Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1407

Search results for: younger middle age

1407 Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis of Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Younger Middle Aged Patient

Authors: Robert Krause

Abstract:

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease similar to frontotemporal and semantic dementia, while having a different clinical image and anatomic pathology topography. Nonetheless, they are often included under an umbrella term: frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In the study, examples of diagnosing PPA are presented through the multidisciplinary lens of specialists from different fields (neurologists, psychiatrists, clinical speech therapists, clinical neuropsychologists and others) using a variety of diagnostic tools such as MR, PET/CT, genetic screening and neuropsychological and logopedic methods. Thanks to that, specialists can get a better and clearer understanding of PPA diagnosis. The study summarizes the concrete procedures and results of different specialists while diagnosing PPA in a patient of younger middle age and illustrates the importance of multidisciplinary approach to differential diagnosis of PPA.

Keywords: primary progressive aphasia, etiology, diagnosis, younger middle age

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1406 Views of Middle-Aged Women in Malaysia towards Menopause: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Hamizah Sulaiman

Abstract:

Introduction: Old age is commonly link with menopause among women. The main purpose of this study is to explore the views of middle-aged women and its association with menopause. Methods: Qualitative interviews in the form of focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among women aged between 35 and 59 years old living in urban localities in two different states in Malaysia. Selection of respondents were conducted using the maximum variation sampling, focussing on five age categories which are between 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54 and 55 to 59 years old. Each FGD involved 5 to 7 respondents and lasted for 1 to 2 hours each. The content of the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim after each interview before the next focus group discussion is conducted. Field notes of reflexive observations were recorded by the rapporteur. Individual transcripts were analysed using standard methods of qualitative thematic analysis. The material was read through twice and later coded. The codes were further collapsed into several key themes related to perceptions towards menopause among the respondents. Results: A total number of 36 middle-aged women were consented for the interviews. The contents of the interviews revealed that younger women tend to associate menopause with being old, which were dominated by the younger aged categories of less than 50 years old. Majority of the respondents linked menopause with end of woman’s reproductive capacity or inability to give birth, lethargic or endless feeling of tiredness and insomnia, emotional instability or having more sensitive feelings and also the beginning of many health problems such as osteoarthritis which they perceived very synonyms with being old. Conclusion: The findings of this study indirectly reflect the negative views towards menopause among the middle-aged women in Malaysia. Being residents in the urban areas equipped with advanced technology and health information, do not exclude them from having negative views about menopause. However, this is a qualitative study which only focussing on age ranges, regardless of their socioeconomic and demographic background, which make further studies on related issues are necessaries. The fact that it was a qualitative interview, the findings could not be generalised and only specific to the targeted population.

Keywords: Menopause, Middle-aged women, old, Malaysia

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1405 The Role of Middle Class in Forming of Consumption Habits of Market Institutions among Kazakh Households in Transition Period

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov, Elmira Otar

Abstract:

Market institutions extension within transit societies contributes to constituting the new type of middle class and households livelihood strategies. The middle class households as an example of prosperity in many cases encourage the ordinary ones to do the same economic actions. Therefore, practices of using market institutions by middle class households in transit societies, which are mostly characterized by huge influence of traditional attitudes, can carry habitual features for the whole society. Market institutions consumption habit of the middle class households makes them trendsetters of economic habits of other households while adapting to the market economy. Moreover different social-economic positions of households lead them to different consuming results such as worsening or improving household economy due to indebtedness.

Keywords: middle class, households, market institutions, transition

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1404 Ex-Post Export Data for Differentiated Products Revealing the Existence of Productcycles

Authors: Ranajoy Bhattcharyya

Abstract:

We estimate international product cycles as shifting product spaces by using 1976 to 2010 UN Comtrade data on all differentiated tradable products in all countries. We use a product space approach to identify the representative product baskets of high-, middle and low-income countries and then use these baskets to identify the patterns of change in comparative advantage of countries over time. We find evidence of a product cycle in two senses: First, high-, middle- and low-income countries differ in comparative advantage, and high-income products migrate to the middle-income basket. A similar pattern is observed for middle- and low-income countries. Our estimation of the lag shows that middle-income countries tend to quickly take up the products of high-income countries, but low-income countries take a longer time absorbing these products. Thus, the gap between low- and middle-income countries is considerably higher than that between middle- and high-income nations.

