Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7497

Search results for: social functioning

7497 The Development of a School-Based Wellbeing Programme to Enhance the Social Functioning of Learners in Middle Childhood

Authors: Soretha Beets, Izanette Van Schalkwyk, Doret K. Kirsten

Abstract:

Children in middle childhood are exposed to various risks, for example, risks associated with poverty and/or dysfunctional families, that may threaten their social functioning. The aim of this study was to develop and design a programme that can be presented to children in middle childhood in order to enhance their social functioning towards better wellbeing. The skills and competencies needed to be included in the programme were identified by means of a literature review and 4 focus groups with educators from 4 sub-areas in a certain district in the North-West Province of South Africa. The programme consists of 8 sessions, presented in a certain order. The sessions cover the following aspects: self-esteem and gratitude, self-regulation and goal-setting, values and relationships, communication and listening, conflict management, emotional competence, and resilient coping. These aspects may benefit children in the middle child’s wellbeing and live on the short-term and may also hold long-term benefits.

Keywords: middle childhood, programme development, social functioning, wellbeing

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7496 Family and Marital Functioning during the Transition to Motherhood

Authors: Fei Wan Ngai

Abstract:

Background: Family and marital functioning has become an important public health issue because it is vital to child development and well-being. Objective: This study was designed to examine the changes in family and marital functioning among Chinese women during the transition to motherhood. Methods: A longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 202 Chinese childbearing women completed the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postpartum. Results: The results showed that women experienced substantial decline in their family and marital functioning from pregnancy to 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the need for more attention to family and marital functioning among women after childbirth. Culturally relevant interventions should be developed to assist women in facing the challenges of new motherhood and achieving a better family and marital functioning.

Keywords: family and marital functioning, perinatal period, women

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7495 Examining the Relationship between Family Functioning and Perceived Self-Efficacy

Authors: Fenni Sim

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between family functioning and level of self-efficacy: how family functioning can potentially affect self-efficacy which will eventually lead to better clinical outcomes. The hypothesis was ‘Patients on haemodialysis with perceived higher family functioning are more likely to have higher perceived level of self-efficacy’. Methods: The study was conducted with a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative data collection of survey and semi-structured interview respectively. The General Self-Efficacy scale and SCORE-15 were self-administered by participants. The data will be analysed with correlation analysis method using Microsoft Excel. 79 patients were recruited for the study through random sampling. 6 participants whose results did not reflect the hypothesis were then recruited for the qualitative study. Interpretive phemenological analysis was then used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings: The hypothesis was accepted that higher family functioning leads to higher perceived self-efficacy. The correlation coefficient of -0.21 suggested a mild correlation between the two variables. However, only 4.6% of the variation in perceived self-efficacy is accounted by the variation in family functioning. The qualitative study extrapolated three themes that might explain the variations in the outliers: (1) level of physical functioning affects perceived self-efficacy, (2) instrumental support from family influenced perceived level of family functioning, and self-efficacy, (3) acceptance of illness reflects higher level of self-efficacy. Conclusion: While family functioning does have an impact on perceived self-efficacy, there are many intrapersonal and physical factors that may affect self-efficacy. The concepts of family functioning and self-efficacy are more appropriately seen as complementing each other to help a patient in managing his illness. Healthcare social workers can look at how family functioning is supporting the individual needs of patients with different trajectory of ESRD and the support we can provide to improve one’s self-efficacy.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, coping of illness, family functioning, self efficacy

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7494 Impact of Social Media on the Functioning of the Indian Government: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Priya Sepaha

Abstract:

Social media has loomed as the most effective tool in recent times to flag the causes, contents, opinions and direction of any social movement and has demonstrated that it will have a far-reaching effect on government as well. This study focuses on India which has emerged as the fastest growing community on social media. Social movement activists, in particular, have extensively utilized the power of digital social media to streamline the effectiveness of social protest on a particular issue through extensive successful mass mobilizations. This research analyses the role and impact of social media as a power to catalyze the social movements in India and further seeks to describe how certain social movements are resisted, subverted, co-opted and/or deployed by social media. The impact assessment study has been made with the help of cases, policies and some social movement which India has witnessed the assertion of numerous social issues perturbing the public which eventually paved the way for remarkable judicial decisions. The paper concludes with the observations that despite its pros and cons, the impacts of social media on the functioning of the Indian Government have demonstrated that it has already become an indispensable tool in the hands of social media-suave Indians who are committed to bring about a desired change.

