Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: repositioning

20 The Effectiveness of the Repositioning Campaign of PKO BP Brand on the Basis of Questionnaire Research

Authors: Danuta Szwajca

Abstract:

Image is a very important intangible asset of a contemporary enterprise, especially, in case of a bank as a public trust institution. A positive, demanded image may effectively distinguish the bank among the competition and build the customer confidence and loyalty. PKO BP is the biggest and largest bank functioning on the Polish financial market. Within the years not a very nice image of the bank has been embedded in the customers’ minds as an old-fashioned, stagnant, resistant to changes institution, what result in the customer loss, and ageing. For this reason, in 2010, the bank launched a campaign of radical image change along with a strategy of branches modernization and improvement of the product offer. The objective of the article is to make an attempt of effectiveness assessment of the brand repositioning campaign that lasted three years. The foundations of the assessment are the results of the questionnaire research concerning the way of bank’s perception before and after the campaign.

Keywords: advertising campaign, brand repositioning, image of the bank, repositioning

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19 TomoTherapy® System Repositioning Accuracy According to Treatment Localization

Authors: Veronica Sorgato, Jeremy Belhassen, Philippe Chartier, Roddy Sihanath, Nicolas Docquiere, Jean-Yves Giraud

Abstract:

We analyzed the image-guided radiotherapy method used by the TomoTherapy® System (Accuray Corp.) for patient repositioning in clinical routine. The TomoTherapy® System computes X, Y, Z and roll displacements to match the reference CT, on which the dosimetry has been performed, with the pre-treatment MV CT. The accuracy of the repositioning method has been studied according to the treatment localization. For this, a database of 18774 treatment sessions, performed during 2 consecutive years (2016-2017 period) has been used. The database includes the X, Y, Z and roll displacements proposed by TomoTherapy® System as well as the manual correction of these proposals applied by the radiation therapist. This manual correction aims to further improve the repositioning based on the clinical situation and depends on the structures surrounding the target tumor tissue. The statistical analysis performed on the database aims to define repositioning limits to be used as security and guiding tool for the manual adjustment implemented by the radiation therapist. This tool will participate not only to notify potential repositioning errors but also to further improve patient positioning for optimal treatment.

Keywords: accuracy, IGRT MVCT, image-guided radiotherapy megavoltage computed tomography, statistical analysis, tomotherapy, localization

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18 Nigerian Movies as a Medium for Repositioning the Nigerian Woman

Authors: Mary Okocha

Abstract:

Over the past two decades, since it came into existence, the Nigerian film industry, also known as Nollywood, has taken a global phenomenon and is reckoned with by most Africans at home or in Diaspora. The themes portrayed in these movies are supposedly made to reflect the social, cultural, economic and religious situations prevalent in Nigeria as well as most African countries. Stories are especially effective in cultural processes because they involve audiences by entertaining them and by challenging them to make sense of the story's symbolic meaning. Using two Nigerian movies, Mammi and Arugba, this paper aims at critically examining the pressures that society places on the Nigerian female and how this same society fails to lend a helping hand in making this possible, but rather turns back to heap blames and question the virtues of the females if, on the long run, these expectations are not met inconsiderate of the circumstances that stood in their ways and how these pressures have stood against the progress of the Nigerian woman. Furthermore, female respondents will be randomly selected and their opinions will be sorted through questionnaires to see what they feel could be done to help in overcoming these challenges and how the movie industry can help in repositioning the Nigerian woman.

Keywords: Nollywood, Nigerian films, audiences, Nigerian woman, Nigerian society, female respondents, repositioning women, societal pressures

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17 Repositioning Nigerian University Libraries for Effective Information Provision and Delivery in This Age of Globalization

Authors: S. O. Uwaifo

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The paper examines the pivotal role of the library in university education through the provision of a wide range of information materials (print and non- print) required for the teaching, learning and research activities of the university. However certain impediments to the effectiveness of Nigerian university libraries, such as financial constraints, high foreign exchange, global disparities in accessing the internet, lack of local area networks, erratic electric power supply, absence of ICT literacy, poor maintenance culture, etc., were identified. Also, the necessity of repositioning Nigerian university libraries for effective information provision and delivery was stressed by pointing out their dividends, such as users’ access to Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), Institutional Repositories, Electronic Document Delivery, Social Media Networks, etc. It therefore becomes necessary for the libraries to be repositioned by way of being adequately automated or digitized for effective service delivery, in this age of globalization. Based on the identified barriers by this paper, some recommendations were proffered.