Keywords: product cycle, comparative advantage, representative product basket, ex-post data

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1403 China's Middle East Policy and the Competition with the United States

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on China’s policy in the Middle East and the rivalry with the U.S. The question is that what are the main factors on China’s Middle East policy and its competition with the U.S? The hypothesis regards to three effective factors: 'China’s energy dependency' on the Middle East, 'economy' and support for 'stability' in the Middle East. What is important in China’s competition with the U.S regarding to its Middle East policy is the substantial difference in ways of treating the countries of the region; China is committed to Westphalia model based on non-interference in internal affairs of the countries and respect the sovereignty of the governments. However, after 9/11, the U.S is seeking a balance between stability and change through intervention in the international affairs and in some cases is looking for a regime change. From the other hand, China, due to its dependency on the region’s energy welcomes America’s military presence in the region for providing stability. The authors by using a descriptive analytical method try to explain the situation of rivalry between China and the United States in Middle East. China is an 'emerging power' with high economic growth and in demand of more energy supply. The problem is that a rising power in the region is often a source of concern for hegemony.

Keywords: China's foreign policy, energy, hegemony, the Middle East

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1402 Middle Management Practices and Leadership in Higher Education, Comparative Case Studies of Two Selected Post-1992 UK Universities

Authors: Thouraya Eshami

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The aim of this study is to understand, interpret and describe the dynamics of the management and leadership practices with its diverse constituents within the middle management cadre in two selected post-1992 UK universities. The information will be gleaned from interviews conducted with academics who became middle-managers (an AD, SGL and TL) in two selected case Higher Education Institutes. The term middle management is used to describe personnel occupying positions at the level of assistant deans, dean (which also referred to as associate deans), and team leaders.

Keywords: academic manager, associate dean, higher education, middle manager, post 1992 universities

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1401 Middle-Level Management Involvement in Strategy Process, and Organizational Performance

Authors: Mazyar Taghavi

Abstract:

This research examines middle-level managers’ involvement in strategy process in 15 manufacturing and service companies in Iran. We considered two dominant theoretical arguments for expecting a positive association. According to the first direction involvement improves organizational performance by improving the quality of strategic decisions. According to the second track, middle managers contribute to increased levels of performance through strategic consensus among them. Results indicate that involvement in the strategy is related to organizational performance. Involvement is associated with consensus (i.e. strategic understanding and commitment) among middle-level managers. However, findings indicate that consensus is not related to the organizational performance.

Keywords: middle-level management, strategy process, organizational performance, strategy consensus

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1400 The Dietary Behavior of Eating Alone in Middle-Aged Populations by Body Mass Index (BMI)

Authors: Pil Kyoo Jo, Youngmee Lee, Jee Young Kim, Yu Jin Oh, Sohyun Park, Young Ha Joo, Hye Suk Kim, Semi Kang

Abstract:

A growing number of people are living alone and eating alone. People might have different dietary behaviors between eating alone and eating with others, it can influence their weight and health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary behavior of eating alone in middle-aged populations in South Korea. We used the nationally representative data from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-2012 and a cross-sectional survey on the eating behaviors among adults (N=1318, 530 men, 788 women) aged from 20 to 54 years. Results showed that ‘underweight’ group ate more amount of food when eating with others compared to eating alone and ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups had opposite respondent (p<0.05). When having a meal alone, ‘underweight’ group ate food until didn’t feel hungry and ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups ate leftover food even they felt full (p<0.01). The ‘overweight’ and ‘obesity’ groups usually ate alone than ‘underweight’ group did (p<0.05). All groups had faster meal time when eating alone than eating with others and usually ate processed foods for convenience when eating alone. Younger people, aged 10-30, ate more processed food than older people did. South Koreans spend nearly 45% of their total food consumption from processed foods. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea for 2011 Korea-Japan Basic Scientific Cooperation Program (NRF-2011B00003). This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2015S1A5B6037369).

Keywords: BMI, dietary behavior, eating alone, middle-aged populations

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1399 Mythological Influences on the Works of J. R. R. Tolkien: A Scrutiny of Middle-Earth Stories

Authors: Ali Mohammadi

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The present study is an attempt to investigate the influence of mythology on J.R.R. Tolkien's literary works in general and on Middle-Earth in particular. Moreover, despite the fact that mythology is usually regarded as a thing of the past predominantly found in the early works of literature, this inquiry reveals that how modern literary works can artistically benefit from mythological elements of Old English Era so as to enrich their content and stand out as innovative masterpieces. Indeed, having been a philologist and well-acquainted with mythological literature, Tolkien paved the way for a novel understanding of literature by bridging the gap between the old and the new. In the end, it was concluded that had mythology not been utilised by Tolkien, his works, and on top of all, Middle-Earth, would not have turned into a modern literary showpiece.