Keywords: social media, social movements, impact, law, government

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7493 Social Interaction of Gifted Students in a Heterogeneous Educational Environment

Authors: Ekaterina Donii

Abstract:

Understanding interpersonal competence, social interaction and peer relationships of gifted children is a concern for specialists in the field of gifted education. To gain more in-depth knowledge concerning the social functioning of gifted children among peers, we decided to study the social abilities of gifted children in a heterogeneous academic environment. Eight gifted children (5 of age 7, 1 of age 8.5, 1 of age 9.5 and 1 of age 10), their classmates (10 of age 7-8, 12 of age 8.5-9, 16 of age 9.5-10) and teachers participated in the study. The sociometric questionnaire analysis was based on the method of Rodríguez and Morera to check the social status of the gifted children among classmates. The Instrument Observational Protocol for Interactions within the Classroom (OPINTEC-v.5) was used to assess the social interactions between the gifted students, their classmates, and the teacher within the educational context. While doing a task together, the gifted children interacted more with popular and neither popular nor gifted classmates than with rejected classmates. While spending time together, the gifted children interacted more with neither popular nor rejected classmates than with popular or rejected classmates. All gifted children chose other gifted and non-gifted classmates for interaction, established close relations and demonstrated good social abilities interacting with their classmates. The aim of this study was to examine the social interactions, social status, and social network of the gifted students in a regular classroom. The majority of the gifted children were popular among their classmates and had good social skills. We should be alert, though, for those gifted children who do have social problems, in order to help them functioning in a regular classroom.

Keywords: gifted, heterogeneous environment, sociometric status, social interactions

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7492 The Analysis of Differential Item and Test Functioning between Sexes by Studying on the Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013

Authors: Panwasn Mahalawalert

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2013 (SWUSAT). SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was analyzed in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of DIF and DTF analysis for all 10 tests in year 2013. Gender was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF is between 6.67% - 60%. There are 5 tests that most of items favors female group and 2 tests that most of items favors male group. There are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small level.

Keywords: aptitude test, differential item functioning, differential test functioning, educational measurement

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7491 An Investigation of Differential Item and Test Functioning of Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011)

Authors: Ruangdech Sirikit

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were analyzed differential item functioning and differential test functioning of SWUSAT aptitude test classification by sex variable. The data used in this research is the secondary data from Srinakharinwirot University Scholastic Aptitude Test 2011 (SWUSAT 2011) SWUSAT test consists of four subjects. There are verbal ability test, number ability test, reasoning ability test and spatial ability test. The data analysis was carried out in 2 steps. The first step was analyzing descriptive statistics. In the second step were analyzed differential item functioning (DIF) and differential test functioning (DTF) by using the DIFAS program. The research results were as follows: The results of data analysis for all 10 tests in year 2011. Sex was the characteristic that found DIF all 10 tests. The percentage of item number that found DIF was between 10% - 46.67%. There are 4 tests that most of items favors female group. There are 3 tests that most of items favors male group and there are 3 tests that the number of items favors female group equal favors male group. For Differential test functioning (DTF), there are 8 tests that have small DIF effect variance.

Keywords: differential item functioning, differential test functioning, SWUSAT, aptitude test

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7490 Orientation towards Social Entrepreneurship-Prioritary: Givens for Overcoming Social Inequality

Authors: Revaz Gvelesiani

Abstract:

Nowadays, social inequality increasingly strengthens the trend from business entrepreneurship to social entrepreneurship. It can be said that business entrepreneurs, according to their interests, move towards social entrepreneurship. Effectively operating markets create mechanisms, which lead to 'good' behavior. This is the most important feature of the rationally functioning society. As for the prospects of social entrepreneurship, expansion of entrepreneurship concept at the social arena may lead to such an outcome, when people who are skeptical about business, become more open towards entrepreneurship as a type of activity. This is the way which by means of increased participation in entrepreneurship promotes fair distribution of wealth. Today 'entrepreneurship for all' is still a dream, although the one, which may come true.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, business entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, social inequality, social interests, interest groups, interest conflicts

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7489 The Justice of Resources Allocation for People with Disability Base on Activity and Participation Functioning: The Cross-Section Study of National Population

Authors: Chia-Feng Yen, Shyang-Woei Lin

Abstract:

Background: In Taiwan, people with disability can obtain national social welfare services after evaluation. All subsidies and services in- kind are pronounced in People with Disabilities Rights Protection Act. The new disability eligibility determination system base on ICF has carried out five years in Taiwan. There were no systematic outcomes to discuss the relationships between the evaluation results of activity and participation functioning (AP functioning) and ratification of social services for people with disability. The decision-making of welfare resources allocation is in local government, so the ratification could be affected by resource variations in every area (local governments). The purposes of this study are to compare the ratification rate between different areas (the equity of allocation), and to understand the ratification of social services for people with disability after needs assessment stage that can help to predict the resources allocation for local governments in the further. Methods: A cross-sectional study was used, and the data came from Disability Eligibility Determination System in Taiwan between 2013/11/04-2015/01/12. All samples were evaluated by FUNDES-adult version 7th and they all above 18 years old. The samples were collected face to face by physicians and AP evaluators. Result: In the needs assessment stage, the welfare ratification rates are significant differences between these local governments for the samples with the similar impairment and AP functioning.

Keywords: allocation, activity and participation, people with disability, justice

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7488 Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ekhlas Al Gamal, Tony Long

Abstract:

The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging. A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment. Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse. The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer. Methodology: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015. Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain. Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided, but their emotional needs were not met adequately. Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication. Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning. Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach.

Keywords: parents, children, cancer, Jordan

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7487 Perceived Family Functioning 12 Months after the COVID-19 Outbreak Has Been Declared a Global Pandemic

Authors: Snezana Svetozarevic

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine whether there were significant changes in perceptions of family functioning by families in Serbia 12 months after the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has been declared a global pandemic. Above all, what has protected families in the face of the global crisis caused by COVID-19. The Self-Report Family Inventory, II version (SFI-II; Beavers and Hampson, 2013) and the Inventory of Family Protective Factors (IFPF; Gardner et al., 2008) were used to assess family functioning and protective factors. Currently, families perceive their functioning as more problematic regarding family emotional expressiveness, conflict, cohesion, and global family health/competence. Adaptive appraisal based on positive coping experiences significantly predicted values on emotional expressiveness, conflict, leadership, and global family health/competence dimensions -a higher prevalence of this factor was associated with more optimal family functioning and fewer problems. The growing problem in family functioning with the beginning of the pandemic is inevitable. However, our research confirmed that it is not enough to take into account what families do to survive. It is equally important to learn about what they do to thrive i.e., to study the family resilience.

Keywords: family, coping, resilience, pandemic, COVID-19

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7486 Decisional Regret in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer among Various Treatment Options and the Association with Erectile Functioning and Depressive Symptoms: A Moderation Analysis

Authors: Caren Hilger, Silke Burkert, Friederike Kendel

Abstract:

Men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) have to choose among different treatment options, such as active surveillance (AS) and radical prostatectomy (RP). All available treatment options may be accompanied by specific psychological or physiological side effects. Depending on the nature and extent of these side effects, patients are more or less likely to be satisfied or to struggle with their treatment decision in the long term. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess and explain decisional regret in men with localized PCa. The role of erectile functioning as one of the main physiological side effects of invasive PCa treatment, depressive symptoms as a common psychological side effect, and the association of erectile functioning and depressive symptoms with decisional regret were investigated. Men with localized PCa initially managed with AS or RP (N=292) were matched according to length of therapy (mean 47.9±15.4 months). Subjects completed mailed questionnaires assessing decisional regret, changes in erectile functioning, depressive symptoms, and sociodemographic variables. Clinical data were obtained from case report forms. Differences among the two treatment groups (AS and RP) were calculated using t-tests and χ²-tests, relationships of decisional regret with erectile functioning and depressive symptoms were computed using multiple regression. Men were on average 70±7.2 years old. The two treatment groups differed markedly regarding decisional regret (p<.001, d=.50), changes in erectile functioning (p<.001, d=1.2), and depressive symptoms (p=.01, d=.30), with men after RP reporting higher values, respectively. Regression analyses showed that after adjustment for age, tumor risk category, and changes in erectile functioning, depressive symptoms were still significantly associated with decisional regret (B=0.52, p<.001). Additionally, when predicting decisional regret, the interaction of changes in erectile functioning and depressive symptoms reached significance for men after RP (B=0.52, p<.001), but not for men under AS (B=-0.16, p=.14). With increased changes in erectile functioning, the association of depressive symptoms with decisional regret became stronger in men after RP. Decisional regret is a phenomenon more prominent in men after RP than in men under AS. Erectile functioning and depressive symptoms interact in their prediction of decisional regret. Screening and treating depressive symptoms might constitute a starting point for interventions aiming to reduce decisional regret in this target group.