Keywords: repositioning, Nigerian university libraries, effective information provision and delivery, globalization

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16 Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Reality Applied to the Cervical Spine Assessment

Authors: Pawel Kiper, Alfonc Baba, Mahmoud Alhelou, Giorgia Pregnolato, Michela Agostini, Andrea Turolla

Abstract:

Impairment of cervical spine mobility is often related to pain triggered by musculoskeletal disorders or direct traumatic injuries of the spine. To date, these disorders are assessed with goniometers and inclinometers, which are the most popular devices used in clinical settings. Nevertheless, these technologies usually allow measurement of no more than two-dimensional range of motion (ROM) quotes in static conditions. Conversely, the wide use of motion tracking systems able to measure 3 to 6 degrees of freedom dynamically, while performing standard ROM assessment, are limited due to technical complexities in preparing the setup and high costs. Thus, motion tracking systems are primarily used in research. These systems are an integral part of virtual reality (VR) technologies, which can be used for measuring spine mobility. To our knowledge, the accuracy of VR measure has not yet been studied within virtual environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the reliability of a protocol for the assessment of sensorimotor function of the cervical spine in a population of healthy subjects and to compare whether using immersive or non-immersive VR for visualization affects the performance. Both VR assessments consisted of the same five exercises and random sequence determined which of the environments (i.e. immersive or non-immersive) was used as first assessment. Subjects were asked to perform head rotation (right and left), flexion, extension and lateral flexion (right and left side bending). Each movement was executed five times. Moreover, the participants were invited to perform head reaching movements i.e. head movements toward 8 targets placed along a circular perimeter each 45°, visualized one-by-one in random order. Finally, head repositioning movement was obtained by head movement toward the same 8 targets as for reaching and following reposition to the start point. Thus, each participant performed 46 tasks during assessment. Main measures were: ROM of rotation, flexion, extension, lateral flexion and complete kinematics of the cervical spine (i.e. number of completed targets, time of execution (seconds), spatial length (cm), angle distance (°), jerk). Thirty-five healthy participants (i.e. 14 males and 21 females, mean age 28.4±6.47) were recruited for the cervical spine assessment with immersive and non-immersive VR environments. Comparison analysis demonstrated that: head right rotation (p=0.027), extension (p=0.047), flexion (p=0.000), time (p=0.001), spatial length (p=0.004), jerk target (p=0.032), trajectory repositioning (p=0.003), and jerk target repositioning (p=0.007) were significantly better in immersive than non-immersive VR. A regression model showed that assessment in immersive VR was influenced by height, trajectory repositioning (p<0.05), and handedness (p<0.05), whereas in non-immersive VR performance was influenced by height, jerk target (p=0.002), head extension, jerk target repositioning (p=0.002), and by age, head flex/ext, trajectory repositioning, and weight (p=0.040). The results of this study showed higher accuracy of cervical spine assessment when executed in immersive VR. The assessment of ROM and kinematics of the cervical spine can be affected by independent and dependent variables in both immersive and non-immersive VR settings.

Keywords: virtual reality, cervical spine, motion analysis, range of motion, measurement validity

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15 Mitigating the Cost of Empty Container Repositioning through the Virtual Container Yard: An Appraisal of Carriers’ Perceptions

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Z. Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

Empty container repositioning is a fundamental problem faced by the shipping industry. The virtual container yard is a novel strategy underpinning the container interchange between carriers that could substantially reduce this ever-increasing shipping cost. This paper evaluates the shipping industry perception of the virtual container yard using chi-square tests. It examines if the carriers perceive that the selected independent variables, namely culture, organization, decision, marketing, attitudes, legal, independent, complexity, and stakeholders of carriers, impact the efficiency and benefits of the virtual container yard. There are two major findings of the research. Firstly, carriers view that complexity, attitudes, and stakeholders may impact the effectiveness of container interchange and may influence the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Secondly, the three factors of legal, organization, and decision influence only the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Accordingly, the implementation of the virtual container yard will be influenced by six key factors, namely complexity, attitudes, stakeholders, legal, organization and decision. Since the virtual container yard could reduce overall shipping costs, it is vital to examine the carriers’ perception of this concept.