Keywords: literature, Middle-Earth, mythology, Tolkien

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1398 The Language Use of Middle Eastern Freedom Activists' Speeches: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

Abstract:

Examining the role of Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech based on gender perspective is considered noteworthy because the society in the Middle East is patriarchal. This research aims to examine the language use of the Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speeches through gender perspective. The data sources are from male and female Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech videos. In analyzing the data, the theories employed are about Language Style from Gender Perspective and The Language for Speech. The result reveals that there are sets of spoken language differences between male and female speakers. In using the language for speech, both male and female speakers produce metaphor, euphemism, the ‘rule of three’, parallelism, and pronouns in random frequency of production, which cannot be separated by genders. Moreover, it cannot be concluded that one gender is more potential than the other to influence the audience in delivering speech. There are other factors, particularly non-verbal factors, existing to give impacts on how a speech can influence the audience.

Keywords: gender perspective, language use, Middle Eastern freedom activists, speech

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1397 China and the Middle East in the 21st Century: From Political Mediation to Economic Expansionism

Authors: Ali Asghar Sotoudeh

Abstract:

Mediation Diplomacy has emerged as one of the main pillars of China's foreign policy goals and practices, and Beijing has established itself as a peacekeeping force in regional conflicts and crises such as Afghanistan, Syria, Sudan, Yemen, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. China is deepening and intensifying its diplomatic interventions in the Middle East and trying to shape the security and political developments in the Middle East. On the other hand, economically, China has become one of the most important trading partners with Middle Eastern governments. China is also seeking to expand its foreign policy and economic interests in the Middle East through the New Silk Road initiative and has signed cooperation agreements with 17 Arab countries. In this regard, due to the importance of the subject, this research focuses on answering this question; what is the basis of China's political mediation and economic expansionism in the Middle East? In parallel with this question, this study follows the hypothesis that the mediating role of peace is a legitimate way for China to intervene in Middle East political crises, Without causing China to deviate from its traditional guiding principles based on non-interference in the internal affairs of other actors in the international system. This policy also promotes the security of economic interests and increases the country's political influence in the Middle East. The research method is descriptive-analytical based on the qualitative method, and the data collection method is library and internet resources.

Keywords: China, middle east, political mediation, economic expansionism

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1396 Comparing Trastuzumab-Related Cardiotoxicity between Elderly and Younger Patients with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Afrah Aladwani, Alexander Mullen, Mohammad AlRashidi, Omamah Alfarisi, Faisal Alterkit, Abdulwahab Aladwani, Asit Kumar, Emad Eldosouky

Abstract:

Introduction: Trastuzumab is a HER-2 targeted humanized monoclonal antibody that significantly improves the therapeutic outcomes of metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer. However, it is associated with increased risk of cardiotoxicity that ranges from mild decline in the cardiac ejection fraction to permanent cardiomyopathy. Concerns have been raised in treating eligible older patients. This study compares trastuzumab outcomes between two age cohorts in the Kuwait Cancer Control Centre (KCCC). Methods: In a prospective comparative observational study, 93 HER-2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing different chemotherapy protocols + trastuzumab were included and divided into two cohorts based on their age (˂60 and ≥60 years old). The baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed and monitored every three months during trastuzumab treatment. Event of cardiotoxicity was defined as ≥10% decline in the LVEF from the baseline. The lower accepted normal limit of the LVEF was 50%. Results: The median baseline LVEF was 65% in both age cohorts (IQR 8% and 9% for older and younger patients respectively). Whereas, the median LVEF post-trastuzumab treatment was 51% and 55% in older and younger patients respectively (IQR 8%; p-value = 0.22), despite the fact that older patients had significantly lower exposure to anthracyclines compared to younger patients (60% and 84.1% respectively; p-value ˂0.001). 86.7% and 55.6% of older and younger patients, respectively, developed ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline. Among those, only 29% of older and 27% of younger patients reached a LVEF value below 50% (p-value = 0.88). Statistically, age was the only factor that significantly correlated with trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity (OR 4; p-value ˂0.012), but it did not increase the requirement for permanent discontinuation of treatment. A baseline LVEF value below 60% contributed to developing a post-treatment value below normal ranges (50%). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients aged 60 years and above in Kuwait were at 4-fold higher risk of developing ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline than younger patients during trastuzumab treatment. Surprisingly, previous exposure to anthracyclines and multiple comorbidities were not associated with significant increased risk of cardiotoxicity.

