed that the onset of convection is delayed due to rotation and hence leads to decrease in heat transport. Hence, rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. This is due to the fact that the energy of the system is used to create the component V. We observe that the amount of heat transport is less in the case of rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries compared to free-free isothermal boundaries.

Keywords: Nanoliquid, rigid-rigid, rotation, single-phase.

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203 Self-Healing Phenomenon Evaluation in Cementitious Matrix with Different Water/Cement Ratios and Crack Opening Age

Authors: V. G. Cappellesso, D. M. G. da Silva, J. A. Arndt, N. dos Santos Petry, A. B. Masuero, D. C. C. Dal Molin

Abstract:

Concrete elements are subject to cracking, which can be an access point for deleterious agents that can trigger pathological manifestations reducing the service life of these structures. Finding ways to minimize or eliminate the effects of this aggressive agents’ penetration, such as the sealing of these cracks, is a manner of contributing to the durability of these structures. The cementitious self-healing phenomenon can be classified in two different processes. The autogenous self-healing that can be defined as a natural process in which the sealing of this cracks occurs without the stimulation of external agents, meaning, without different materials being added to the mixture, while on the other hand, the autonomous seal-healing phenomenon depends on the insertion of a specific engineered material added to the cement matrix in order to promote its recovery. This work aims to evaluate the autogenous self-healing of concretes produced with different water/cement ratios and exposed to wet/dry cycles, considering two ages of crack openings, 3 days and 28 days. The self-healing phenomenon was evaluated using two techniques: crack healing measurement using ultrasonic waves and image analysis performed with an optical microscope. It is possible to observe that by both methods, it possible to observe the self-healing phenomenon of the cracks. For young ages of crack openings and lower water/cement ratios, the self-healing capacity is higher when compared to advanced ages of crack openings and higher water/cement ratios. Regardless of the crack opening age, these concretes were found to stabilize the self-healing processes after 80 days or 90 days.

Keywords: Self-healing, autogenous, water/cement ratio, curing cycles, test methods.

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202 An Improved Design of Area Efficient Two Bit Comparator

Authors: Shashank Gautam, Pramod Sharma

Abstract:

In present era, development of digital circuits, signal processors and other integrated circuits, magnitude comparators are challenged by large area and more power consumption. Comparator is most basic circuit that performs comparison. This paper presents a technique to design a two bit comparator which consumes less area and power. DSCH and MICROWIND version 3 are used to design the schematic and design the layout of the schematic, observe the performance parameters at different nanometer technologies respectively.

Keywords: Chip design, consumed power, layout area, two bit comparator.

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201 The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Consumer Behaviour: Reviewing Recent Research

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, advanced imaging techniques began to be applied for neuroscience research. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is one of the most important and most used research techniques for the investigation of emotions, because of its ease to observe the brain areas that oxygenate when performing certain tasks. In this research, we make a review about the main research carried out on the influence of the emotions in the decision-making process that is exposed by using the fMRI.

Keywords: Decision making, emotions, fMRI.

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200 AudioMine: Medical Data Mining in Heterogeneous Audiology Records

Authors: Shaun Cox, Michael Oakes, Stefan Wermter, Maurice Hawthorne

Abstract:

We report on the results of a pilot study in which a data-mining tool was developed for mining audiology records. The records were heterogeneous in that they contained numeric, category and textual data. The tools developed are designed to observe associations between any field in the records and any other field. The techniques employed were the statistical chi-squared test, and the use of self-organizing maps, an unsupervised neural learning approach.

Keywords: Audiology, data mining, chi-squared, self-organizing maps

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199 Detecting Community Structure in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

Authors: Omar GACI, Stefan BALEV, Antoine DUTOT

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce the notion of protein interaction network. This is a graph whose vertices are the protein-s amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Using a graph theory approach, we observe that according to their structural roles, the nodes interact differently. By leading a community structure detection, we confirm this specific behavior and describe thecommunities composition to finally propose a new approach to fold a protein interaction network.

Keywords: interaction network, protein structure, community structure detection.

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198 Semantic Web as an Enabling Technology for Better e-Services Addoption

Authors: Luka Pavlič, Marjan Heričko

Abstract:

E-services have significantly changed the way of doing business in recent years. We can, however, observe poor use of these services. There is a large gap between supply and actual eservices usage. This is why we started a project to provide an environment that will encourage the use of e-services. We believe that only providing e-service does not automatically mean consumers would use them. This paper shows the origins of our project and its current position. We discuss the decision of using semantic web technologies and their potential to improve e-services usage. We also present current knowledge base and its real-world classification. In the paper, we discuss further work to be done in the project. Current state of the project is promising.

Keywords: E-Services, E-Services Repository, Ontologies, Semantic Web

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197 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump

Abstract:

This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: Centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope.

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196 Fuzzy Set Approach to Study Appositives and Its Impact Due to Positional Alterations

Authors: E. Mike Dison, T. Pathinathan

Abstract:

Computing with Words (CWW) and Possibilistic Relational Universal Fuzzy (PRUF) are the two concepts which widely represent and measure the vaguely defined natural phenomenon. In this paper, we study the positional alteration of the phrases by which the impact of a natural language proposition gets affected and/or modified. We observe the gradations due to sensitivity/feeling of a statement towards the positional alterations. We derive the classification and modification of the meaning of words due to the positional alteration. We present the results with reference to set theoretic interpretations.

Keywords: Appositive, computing with words, PRUF, semantic sentiment analysis, set theoretic interpretations.

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