Keywords: virtual container yard, imbalance, management, inventory

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14 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Proprioception in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Omaima E. S. Mohammed, Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amal A. M. El Borady

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Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle performance. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginners' core stability exercises on trunk active repositioning error at 30° and 60° trunk flexion. Methods: Forty healthy males participated in the study. They were divided into two equal groups; experimental “group I” and control “group II”. Their mean age, weight and height were 19.35±1.11 vs 20.45±1.64 years, 70.15±6.44 vs 72.45±6.91 kg and 174.7±7.02 vs 176.3±7.24 cm for group I vs group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system at an angular velocity of 60º/s. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The Mixed 3-way ANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.05) in the absolute error (AE) at 30˚ compared with 60˚ flexion in the pre-test condition of group I and II and the post-test condition of group II. Moreover, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I at both 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for group II. Finally, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition at 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for the pre-test condition Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in trunk proprioception indicated by the decrease in the active repositioning error in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve trunk proprioception.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk proprioception, biomechanics

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13 Effect of Globalization on Flow Performance in Godean Jathilan Pranesa Yogyakarta

Authors: Maria Armalita Tumimbang

Abstract:

Jathilan or Kuda Lumping is a dance-drama with warfare as the main theme and the dancers mimicking mighty horsemen armed with sword in the middle of the battle field. However, to most people this dance-drama is more identical with magical nuanced dance and trance, beside the attractive and even dangerous acts of the dancers, such as eating shard or broken glass in a state of trance. Several music players play the accompaniment made up of incomplete gamelan set that include saron, kendang, gong, and kempul. In general, it remains unchanged with regards to the seemingly monotonous beat and occasional “bumps” that may lead the dancers into a trance state. The dances performed also tend to be of repetitive patterns. The development of Jathilan and other traditional art performance in this globalization and industrialization era can be divided into two: firstly, they are subjected to the power of industrialization, which means their performances are to be recorded for commercial purpose, and secondly, they are to be presented in live performances. To some people, live performances are preferable, and for some reasons, they represent a form of cultural résistance to globalization and industrialization. The present study is qualitative in nature. It aims to describe the music and performance of Jathilan in the era of globalization in Indonesia. The subject of this study is a traditional art group, Jathilan Kuda Pranesa of Godean, Yogyakarta. Data collection was conducted by interviews with the leader of the group, the dancers and music players, as well as the audience. The wave of globalization has brought strong capitalistic industrialization that render traditional arts simply into industrial commodities tailored to the need of the era. This very fact has made the repositioning of traditional art performance of Jathilan a necessity. And by repositioning we mean that Jathilans should be put back to their traditional forms and functions as they used to be.

Keywords: Jathilan, globalization, industrialization, music, performance

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12 Correction of Skeletal Deformity by Surgical Approach – A Case Report

Authors: Davender Kumar, Virender Singh, Rekha Sharma

Abstract:

Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. In adult severe cases, the combined approach, orthodontic and orthognathic surgery, is always the treatment of choice, and the results obtained usually ensure a better esthetic, functional, and stable results Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting mandible retrusion along with class II skeletal deformity with 100% deep bite. Correction was achieved by anterior repositioning of mandible osteotomy along with orthodontic treatment. The patient's facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion.

Keywords: camouflage, skeletal, orthognathic, dental

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11 The Challenges of Security Sector Governance in West African Democracies-The Ecowas Response Mechanism

Authors: Adamu Buba

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As West Africa gradually recovers from the cost of more than a decade of civil conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Côte d’Ivoire, ECOWAS has continued to place prominence on peace consolidation and the prevention of conflict in the West African Sub-Region. Of particular interest is the recent political uprising in Mali and in this regard, ECOWAS has been repositioning their existing machineries to manage this dispensation more effectively by improving their early warning and mediation capabilities. This paper firstly seeks among other things to provide a conceptual understanding of what security sector governance is, and also highlight the overview of ECOWAS and to closely examine the benchmark for assessing progress in the promotion of democracy and political governance within the sub-region as well as conflict prevention techniques. The views and analysis expressed in this paper is based on secondary method of data collection alone and do not in any way represent the views of the institutions or their representatives involved in this assignment in one way or the other.