Keywords: breast cancer, elderly, Trastuzumab, cardiotoxicity

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1395 Introduction to Political Psychoanalysis of a Group in the Middle East

Authors: Seyedfateh Moradi, Abas Ali Rahbar

Abstract:

The present study focuses on investigating group psychoanalysis in the Middle East. The study uses a descriptive-analytic method and library resources have been used to collect the data. Additionally, the researcher’s observations of people’s everyday behavior have played an important role in the production and analysis of the study. Group psychoanalysis in the Middle East can be conducted through people’s daily behaviors, proverbs, poetry, mythology, etc., and some of the general characteristics of people in the Middle East include: xenophobia, revivalism, fatalism, nostalgic, wills and so on. Members of the group have often failed to achieve Libido wills and it is very important in unifying and reproduction violence. Therefore, if libidinal wills are irrationally fixed, it will be important in forming fundamentalist and racist groups, a situation that is dominant among many groups in the Middle East. Adversities, from early childhood and afterwards, in the subjects have always been influential in the political behavior of group members, and it manifests itself as counter-projections. Consequently, it affects the foreign policy of the governments. On the other hand, two kinds of subjects are identifiable in the Middle East, one; classical subject that is related to nostalgia and mythology and, two; modern subjects which is self-alienated. As a result, both subjects are seeking identity and self-expression in public in relation to forming groups. Therefore, collective unconscious in the Middle East shows itself as extreme boundaries and leads to forming groups characterized with violence. Psychoanalysis shows important aspects to identify many developments in the Middle East; totally analysis of Freud, Carl Jung and Reich about groups can be applied in the present Middle East.

Keywords: political, psychoanalysis, group, Middle East

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1394 Stories of Digital Technology and Online Safety: Storytelling as a Tool to Find out Young Children’s Views on Digital Technology and Online Safety

Authors: Lindsey Watson

Abstract:

This research is aimed at facilitating and listening to the voices of younger children, recognising their contributions to research about the things that matter to them. Digital technology increasingly impacts on the lives of young children, therefore this study aimed at increasing children’s agency through recognising and involving their perspectives to help contribute to a wider understanding of younger children’s perceptions of online safety. Using a phenomenological approach, the paper discusses how storytelling as a creative methodological approach enabled an agentic space for children to express their views, knowledge, and perceptions of their engagement with the digital world. Setting and parental informed consent were gained in addition to an adapted approach to child assent through the use of child-friendly language and emoji stickers, which was also recorded verbally. Findings demonstrate that younger children are thinking about many aspects of digital technology and how this impacts on their lives and that storytelling as a research method is a useful tool to facilitate conversations with young children. The paper thus seeks to recognise and evaluate how creative methodologies can provide insights into children’s understanding of online safety and how this can influence practitioners and parents in supporting younger children in a digital world.

Keywords: early childhood, family, online safety, phenomenology, storytelling

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1393 Alternative Futures for the Middle East

Authors: Dorsa Bakhshandehgeyazdi

Abstract:

This paper examines elective future of security in the Middle East trying to find a way that could take the district from a shaky past to a more secure future. Taking a gander at five situations about the eventual future of world legislative issues, in particular, globalization, fragmentation, conflict of civilizations, majority rule peace and the development of a security group, the paper contends that albeit every situation has its qualities (and in addition shortcomings), it is the situation that predicts the foundation of a security group that joins a more express thought for forming a more secure future for the Middle East.

Keywords: Middle East, Globalization, Fragmentation, Conflict of civilizations, Majority rule peace, Development of a security group

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1392 The Current Status of Middle Class Internet Use in China: An Analysis Based on the Chinese General Social Survey 2015 Data and Semi-Structured Investigation

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In today's China, the well-educated middle class, with stable jobs and above-average income, are the driving force behind its Internet society. Through the analysis of data from the 2015 Chinese General Social Survey and 50 interviewees, this study investigates the current situation of this group’s specific internet usage. The findings of this study demonstrate that daily life among the members of this socioeconomic group is closely tied to the Internet. For Chinese middle class, the Internet is used to socialize and entertain self and others. It is also used to search for and share information as well as to build their identities. The empirical results of this study will provide a reference, supported by factual data, for enterprises seeking to target the Chinese middle class through online marketing efforts.