Keywords: active surveillance, decisional regret, depressive symptoms, erectile functioning, prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy

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7485 A Social Care Intervention for Improving the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana

Authors: Tina Abrefa-Gyan

Abstract:

Background: In Ghana and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is a public health threat and also causes medical crises for many who are infected with the virus. Objective: This study tested a social care intervention developed to help improve the quality of life of those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Method: Adult respondents (N = 248) were assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for six weeks. Results: Results of the study revealed significant differences between the treatment and control groups in their reports of quality of life. Respondents reported better quality of life upon receiving the intervention. Implication: This study sheds light on the positive relationship between the intervention and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Conclusion: The intervention is innovative and novel in the setting. It will, therefore, help to reduce the risks such as depression, low cognitive functioning, and low physical functioning associated with low quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana in specific, and in sub-Saharan Africa in general.

Keywords: social care intervention, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, quality of life

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7484 Exercise and Social Activities for Elderly with an Impairment Who Are Living Alone in the Community: Effects and Influencing Factors of a Dutch Program

Authors: Renate Verkaik, Mieke Rijken, Hennie Boeije

Abstract:

Elderly who are living alone and who are having one or more impairments are vulnerable for a loss of wellbeing and institutionalization. Physical exercise and social activities together with peers have the potential to make them more resilient. The Dutch program ‘More Resilience, Longer at Home’ initiated by FNO funded 126 local projects to stimulate vulnerable older citizens to participate in exercise and social activities, and as such to improve wellbeing and independent living. The program evaluation addressed the following questions: (1) what are the effects of the program on older (65+) participants exercise behavior, social activities and what is the relationship with wellbeing?, (2) which factors contribute to successful implementation of the projects and their outcomes? A mixed method approach was used. Effects on participants were assessed with a short survey, containing questions on exercise, social engagement, daily functioning, loneliness and life satisfaction. Results of the participants were compared with those of a reference group from the Dutch national population. Perceived influencing factors were investigated with a questionnaire for project leaders. This questionnaire was based on site visits and interviews with project leaders, volunteers and participating elderly. Preliminary results show that social engagement of the participating elderly rises significantly (p ≤ .05) as do their exercise levels and daily functioning. They experience less social loneliness, but not less emotional loneliness. Additionally, there is a positive association between daily functioning and life satisfaction and between exercise and life satisfaction. Perceived influencing factors that contribute to successful implementation of the projects can be categorized in 4 types: (1) characteristics of the activities; (2) profiles of the involved staff (professionals and volunteers), (3) characteristics of the organization, (4) the social political environment. Conclusions are that local projects have been successful in stimulating older citizens to participate in exercise and social activities. Multiple factors need to be addressed to ensure sustainability and scaling-up of the good practices.

Keywords: elderly living alone in the community, exercise and social activities, resilience, quality of life

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7483 Translation and Validation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for Children in Pakistani Context

Authors: Nazia Mustafa, Aneela Maqsood

Abstract:

Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory is the most widely used instrument for assessing children and adolescent health-related quality of life and has shown excellent markers of reliability and validity. The current study was carried out with the objectives of translation and cross-language validation along with the determination of factor Structure and psychometric properties of the Urdu version. It was administered on 154 Primary School Children with age range 10 to12 years (M= 10.86, S.D = 0.62); including boys (n=92) and girls (n = 62). The sample was recruited from two randomly selected schools from the Rawalpindi district of Pakistan. Results of the pilot phase revealed that the instrument had good reliability (Urdu Version α = 0.798; English Version α = 0.795) as well as test-retest correlation coefficients over a period of 15 days (r = 0.85). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) resulted in three factorial structures; Social/School Functioning (k = 8), Psychological Functioning (k = 7) and Physical Functioning (k = 6) considered suitable for our sample instead of four factors. Bartlett's test of sphericity showed inter-correlation between variables. However, factor loadings for items 22 and 23 of the School Functioning subscale were problematic. The model was fit to the data after their removal with Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability coefficient of the scale (k = 21) as 0.87 and for subscales as 0.75, 0.77 and 0.73 for Social/School Scale, Psychological subscale and Physical subscale, respectively. These results supported the feasibility and reliability of the Urdu version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory as a reliable and effective tool for the measurement of quality of life among Pediatrics Pakistani population.