Keywords: challenges, security, governance, ecowas, response

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10 Petri Net Modeling and Simulation of a Call-Taxi System

Authors: T. Godwin

Abstract:

A call-taxi system is a type of taxi service where a taxi could be requested through a phone call or mobile app. A schematic functioning of a call-taxi system is modeled using Petri net, which provides the necessary conditions for a taxi to be assigned by a dispatcher to pick a customer as well as the conditions for the taxi to be released by the customer. A Petri net is a graphical modeling tool used to understand sequences, concurrences, and confluences of activities in the working of discrete event systems. It uses tokens on a directed bipartite multi-graph to simulate the activities of a system. The Petri net model is translated into a simulation model and a call-taxi system is simulated. The simulation model helps in evaluating the operation of a call-taxi system based on the fleet size as well as the operating policies for call-taxi assignment and empty call-taxi repositioning. The developed Petri net based simulation model can be used to decide the fleet size as well as the call-taxi assignment policies for a call-taxi system.

Keywords: call-taxi, discrete event system, petri net, simulation modeling

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9 Repositioning Religion as a Catalyst for Conflict Resolution in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel A. Muyiwa

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Religious chauvinism has attained an alarming status in Contemporary Nigerian society. Arguably, Nigeria is the largest economy and most populous nation in Africa with over 182 million people, the advantages offer by vibrant economy and high population have been sacrificed on the altar of religion. Tolerance, sacrifice, humility, compassion, love, justice, trustworthiness, dedication to the well-being of others, and unity are the universal spiritual principles that lie at the heart of any religion either Christianity or Islam even traditional. Whereas traditional religious practices foreground the beliefs, norms and ritual that are related to the sacred being God because of its quick and immediate consequence of its effect, the new-found religious sentiments have deviated from the norms, thus undermining cosmic harmony in Nigeria because of its long-time consequence of its effect. Religion, which is expected to accelerate growth and motivate people to develop spiritual nuances for the betterment of their communities, has, however occasioned conflict and violence in Nigeria socio-political cosmo. Therefore, this study examines the content of religion in the promotion of peace and unity and its contextual missing link in the promotion of conflict and violence in Nigeria.

Keywords: religion chauvinism, Nigeria, conflict, conflict resolution

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8 Constructal Enhancement of Fins Design Integrated to Phase Change Materials

Authors: Varun Joshi, Manish K. Rathod

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The latent heat thermal energy storage system is a thrust area of research due to exuberant thermal energy storage potential. The thermal performance of PCM is significantly augmented by installation of the high thermal conductivity fins. The objective of the present study is to obtain optimum size and location of the fins to enhance diffusion heat transfer without altering overall melting time. Hence, the constructal theory is employed to eliminate, resize, and re-position the fins. A numerical code based on conjugate heat transfer coupled enthalpy porosity approached is developed to solve Navier-Stoke and energy equation.The numerical results show that the constructal fin design has enhanced the thermal performance along with the increase in the overall volume of PCM when compared to conventional. The overall volume of PCM is found to be increased by half of total of volume of fins. The elimination and repositioning the fins at high temperature gradient from low temperature gradient is found to be vital.

Keywords: constructal theory, enthalpy porosity approach, phase change materials, fins

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7 Virtual Container Yard: Assessing the Perceived Impact of Legal Implications to Container Carriers

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, P. Mukherjee, H. Edirisinghe