Keywords: middle class, Internet use, network behaviour, online marketing, China

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1391 Factors Influencing the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Leaders in Saudi and English Primary Schools: A Comparative Critical Study

Authors: Saeed Musaid H. Alzahrani

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The role of middle leaders, especially in primary schools, is a multi-faced role that has been subject to changes in nature over recent decades, with claims for more distributed leadership practices. This research examines the way 18 middle leaders in Saudi and English primary schools conceptualise their roles and responsibilities, and different factors influencing those roles and responsibilities. It begins from the premise that both the power of the role and the values of middle leaders are grounded in cultural and political bases, a belief held by the researcher as an 'insider' within the Saudi educational leadership context. The study consisted of a comparative analysis of the role and the responsibilities of middle leaders in Saudi primary schools and their equivalents in English primary schools. A purely qualitative methodological stance was adopted, using in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Middle leaders were asked to reflect deeply on their perceptions and understanding of their roles and explain what they thought influenced their daily practices and responsibilities. The findings suggest that the concept of middle leadership has been influenced by power imposed from above by political authority, via internal and external hierarchical structures, which shapes the nature of the role of the middle leaders and forces them to comply. Middle leaders seem to believe they have the power to make decisions and promote change, but these findings suggest that this is illusory. The power that keeps middle leaders performing is the power of their cultural and religious values. Those values are the resource to which they turn in their search for more energy when they lack support and are short of time taken. Middle leaders in Saudi, just like their equivalents in English schools must comply with the requirements of their role. However, Saudi middle leaders are given no leeway to make decisions or implement change, neither do they have the culture of collegiality that seems to give middle leaders in England more power over their resources and decisions. However, in neither educational setting have middle leaders been given the power to lead, so they remain managers rather than leaders. The findings of this research suggest that there are more similarities between the educational settings of Saudi and England than differences; and in the light of different factors identified in the study, suggest the establishment of a framework for middle leadership, in the hope of enhancing the way the role is practiced.

Keywords: middle leader, primary school, power, educational leadership, value, culture, model, Saudi Arabia, England

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1390 Autonomy in Healthcare Organisations: A Comparative Case Study of Middle Managers in England and Iran

Authors: Maryam Zahmatkesh

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Middle managers form a significant occupational category in organisations. They undertake a vital role, as they sit between the operational and strategic roles. Traditionally they were acting as diplomat administrators, and were only in power to meet the demands of professionals. Following the introduction of internal market, in line with the principles of New Public Management, middle managers have been considered as change agents. More recently, in the debates of middle managers, there is emphasis on entrepreneurialism and enacting strategic role. It was assumed that granting autonomy to the local organisations and the inception of semi-autonomous hospitals (Foundation Trusts in England and Board of Trustees in Iran) would give managers more autonomy to act proactively and innovatively. This thesis explores the hospital middle managers’ perception of and responses to public management reforms (in particular, hospital autonomy) in England and Iran. In order to meet the aims of the thesis, research was undertaken within the interpretative paradigm, in line with social constructivism. Data were collected from interviews with forty-five middle managers, observational fieldwork and documentary analysis across four teaching university hospitals in England and Iran. The findings show the different ways middle managers’ autonomy is constrained in the two countries. In England, middle managers have financial and human recourses, but their autonomy is constrained by government policy and targets. In Iran, middle managers are less constrained by government policy and targets, but they do not have financial and human resources to exercise autonomy. Unbalanced autonomy causes tension and frustration for middle managers. According to neo-institutional theory, organisations are deeply embedded within social, political, economic and normative settings that exert isomorphic and internal population-level pressures to conform to existing and established modes of operation. Health systems which are seeking to devolve autonomy to middle managers must appreciate the multidimensional nature of the autonomy, as well as the wider environment that organisations are embedded, if they are about to improve the performance of managers and their organisations.

Keywords: autonomy, healthcare organisations, middle managers, new public management

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1389 Analyzing Middle Actors' Influence on Land Use Policy: A Case Study in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Kevin Soubly, Kaysara Khatun