Keywords: primary school children, paediatric quality of life, exploratory factor analysis, Pakistan

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7482 Social Support and Quality of Life of Youth Suffering from Cerebral Palsy Temporarily Orphaned Due to Emigration of a Parent

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

The article is concerned in the issue of social support and quality of life of youth suffering from cerebral palsy, who are temporarily orphaned due to the emigration of a parent. Migration causes multi-aspect consequences in various spheres of life. They are particularly severe for the functioning of families. Temporal parting of parents and children, especially the disabled, is a difficult situation. In this case, the family structure is changed, as well as the quality of life of its members. Children can handle migration parting in a better or worse way; these can be divided into properly functioning and manifesting behaviour disorders. In conditions of the progressing phenomenon of labour migration of Poles and a wide spectrum of consequences for the whole social life, it is essential to undertake actions aimed at support of migrants and their families. This article focuses mainly on social support and quality of families members, of which, are the labour migrants perceived by youth suffering from cerebral palsy. The quantitative method was used in this study. In the study, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener, was used. The analysed group consisted of 50 persons (37 girls and 13 boys), aged 16 years to 18 years, whose parents are labour migrants. The results indicate that the quality of life and social support for youth suffering from cerebral palsy who are temporarily orphaned is at a low and average level.

Keywords: social support, quality of life, migration, cerebral palsy

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7481 Georgian Social Security System Compatibility with EU Requirements

Authors: Nino Grigolaia

Abstract:

Introduction: The article discusses the experience of the EU in the social field, analyzes the peculiarities of the functioning of the social system in Georgia, and reveals the priority and importance of social policy. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper. There are used induction, deduction, analysis, synthesis, analogy, correlation, and statistical observation methodologies in the work. Main Findings: Based on the analysis of social security reforms in Georgia, the main systematic problems are detected, the recommendations on social security system components, integration of the social security field in the unified insurance system, the formation of the national social system, perfection of the legislative, regulatory framework of social protection, adoption of foreign experience are developed in the article. Conclusion: The article concludes that the social protection system in Georgia is at an early stage of development, with the significant impact of factors such as high level of unemployment, low pensions, a large number of families living under the poverty line, and other ones. Accordingly, it is well-established that the study of the social security problem in Georgia is still actual. Based on the analysis, appropriate suggestions in the field of social security are made, and relevant recommendations are proposed.

Keywords: social security, social system, social policy, social security models

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7480 The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Developing Emotion Regulation Skill for Adolescent with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Shahnaz Safitri, Rose Mini Agoes Salim, Pratiwi Widyasari

Abstract:

Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that appears before the age of 18 years old. The prominent impacts of intellectual disability in adolescents are failure to establish interpersonal relationships as socially expected and lower academic achievement. Meanwhile, it is known that emotion regulation skills have a role in supporting the functioning of individual, either by nourishing the development of social skills as well as by facilitating the process of learning and adaptation in school. This study aims to look for the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) in developing emotion regulation skills for adolescents with intellectual disability. DBT's special consideration toward clients’ social environment and their biological condition is foreseen to be the key for developing emotion regulation capacity for subjects with intellectual disability. Through observations on client's behavior, conducted before and after the completion of DBT intervention program, it was found that there is an improvement in client's knowledge and attitudes related to the mastery of emotion regulation skills. In addition, client's consistency to actually practice emotion regulation techniques over time is largely influenced by the support received from the client's social circles.

Keywords: adolescent, dialectical behavior therapy, emotion regulation, intellectual disability

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7479 School and Family Impairment Associated with Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Examining Differences in Parent and Child Report

Authors: Melissa K. Hord, Stephen P. Whiteside

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Impairment in functioning is a requirement for diagnosing psychopathology, identifying individuals in need of treatment, and documenting improvement with treatment. Further, identifying different types of functional impairment can guide educators and treatment providers. However, most assessment tools focus on symptom severity and few measures assess impairment associated with childhood anxiety disorders. The child- and parent-report versions of the Child Sheehan Disability Scale (CSDS) are measures that may provide useful information regarding impairment. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether children diagnosed with different anxiety disorders have greater impairment in school or home functioning based on self or parent report. The sample consisted of 844 children ages 5 to 19 years of age (mean 13.43, 61% female, 90.9% Caucasian), including 281 children diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 200 with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 176 with social phobia, 83 with separation anxiety, 61 with anxiety not otherwise specified (NOS), 30 with panic disorder, and 13 with panic with agoraphobia. To assess whether children and parents reported greater impairment in school or home functioning, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted. (The assumptions of independence and homogeneity of variance were checked and met). A significant difference was found, Pillai's trace = .143, F (4, 28) = 4.19, p < .001, partial eta squared = .04. Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that children report significantly greater impairment in school with panic disorder (M=5.18, SD=3.28), social phobia (M=4.95, SD=3.20), and OCD (M=4.62, SD=3.32) compared to other diagnoses; whereas parents endorse significantly greater school impairment when their child has a social phobia (M=5.70, SD=3.39) diagnosis. Interestingly, both children and parents reported greater impairment in family functioning for an OCD (child report M=5.37, SD=3.20; parent report M=5.59, SD=3.38) diagnosis compared to other anxiety diagnoses. (Additional findings for the anxiety disorders associated with less impairment will also be presented). The results of the current study have important implications for educators and treatment providers who are working with anxious children. First, understanding that differences exist in how children and parents view impairment related to childhood anxiety can help those working with these families to be more sensitive during interactions. Second, evidence suggests that difficulties in one environment do not necessarily translate to another environment, thus caregivers may benefit from careful explanation of observations obtained by educators. Third, results support the use of the CSDS measure by treatment providers to identify impairment across environments in order to more effectively target interventions.