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Virtual Container Yard (VCY) is a modern concept that helps to reduce the empty container repositioning cost of carriers. The concept of VCY is based on container interchange between shipping lines. Although this mechanism has been theoretically accepted by the shipping community as a feasible solution, it has not yet achieved the necessary momentum among container shipping lines (CSL). This paper investigates whether there is any legal influence on this industry myopia about the VCY. It is believed that this is the first publication that focuses on the legal aspects of container exchange between carriers. Not much literature on this subject is available. This study establishes with statistical evidence that there is a phobia prevailing in the shipping industry that exchanging containers with other carriers may lead to various legal implications. The complexity of exchange is two faceted. CSLs assume that offering a container to another carrier (obviously, a competitor in terms of commercial context) or using a container offered by another carrier may lead to undue legal implications. This research reveals that this fear is reflected through four types of perceived components, namely: shipping associate; warehouse associate; network associate; and trading associate. These components carry eighteen subcomponents that comprehensively cover the entire process of a container shipment. The statistical explanation has been supported through regression analysis; INCO terms were used to illustrate the shipping process.

Keywords: virtual container yard, legal, maritime law, inventory

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6 Diagnostic Efficacy and Usefulness of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) in Evaluation of Breast Microcalcifications as a Pre-Procedural Study for Stereotactic Biopsy

Authors: Okhee Woo, Hye Seon Shin

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Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic power of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in evaluation of breast microcalcifications and usefulness as a pre-procedural study for stereotactic biopsy in comparison with full-field digital mammogram (FFDM) and FFDM plus magnification image (FFDM+MAG). Methods and Materials: An IRB approved retrospective observer performance study on DBT, FFDM, and FFDM+MAG was done. Image quality was rated in 5-point scoring system for lesion clarity (1, very indistinct; 2, indistinct; 3, fair; 4, clear; 5, very clear) and compared by Wilcoxon test. Diagnostic power was compared by diagnostic values and AUC with 95% confidence interval. Additionally, procedural report of biopsy was analysed for patient positioning and adequacy of instruments. Results: DBT showed higher lesion clarity (median 5, interquartile range 4-5) than FFDM (3, 2-4, p-value < 0.0001), and no statistically significant difference to FFDM+MAG (4, 4-5, p-value=0.3345). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of DBT were 86.4% and 92.5%; FFDM 70.4% and 66.7%; FFDM+MAG 93.8% and 89.6%. The AUCs of DBT (0.88) and FFDM+MAG (0.89) were larger than FFDM (0.59, p-values < 0.0001) but there was no statistically significant difference between DBT and FFDM+MAG (p-value=0.878). In 2 cases with DBT, petit needle could be appropriately prepared; and other 3 without DBT, patient repositioning was needed. Conclusion: DBT showed better image quality and diagnostic values than FFDM and equivalent to FFDM+MAG in the evaluation of breast microcalcifications. Evaluation with DBT as a pre-procedural study for breast stereotactic biopsy can lead to more accurate localization and successful biopsy and also waive the need for additional magnification images.

Keywords: DBT, breast cancer, stereotactic biopsy, mammography

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5 Developing and Enacting a Model for Institutional Implementation of the Humanizing Pedagogy: Case Study of Nelson Mandela University

Authors: Mukhtar Raban

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As part of Nelson Mandela University’s journey of repositioning its learning and teaching agenda, the university adopted and foregrounded a humanizing pedagogy-aligning with institutional goals of critically transforming the academic project. The university established the Humanizing Pedagogy Praxis and Research Niche (HPPRN) as a centralized hub for coordinating institutional work exploring and advancing humanizing pedagogies and tasked the unit with developing and enacting a model for humanizing pedagogy exploration. This investigation endeavored to report on the development and enactment of a model that sought to institutionalize a humanizing pedagogy at a South African university. Having followed a qualitative approach, the investigation presents the case study of Nelson Mandela University’s HPPRN and the model it subsequently established and enacted for the advancement towards a more common institutional understanding, interpretation and application of the humanizing pedagogy. The study adopted an interpretive lens for analysis, complementing the qualitative approach of the investigation. The primary challenge that confronted the HPPRN was the development of a ‘living model’ that had to complement existing institutional initiatives while accommodating a renewed spirit of critical reflection, innovation and research of continued and new humanizing pedagogical exploration and applications. The study found that the explicit consideration of tenets of humanizing and critical pedagogies in underpinning and framing the HPPRN Model contributed to the sense of ‘lived’ humanizing pedagogy experiences during enactment. The multi-leveled inclusion of critical reflection in the development and enactment stages was found to further the processes of praxis employed at the university, which is integral to the advancement of humanizing and critical pedagogies. The development and implementation of a model that seeks to institutionalize the humanizing pedagogy at a university rely not only on sound theoretical conceptualization but also on the ‘richness of becoming more human’ explicitly expressed and encountered in praxes and application.