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This study applies the existing Middle-Out Perspective (MOP) as a complementing analytical alternative to the customary dichotomous options of top-down vs. bottom-up strategies of international development and commons governance. It expands the framework by applying it to a new context of land management and environmental change, enabling fresh understandings of decision making around land use. Using a case study approach in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia among a village of indigenous Dayak, this study explores influences from both internal and external middle actors, utilizing qualitative empirical evidence and incorporating responses across 25 village households and 11 key stakeholders. Applying the factors of 'agency' and 'capacity' specific to the MOP, this study demonstrates middle actors’ unique capabilities and criticality to change due to their influence across various levels of decision-making. Study results indicate that middle actors play a large role, both passively and actively, both directly and indirectly, across various levels of decision-making, perception-shaping, and commons governance. In addition, the prominence of novel 'passive' middle actors, such as the internet, can provide communities themselves with a level of agency beyond that provided by other middle actors such as NGOs and palm oil industry entities – which often operate at the behest of the 'top' or out of self-interest. Further, the study posits that existing development and decision-making frameworks may misidentify the 'bottom' as the 'middle,' raising questions about traditional development and livelihood discourse, strategies, and support, from agricultural production to forest management. In conclusion, this study provides recommendations including that current policy preconceptions be reevaluated to engage middle actors in locally-adapted, integrative manners in order to improve governance and rural development efforts more broadly.

Keywords: environmental management, governance, Indonesia, land use, middle actors, middle-out perspective

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1388 The Development of a School-Based Wellbeing Programme to Enhance the Social Functioning of Learners in Middle Childhood

Authors: Soretha Beets, Izanette Van Schalkwyk, Doret K. Kirsten

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Children in middle childhood are exposed to various risks, for example, risks associated with poverty and/or dysfunctional families, that may threaten their social functioning. The aim of this study was to develop and design a programme that can be presented to children in middle childhood in order to enhance their social functioning towards better wellbeing. The skills and competencies needed to be included in the programme were identified by means of a literature review and 4 focus groups with educators from 4 sub-areas in a certain district in the North-West Province of South Africa. The programme consists of 8 sessions, presented in a certain order. The sessions cover the following aspects: self-esteem and gratitude, self-regulation and goal-setting, values and relationships, communication and listening, conflict management, emotional competence, and resilient coping. These aspects may benefit children in the middle child’s wellbeing and live on the short-term and may also hold long-term benefits.

Keywords: middle childhood, programme development, social functioning, wellbeing

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1387 Civil-Military Relations in Turkey, Europe, and Middle East

Authors: Dorsa Bakhshandehgeyazdi

Abstract:

This article tries to comprehend the change of Turkish common military relations in an analogical viewpoint. The investigation is taking into account two criteria: institutional / legitimate systems and political oversight of the military's self-sufficiency. Examination of European furthermore, Middle Eastern common military relations models to the Turkish ideal model discloses grave contrasts in the middle of Turkish and Middle Eastern common military relations. The Turkish model in change for not less than 10 years is closer to the European show in both lawful and political perspectives. However, the article underscores that Turkish common military relations are still in change and despite the fact that the EU increase procedure has continuously democratized the legitimate arrangement of the nation, law based combining obliges further advances in the political area. A the result, stabilization in Turkey depends not just on withdrawing of the military from the political domain, additionally on the best possible civilization of the administration in hypothesis and practice.

Keywords: Turkish common military, institutional, legitimate systems, political oversight, middle Eastern common military

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1386 A Systematic Review on Assistive Technology Robotics in Lower and Middle-Income Settings

Authors: Sumudu Sameera Perera Kimmantudawage, Chapal Khasnabis

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Technology is changing at a rapid rate, with innovations in robotics being hailed and tested in countries such as Japan, the United States and Australia, however the conversation in a public health context is stagnant. While obvious barriers to robotics use in low and middle-income countries and regions exist, the avoidance of attempting to address these regions of the world may potentially lead to an ever-increasing divide between those of high income countries and those of less. A systematic review was undertaken to determine the number of projects involving research, development and testing of robotics considered low and middle-income regions. Major findings indicate that an overwhelmingly significant number of projects failed to consider low and middle-income countries or regions. These results are unsurprising however alarming, as bridging the divide is an important step forward in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. It is hoped that this research would spawn future robotics research that focusses on lower and middle-income regions.

Keywords: assistive technology, health equality, robotics, socioeconomic

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1385 Mediation of the Middle Eastern Crises and Economic Growth: An Application of Times Series Analysis

Authors: Gokhan Erkal, Gulsen Aydin, Muge Yuce, Lokman Sahin

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This study aims to analyze the impacts of involving in mediation of conflicts in the Middle East from the perspective of the economic growth of the mediators. The Middle East is a highly volatile region of the world with rampant crises whose affects spill beyond its borders. Therefore, management and resolution of the conflicts in the region are of great significance. Mediation is an instrument used for abating violence and settling dispute. The recourse to mediation has grown to an important degree in recent years. However, for mediators, it is a daunting task to involve in the mediation of the deadlocks in the Middle East. This study tries to shed light on the positive correlation between economic growth of the mediator and the successful outcome of the mediation process to provide motivation for mediators. To this end, first, it briefly introduces the conflicts ongoing in the region and their negative impacts. Second, the methodology, time series analysis, and the data to be used, International Crisis Behavior Project Data, are presented. Third, the empirical test is carried out and the findings are evaluated. The conclusion highlights the benefits of successful mediation for the economic growth of the mediators of Middle Eastern crises.