Keywords: anxiety, childhood, impairment, school functioning

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7478 Jordanian Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates with Family Functioning and Demographics

Authors: Fatmeh Alzoubi, Reem Ali

Abstract:

Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men’s and women’s attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics (M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 (SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 (SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores (r = –.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS (r = –.27, p = .00) and (r = –.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, Jordanian men and women’s health, attitudes, family functioning

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7477 Cognitive Functioning and Cortisol Suppression in Major Depression in a Long-Term Perspective

Authors: Pia Berner Hansson, Robert Murison Anders Lund, Hammar Åsa

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Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often associated with high levels of stress and disturbances in the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) system, yielding high levels of cortisol, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies in this patient group have shown a relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in the acute phase of MDD and that the patients had significantly less suppression after dexamethasone administration. However, few studies have investigated this relationship over time and in phases of symptom reduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between cortisol levels after the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) and cognitive function in a long term perspective in MDD patients. Patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a MDD were included in the study and tested in symptom reduction. A control group was included. Cortisol was measured in saliva collected with Salivette sampling devices. Saliva samples were collected 4 times during a 24 hours period over two consecutive days: at awakening, after 45 minutes, after 7 hours and at 11 pm. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg) was given on Day 1 at 11 pm. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of standardized tests measuring memory and Executive Functioning (EF). Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls on Day 1 or Day 2. Both groups showed significant suppression after Dexamethasone. There were no correlations between cortisol levels or suppression after Dexamethasone and cognitive measures. The results indicate that the HPA-axis functioning normalizes in phases of symptom reduction in MDD patients and that there no relation between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in memory or EF.

Keywords: depression, MDD, cortisol, suppression, cognitive functioning

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7476 Neuropsychology of Social Awareness: A Research Study Applied to University Students in Greece

Authors: Argyris Karapetsas, Maria Bampou, Andriani Mitropoulou

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The aim of the present work is to study the role of brain function in social awareness processing. Mind controls all the psychosomatic functions. Mind’s functioning enables individual not only to recognize one's own self and propositional attitudes, but also to assign such attitudes to other individuals, and to consider such observed mental states in the elucidation of behavior. Participants and Methods: Twenty (n=20) undergraduate students (mean age 18 years old) were involved in this study. Students participated in a clinical assessment, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Assessment included both electrophysiological (i.e.Event Related Potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests (Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and Sally-Anne test). Results: Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant differences between the males and females, as well as in score performance to the tests applied. Strong correlations emerged between prefrontal lobe functioning, RPM, Sally-Anne test and P300 latencies. Also, significant dysfunction of mind has been found, regarding its three dimensions (straight, circular and helical). At the end of the assessment, students received consultation and appropriate guidelines in order to improve their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Conclusions: Mind and social awareness phenomena play a vital role in human development and may act as determinants of the quality of one’s own life. Meanwhile, brain function is highly correlated with social awareness and it seems that different set of brain structures are involved in social behavior.

Keywords: brain activity, emotions, ERP's, social awareness

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7475 The Relation Between Social Class, Race Homophily and Mental Health Outcomes of Black College Students

Authors: Omari W. Keeles

Abstract:

Attention to social class and race processes could illuminate within- group differences in Black students' experiences that help explain variation in adjustment. Of interest is how social class relates to development of intragroup connections with other Black students on campus in ways that promote or inhibit well-being. The present study’s findings suggest that students from lower class backgrounds may be more restrictive or limited in opportunities around their intragroup friendship networks than more affluent students. Furthermore, Black social relationship networks were related to positive mental health adjustment important to healthy psychological functioning and development.