Keywords: humanizing pedagogy, critical pedagogy, institutional implementation, praxis

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4 Occupational Challenges and Adjustment Strategies of Internally Displaced Persons in Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: David Obafemi Adebayo

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An occupational challenge has been identified as one of the factors that could cripple set goals and life ambitions of an Internally Displaced Person (IDP). The main thrust of this study is therefore, explore the use of life support/adjustment strategy with a view to repositioning these internally displaced persons in Nigeria in revamping their goals and achieving their life-long ambitions. The study intends to investigate whether there exist, on the basis of gender, religion, years of working experience and educational qualification any significant difference in the occupational challenges and adjustment strategies of IDPs. The study being descriptive of survey type adopted a multi-stage sampling technique to select the minimum of 400 internally displaced persons from IDP camps in Yimitu Village, Waru District in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The research instrument used for the study was a researcher-designed questionnaire entitled “Questionnaire on Occupational Challenges and Adjustment Strategy of Internally Displaced Persons (QOCASIDPs)”. Eight null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels of significance. Frequency counts and percentages, means and rank order, t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) (where applicable) were employed to analyze the data. The Study determined whether occupational challenges of internally displaced persons included loss of employment, vocational discrimination, marginalization by employers of labour, isolation due to joblessness, lack of occupational freedom, which were found to be true. The results were discussed in line with the findings. The study established the place of notable adjustment strategies adopted by internally displaced person like engaging in petty trading, sourcing soft loans from NGOs, setting up small-scale businesses in groups, acquiring new skills, engaging in further education, among others. The study established that there was no significant difference in the occupational challenges of IDPs on the basis of years of working experience and highest educational qualifications, though there was significant difference on the basis of gender as well as religion. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made.

Keywords: internally displaced persons, occupational challenges, adjustment strategies, Abuja-Nigeria

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3 Advanced Deployable/Retractable Solar Panel System for Satellite Applications

Authors: Zane Brough, Claudio Paoloni

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Modern low earth orbit (LEO) satellites that require multi-mission flexibility are highly likely to be repositioned between different operational orbits. While executing this process the satellite may experience high levels of vibration and environmental hazards, exposing the deployed solar panel to dangerous stress levels, fatigue and space debris, hence it is desirable to retract the solar array before satellite repositioning to avoid damage or failure. Furthermore, to accommodate for today's technological world, the power demand of a modern LEO satellite is rapidly increasing, which consequently provides pressure upon the design of the satellites solar array system to conform to the strict volume and mass limitations. A novel concept of deployable/retractable hybrid solar array system, aimed to provide a greater power to volume ratio while dramatically reducing the disadvantages of system mass and cost is proposed. Taking advantage of the new lightweight technology in solar panels, a mechanical system composed of both rigid and flexible solar panels arranged within a petal formation is proposed to yield a stowed to deployment area ratio up to at least 1:7, which improves the power density dramatically. The system consists of five subsystems, the outer ones based on a novel eight-petal configuration that provides a large surface and supports the flexible solar panels. A single cable and spool based hinge mechanism were designed to synchronously deploy/retract the panels in a safe, simple and efficient manner while the mass compared to the previous systems is considerably reduced. The relevant challenge to assure a smooth movement is resolved by a proper minimization of the gearing system and the use of a micro-controller system. A prototype was designed by 3D simulators and successfully constructed and tested. Further design works are in progress to implement an epicyclical gear hinge mechanism, which will further reduce the volume, mass and complexity of the system significantly. The proposed system due to an effective and reliable mechanism provides a large active surface, whilst being very compact. It could be extremely advantageous for use as ground portable solar panel system.