Keywords: international crises, mediation, Middle East, times series analysis

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1384 Design of Middleware for Mobile Group Control in Physical Proximity

Authors: Moon-Tak Oh, Kyung-Min Park, Tae-Eun Yoon, Hoon Choi, Chil-Woo Lee

Abstract:

This paper is about middle-ware which enables group-user applications on mobile devices in physical proximity to interact with other devices without intervention of a central server. Requirements of the middle-ware are identified from service usage scenarios, and the functional architecture of the middle-ware is specified. These requirements include group management, synchronization, and resource management. Group Management needs to provide various capabilities to such applications with respect to managing multiple users (e.g., creation of groups, discovery of group or individual users, member join/leave, election of a group manager and service-group association) using D2D communication technology. We designed the middle-ware for the above requirements on the Android platform.

Keywords: group user, middleware, mobile service, physical proximity

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1383 Factors Associated with Recurrence and Long-Term Survival in Younger and Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer

Authors: Sopit Tubtimhin, Chaliya Wamaloon, Anchalee Supattagorn

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer death among women. This study aims to determine factors potentially predicting recurrence and long-term survival after the first recurrence in surgically treated patients between postmenopausal and younger women. Methods and Analysis: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 498 Thai women with invasive breast cancer, who had undergone mastectomy and been followed-up at Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Hospital, Thailand. We collected based on a systematic chart audit from medical records and pathology reports between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. The last follow-up time point for surviving patients was December 31, 2016. A Cox regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios of recurrence and death. Findings: The median age was 49 (SD ± 9.66) at the time of diagnosis, 47% was post-menopausal women ( ≥ 51years and not experienced any menstrual flow for a minimum of 12 months), and 53 % was younger women ( ˂ 51 years and have menstrual period). Median time from the diagnosis to the last follow-up or death was 10.81 [95% CI = 9.53-12.07] years in younger cases and 8.20 [95% CI = 6.57-9.82] years in postmenopausal cases. The recurrence-free survival (RFS) for younger estimates at 1, 5 and 10 years of 95.0 %, 64.0% and 58.93% respectively, appeared slightly better than the 92.7%, 58.1% and 53.1% for postmenopausal women [HRadj = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.95-1.64]. Regarding overall survival (OS) for younger at 1, 5 and 10 years were 97.7%, 72.7 % and 52.7% respectively, for postmenopausal patients, OS at 1, 5 and 10 years were 95.7%, 70.0% and 44.5 respectively, there were no significant differences in survival [HRadj = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.94 -1.64]. Multivariate analysis identified five risk factors for negatively impacting on survival were triple negative [HR= 2.76, 95% CI = 1.47-5.19], Her2-enriched [HR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.37-4.91], luminal B [HR = 2.29, 95 % CI=1.35-3.89], not free margin [HR = 1.98, 95%CI=1.00-3.96] and patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy [HR= 3.75, 95% CI = 2.00-7.04]. Statistically significant risks of overall cancer recurrence were Her2-enriched [HR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.75-9.80], triple negative [HR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.98-7.59], luminal B [HR= 2.59, 95% CI = 1.48-4.54,] and patients who received only adjuvant chemotherapy [HR= 2.59, 95% CI = 1.48-5.66]. Discussion and Implications: Outcomes from this studies have shown that postmenopausal women have been associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality. As the results, it provides useful information for planning the screening and treatment of early-stage breast cancer in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, menopause status, recurrence-free survival, overall survival

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1382 Gloria Naylor's Linden Hills: A Fine Description of Burdens and Misguided Notions of the Middle Black Community

Authors: Kalluru Maheswaramma, Putta Padma

Abstract:

This study makes an attempt to demonstrate the wondrous world of the upwardly middle black community in Gloria Naylor’s Linden Hills. Gloria Naylor’s first novel The Women of Brewster Place is about the working class and Linden Hills about middle-class Black America. Naylor believes their serenity that is lost in the middle or working class black people as they move into the upper patriarchal society. Naylor challenges the different forms of superiority, homophobia, and chauvinism, interracial bias, and the like, which plague a community so significantly trying to be acceptable in the larger white community. In an ironic twist, Naylor creates characters that recognize their desire for a solid black community but who in reality ignore blackness and negate any emergent sign of its development. Linden Hills is an expose of the wealthy and spiritually dissolute upper class. Linden Hills is an examination of an upper-middle-class African American community in which women are largely exploited or invisible and in which men have, in the course of upward mobility, sacrificed their racial identity and their essence. Linden Hills is a social world, which includes firm stratification, false values, and an immobilizing impact on its residents. Touching a brief note upon the origin and development of African American Literature as well a note on the chosen writer and her works, the paper proceeds to depict the middle-class black community of Linden Hills.

Keywords: gloria naylor, linden hills, African American community, the middle black community

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
1381 The Results of the Research and Documentation of Early Middle Ages Sites in the North-West Poland

Authors: Wojciech Kulesza

Abstract:

The north-western part of the Poland, specifically West Pomerania and Lubuskie provinces, from several years are the subject of research of the Department of Archaeology of Early Middle Ages of Institute of Archaeology of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. This area has a dense network of rivers and numerous lakes, where many of them are connected to the southern part of the Baltic Sea. During the many years of research in this area, archaeologists discovered the remains of the early Middle Ages settlement located on several islands and in most cases were encountered relics of early Middle Ages bridges linking those islands with the mainland. During the excavation, work was carried out both under water and on land for the accurate identification of islands and adjacent to them underwater areas. The result of this work is a graphic documentation, made in a three-dimensional technique, not only for the underwater trenches but also relics of bridges and objects discovered during exploration, which as the main theme will be presented in the full presentation.

Keywords: Poland, underwater archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, early middle ages

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1380 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Mentoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Margarita Zavala, Gabriel Chavira, José González, Jorge Orozco, Julio Rolón, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006, Mexico incorporated 'mentoring' space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, it is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. With this, they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1379 Towards a Model of Support in the Areas of Services of Educational Assistance and Tutoring in Middle Education in Mexico

Authors: Margarita Zavala, Julio Rolón, Gabriel Chavira, José González, Jorge Orozco, Roberto Pichardo

Abstract:

Adolescence is a neuralgic stage in the formation of every human being, generally at this stage is when the middle school level is studied. In 2006 in Mexico incorporated “mentoring" space to assist students in their integration and participation in life. In public middle schools, is sometimes difficult to be aware of situations that affect students because of the number of them and traditional records management. Whit this they lose the opportunity to provide timely support as a preventive way. In order to provide this support, it is required to know the students by detecting the relevant information that has greater impact on their learning process. This research is looking to check if it is possible to identify student’s relevant information to detect when it is at risk, and then to propose a model to manage in a proper way such information.

Keywords: adolescence, mentoring, middle school students, mentoring system support

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1378 Examining the Influence of Organisational Culture on Middle Leadership in Primary Schools in Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom

Authors: Saeed Musaid Alzahrani

Abstract:

Shared values, beliefs, norms and assumptions within the organisation can affect personal and team effectiveness. Organisational culture can also affect the performance of organisational members. The nature of middle leadership in a primary school is largely influenced by organizational culture. The effectiveness of middle leadership in primary schools and their performance is strongly determined by the circumstances in which they work and can be political or institutional. This study aims to examine the influence of organisational culture and government policy on the performance and effectiveness of middle managers, using the English and Saudi education systems as case studies. To examine how education policy conditions educational discourse, and answer the research questions, there is a need to collect qualitative data on middle manager’s perceptions and experiences in the English and Saudi Arabian contexts. The study involved a qualitative and interpretative approach. In-depth interviews with 6 middle managers and school supervisors in 3 English primary schools and 6 middle managers in 3 Saudi Arabian primary schools were conducted to answer the research questions. The study also included ethnographic tools such as observations of a sample of three primary schools in both England and Saudi Arabia where the researcher observed middle managers’ interactions with their peers. The sample of three enabled the study to identify trends and make comparisons between leadership approaches in both systems based on observations without the bias of prescriptions. The use of ethnographic tools not only makes the study empirical but also increases the reliability and validity of the findings by reducing prescriptive bias. The observations will be triangulated with the results of the interviews to draw comparisons and conclusions on whether middle managers act as leaders or as followers in their respective political contexts.

Keywords: education management, government education policies, middle managers, organisational culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 157