Keywords: black students, social class, homophily, psychological adjustment

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
7474 Parents of Mentally Disabled Children in Iran: A Study of Their Parenting Stress Levels and Mental Health

Authors: Mohsen Amiri

Abstract:

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between familial functioning, child characteristics, demographic variables and parenting stress and mental health among parents of children with mental disabilities. 200 parents (130 mothers and 70 fathers) were studied and they completed the Parenting Stress Index, General Health Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device and demographic questionnaires for parents and children. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis showed that child characteristics, familial functioning and parents demographic factors could predict 8, 4 and 17 percent of variance in parental stress and 3.6, 16 and 10 percent of variance in mental health, respectively. Familial functioning, child characteristics and parental demographic variables correlated with mental health and parental stress and could predict them.

Keywords: parenting stress, mental health, mentally disabled children, familial functioning, demographic variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
7473 Correlation between Visual Perception and Social Function in Patients with Schizophrenia

Authors: Candy Chieh Lee

Abstract:

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between visual perception and social function in patients with schizophrenia. The specific aims are: 1) To explore performances in visual perception and social function in patients with schizophrenia 2) to examine the correlation between visual perceptual skills and social function in patients with schizophrenia The long-term goal is to be able to provide the most adequate intervention program for promoting patients’ visual perceptual skills and social function, as well as compensatory techniques. Background: Perceptual deficits in schizophrenia have been well documented in the visual system. Clinically, a considerable portion (up to 60%) of schizophrenia patients report distorted visual experiences such as visual perception of motion, color, size, and facial expression. Visual perception is required for the successful performance of most activities of daily living, such as dressing, making a cup of tea, driving a car and reading. On the other hand, patients with schizophrenia usually exhibit psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucination and delusions which tend to alter their perception of reality and affect their quality of interpersonal relationship and limit their participation in various social situations. Social function plays an important role in the prognosis of patients with schizophrenia; lower social functioning skills can lead to poorer prognosis. Investigations on the relationship between social functioning and perceptual ability in patients with schizophrenia are relatively new but important as the results could provide information for effective intervention on visual perception and social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We recruited 50 participants with schizophrenia in the mental health hospital (Taipei City Hospital, Songde branch, Taipei, Taiwan) acute ward. Participants who have signed consent forms, diagnosis of schizophrenia and having no organic vision deficits were included. Participants were administered the test of visual-perceptual skills (non-motor), third edition (TVPS-3) and the personal and social performance scale (PSP) for assessing visual perceptual skill and social function. The assessments will take about 70-90 minutes to complete. Data Analysis: The IBM SPSS 21.0 will be used to perform the statistical analysis. First, descriptive statistics will be performed to describe the characteristics and performance of the participants. Lastly, Pearson correlation will be computed to examine the correlation between PSP and TVPS-3 scores. Results: Significant differences were found between the means of participants’ TVPS-3 raw scores of each subtest with the age equivalent raw score provided by the TVPS-3 manual. Significant correlations were found between all 7 subtests of TVPS-3 and PSP total score. Conclusions: The results showed that patients with schizophrenia do exhibit visual perceptual deficits and is correlated social functions. Understanding these facts of patients with schizophrenia can assist health care professionals in designing and implementing adequate rehabilitative treatment according to patients’ needs.

Keywords: occupational therapy, social function, schizophrenia, visual perception

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7472 Daily Dietary Intake and Cognitive Functioning among Population in Malaysia

Authors: Khor Khai Ling, Vashnarekha A/P Kumarasuriar, Tan Kok Wei, Ooi Pei Boon

Abstract:

The food pyramid had been stressed for years and used to promote a healthy diet. Recently, the Ministry of Health in Malaysia has changed the food pyramid structure. They moved fruits and vegetables to the bottom layer and encouraged citizens to consume more fruits and vegetables. Past research has shown that the amount of vegetables and fruits consumption has associated with cognitive health. However, Malaysians have yet to achieve the amount of fruit and vegetable intake as per recommendation. Thus, this study aims to investigate Malaysian’s habitual diet and cognitive functioning via a cross-sectional study. One hundred and ninety-three participants will be recruited via convenient sampling. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) measures the habitual diet, and an online cognitive test measures attention, executive functioning, and memory objectively. The collected one hundred samples to the date of abstract submission, and the data collection is still in progress. This study will provide an insight to Malaysian about the diet pattern and its relationship with cognitive performance.