Keywords: mechatronic engineering, satellite, solar panel, deployable/retractable mechanism

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2 Urban River As Living Infrastructure: Tidal Flooding And Sea Level Rise In A Working Waterway In Hampton Roads, Virginia

Authors: William Luke Hamel

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Existing conceptions of urban flooding caused by tidal fluctuations and sea-level rise have been inadequately conceptualized by metrics of resilience and methods of flow modeling. While a great deal of research has been devoted to the effects of urbanization on pluvial flooding, the kind of tidal flooding experienced by locations like Hampton Roads, Virginia, has not been adequately conceptualized as being a result of human factors such as urbanization and gray infrastructure. Resilience from sea level rise and its associated flooding has been pioneered in the region with the 2015 Norfolk Resilience Plan from 100 Resilient Cities as well as the 2016 Norfolk Vision 2100 plan, which envisions different patterns of land use for the city. Urban resilience still conceptualizes the city as having the ability to maintain an equilibrium in the face of disruptions. This economic and social equilibrium relies on the Elizabeth River, narrowly conceptualized. Intentionally or accidentally, the river was made to be a piece of infrastructure. Its development was meant to serve the docks, shipyards, naval yards, and port infrastructure that gives the region so much of its economic life. Inasmuch as it functions to permit the movement of cargo; the raising and lowering of ships to be repaired, commissioned, or decommissioned; or the provisioning of military vessels, the river as infrastructure is functioning properly. The idea that the infrastructure is malfunctioning when high tides and sea-level rise create flooding is predicated on the idea that the infrastructure is truly a human creation and can be controlled. The natural flooding cycles of an urban river, combined with the action of climate change and sea-level rise, are only abnormal so much as they encroach on the development that first encroached on the river. The urban political ecology of water provides the ability to view the river as an infrastructural extension of urban networks while also calling for its emancipation from stationarity and human control. Understanding the river and city as a hydrosocial territory or as a socio-natural system liberates both actors from the duality of the natural and the social while repositioning river flooding as a normal part of coexistence on a floodplain. This paper argues for the adoption of an urban political ecology lens in the analysis and governance of urban rivers like the Elizabeth River as a departure from the equilibrium-seeking and stability metrics of urban resilience.

Keywords: urban flooding, political ecology, Elizabeth river, Hampton roads

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1 A Versatile Data Processing Package for Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar Deformation Monitoring

Authors: Zheng Wang, Zhenhong Li, Jon Mills

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Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GBSAR) represents a powerful remote sensing tool for deformation monitoring towards various geohazards, e.g. landslides, mudflows, avalanches, infrastructure failures, and the subsidence of residential areas. Unlike spaceborne SAR with a fixed revisit period, GBSAR data can be acquired with an adjustable temporal resolution through either continuous or discontinuous operation. However, challenges arise from processing high temporal-resolution continuous GBSAR data, including the extreme cost of computational random-access-memory (RAM), the delay of displacement maps, and the loss of temporal evolution. Moreover, repositioning errors between discontinuous campaigns impede the accurate measurement of surface displacements. Therefore, a versatile package with two complete chains is developed in this study in order to process both continuous and discontinuous GBSAR data and address the aforementioned issues. The first chain is based on a small-baseline subset concept and it processes continuous GBSAR images unit by unit. Images within a window form a basic unit. By taking this strategy, the RAM requirement is reduced to only one unit of images and the chain can theoretically process an infinite number of images. The evolution of surface displacements can be detected as it keeps temporarily-coherent pixels which are present only in some certain units but not in the whole observation period. The chain supports real-time processing of the continuous data and the delay of creating displacement maps can be shortened without waiting for the entire dataset. The other chain aims to measure deformation between discontinuous campaigns. Temporal averaging is carried out on a stack of images in a single campaign in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of discontinuous data and minimise the loss of coherence. The temporal-averaged images are then processed by a particular interferometry procedure integrated with advanced interferometric SAR algorithms such as robust coherence estimation, non-local filtering, and selection of partially-coherent pixels. Experiments are conducted using both synthetic and real-world GBSAR data. Displacement time series at the level of a few sub-millimetres are achieved in several applications (e.g. a coastal cliff, a sand dune, a bridge, and a residential area), indicating the feasibility of the developed GBSAR data processing package for deformation monitoring of a wide range of scientific and practical applications.

Keywords: ground-based synthetic aperture radar, interferometry, small baseline subset algorithm, deformation monitoring

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