Keywords: attention, cognitive, executive functioning, habitual diet, memory

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7471 Importance of Positive Education: A Focus on the Importance of Character Strength Building

Authors: Hajra Hussain

Abstract:

Positive education, the inclusion of social, emotional and intellectual skills across a curriculum, is fundamental to the optimal functioning of young people in any society because it combines the best teaching practices with the principles of positive psychology. While learning institutions foster academic skills, little attention is being paid to the identification and development of character strengths and their integration into teaching. There is an increasing recognition of the important role education plays in equipping today’s youth with 21st century social skills. For youth to succeed in this highly competitive environment, there is a need for positive education that is focused on character strengths such as the growth of social, emotional and intellectual skills that promote the flourishing of well-rounded individuals. Character strength programs and awareness are a necessity if the human capital within a region is to be competitive, productive and happy. The Counselling & Wellbeing Centre at Amity University Dubai has consistently implemented Character Strength awareness workshops and has found that such workshops have increased student life satisfaction due to individual awareness of signature strengths. A positive education/positive psychology framework with its key focus on the development of character strengths can be fundamental to individual's confidence and self-awareness; thus allowing both optimum flourishing and functioning.

Keywords: positive psychology, positive education, strengths, youth, happiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
7470 Utility of Executive Function Training in Typically Developing Adolescents and Special Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Emily C. Shepard, Caroline Sweeney, Jessica Grimm, Sophie Jacobs, Lauren Thompson, Lisa L. Weyandt

Abstract:

Adolescence is a critical phase of development in which individuals are prone to more risky behavior while also facing potentially life-changing decisions. The balance of increased behavioral risk and responsibility indicates the importance of executive functioning ability. In recent years, executive function training has emerged as a technique to enhance this cognitive ability. The aim of the present systematic review was to discuss the reported efficacy of executive functioning training techniques among adolescents. After reviewing 3110 articles, a total of 24 articles were identified which examined the role of executive functioning training techniques among adolescents (age 10-19). Articles retrieved demonstrated points of comparison across psychiatric and medical diagnosis, location of training, and stage of adolescence. Typically developing samples, as well as those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conduct disorder, and physical health concerns were found, allowing for the comparison of the efficacy of techniques considering physical and psychological heterogeneity. Among typically developing adolescents, executive functioning training yielded nonsignificant or low effect size improvements in executive functioning, and in some cases executive functioning ability was decreased following the training. In special populations, including those with ADHD, (ASD), conduct disorder, and physical health concerns significant differences and larger effect sizes in executive functioning were seen following treatment, particularly among individuals with ADHD. Future research is needed to identify the long-term efficacy of these treatments, as well as their generalizability to real-world conditions.

Keywords: adolescence, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, executive function, executive function training, traumatic brain injury

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7469 Evaluating Factors Impacting Functioning Management Control Systems Becoming Dysfunctional Beyond Intra-Organizational Boundaries

Authors: Martin Kartomo

Abstract:

Though Management Control Systems (MCS) research has evolved beyond intra-organizational boundaries, there is limited understanding of the impact of a functioning MCS being functional beyond intra-organizational boundaries. The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that have an impact on functioning management Control Systems (MCS)becoming (dys-)functional beyond its intra-organizational boundaries. To bridge the theoretical gap, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify inter-and extra-organizational factors that are purposely suggested or unintendingly mentioned by MCS researchers to evaluate functioning MCS becoming (dys-)functional. A conceptual map is rationalized and constructed from five contingent inter-and extra-organizational MCS frameworks illuminating under-investigated MSC research areas and allowing new research avenues based on academically known factors. A multiple case study followed by a co-researcher discussion group with the purpose of identifying academically unknown factors for evaluating MCS (dys-)functionality beyond its intra-organizational boundaries. The study's result will help bridge the gap between what academics know and not know of evaluating MCS being functional beyond intra-organizational boundaries with the opportunity to develop better, more complete theories. Furthermore, it will help organizations to evaluate the impact of their activities beyond intra-organizational boundaries.

Keywords: management control systems, management control systems evaluation, management controls, control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
7468 Different Views and Evaluations of IT Artifacts

Authors: Sameh Al-Natour, Izak Benbasat

Abstract:

The introduction of a multitude of new and interactive e-commerce information technology (IT) artifacts has impacted adoption research. Rather than solely functioning as productivity tools, new IT artifacts assume the roles of interaction mediators and social actors. This paper describes the varying roles assumed by IT artifacts, and proposes and distinguishes between four distinct foci of how the artifacts are evaluated. It further proposes a theoretical model that maps the different views of IT artifacts to four distinct types of evaluations.

Keywords: IT adoption, IT artifacts, similarity, social actor

Procedia PDF Downloads 310