Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: soccer

70 Soccer Match Result Prediction System (SMRPS) Model

Authors: Ajayi Olusola Olajide, Alonge Olaide Moses

Abstract:

Predicting the outcome of soccer matches poses an interesting challenge for which it is realistically impossible to successfully do so for every match. Despite this, there are lots of resources that are being expended on the correct prediction of soccer matches weekly, and all over the world. Soccer Match Result Prediction System Model (SMRPSM) is a system that is proposed whereby the results of matches between two soccer teams are auto-generated, with the added excitement of giving users a chance to test their predictive abilities. Soccer teams from different league football are loaded by the application, with each team’s corresponding manager and other information like team location, team logo and nickname. The user is also allowed to interact with the system by selecting the match to be predicted and viewing of the results of completed matches after registering/logging in.

Keywords: predicting, soccer match, outcome, soccer, matches, result prediction, system, model

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
69 Injury Prediction for Soccer Players Using Machine Learning

Authors: Amiel Satvedi, Richard Pyne

Abstract:

Injuries in professional sports occur on a regular basis. Some may be minor, while others can cause huge impact on a player's career and earning potential. In soccer, there is a high risk of players picking up injuries during game time. This research work seeks to help soccer players reduce the risk of getting injured by predicting the likelihood of injury while playing in the near future and then providing recommendations for intervention. The injury prediction tool will use a soccer player's number of minutes played on the field, number of appearances, distance covered and performance data for the current and previous seasons as variables to conduct statistical analysis and provide injury predictive results using a machine learning linear regression model.

Keywords: injury predictor, soccer injury prevention, machine learning in soccer, big data in soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
68 Evidence from the Field: The Case Study of Golitos as an Effective Soccer Program for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children

Authors: J. O. Alvarez, L. Y. Rivera

Abstract:

Physical activity can reduce symptomatology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sport of soccer has been widely applied as a therapeutic method for ASD children. However, empirical results from soccer programs are not widely known. This paper presents the case study of Golitos, the only dedicated soccer program for children on the island of Puerto Rico, and analyzes its results in the reduction of ASD social and emotional symptoms. The paper shows evidence that suggests that program approach, content, and community-based elements can make a notable difference in the effectiveness of using soccer or sports as therapeutic methods for children with ASD.

Keywords: autism, soccer, program, community

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
67 Oxidative Stress Markers in Sports Related to Training

Authors: V. Antevska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, E. Sivevska, S. Petrovska, S. Mancevska, I. Karagjozova

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to optimise the laboratory oxidative stress (OS) markers in soccer players. Material and methods: In a number of 37 soccer players (21±3 years old) and 25 control subjects (sedenters), plasma samples were taken for d-ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) and NO (nitric oxide) determination. The d-ROMs test was performed by measurement of hydroperoxide levels (Diacron, Italy). For NO determination the method of nitrate enzyme reduction with the Greiss reagent was used (OXIS, USA). The parameters were taken after the training of the soccer players and were compared with the control group. Training was considered as maximal exercise treadmill test. The criteria of maximum loading for each subject was established as >95% maximal heart rate. Results: The level of d-ROMs was found to be increased in the soccer players vs. control group but no significant difference was noticed. After the training d-ROMs in soccer players showed increased value of 299±44 UCarr (p<0.05). NO showed increased level in all soccer players vs. controls but significant difference was found after the training 102±29 μmol (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to these results we may suggest that the measuring these OS markers in sport medicine may be useful for better estimation and evaluation of the training program. More oxidative stress should be used to clarify optimization of the training intensity program.

Keywords: oxidative stress markers, soccer players, training, sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
66 The Effect of Acute Creatine Supplementation on Physiological Variables of Continuous and Intermittent Soccer Activities of Men Soccer Players

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

Abstract:

The aim of this study was studying the effect of acute creatine supplementation on physiological variables of continuous and intermittent soccer activities of men soccer players. 32 soccer players from Tarbiat Moalem University aged (22/3+-1/6) volunteered for this research and were divided into two groups randomly. Both experimental and control groups after 6 days taking supplementation were tested. For measuring height and weight meter and balance were used. Questionnaire for health background, lactate electro, heart beat measuring polar electro, continuous and intermittent training program and time recorder were used for data collection. For data analysis descriptive statistical techniques, two-way ANOVA and F test were used. The result of this study showed increased significantly in heart rate in control group. For control group heart beat was (71/6 +- 3/5) and for experimental group it was (75/3 +- 4/9). No significant differences were observed in players weight after taking creatine.

Keywords: heartbeat, lactate Blood, creatine, soccer players of Tarbiat Moalem University

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
65 Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players

Authors: Tarik Ozmen

Abstract:

The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.

Keywords: balance, jump height, Q angle, soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
64 The Effect of Postural Sway and Technical Parameters of 8 Weeks Technical Training Performed with Restrict of Visual Input on the 10-12 Ages Soccer Players

Authors: Nurtekin Erkmen, Turgut Kaplan, Halil Taskin, Ahmet Sanioglu, Gokhan Ipekoglu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an 8 week soccerspecific technical training with limited vision perception on postural control and technical parameters in 10-12 aged soccer players. Subjects in this study were 24 male young soccer players (age: 11.00 ± 0.56 years, height: 150.5 ± 4.23 cm, body weight: 41.49 ± 7.56 kg). Subjects were randomly divided as two groups: Training and control. Balance performance was measured by Biodex Balance System (BBS). Short pass, speed dribbling, 20 m speed with ball, ball control, juggling tests were used to measure soccer players’ technical performances with a ball. Subjects performed soccer training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. In each session, training group with limited vision perception and control group with normal vision perception committed soccer-specific technical drills for 20 min. Data analyzed with t-test for independent samples and Mann-Whitney U between groups and paired t-test and Wilcoxon test between pre-posttests. No significant difference was found balance scores and with eyes open and eyes closed and LOS test between training and control groups after training (p>0.05). After eight week of training there are no significant difference in balance score with eyes open for both training and control groups (p>0.05). Balance scores decreased in training and control groups after the training (p<0.05). The completion time of LOS test shortened in both training and control groups after training (p<0.05). The training developed speed dribbling performance of training group (p<0.05). On the other hand, soccer players’ performance in training and control groups increased in 20 m speed with a ball after eight week training (p<0.05). In conclusion; the results of this study indicate that soccer-specific training with limited vision perception may not improves balance performance in 10-12 aged soccer players, but it develops speed dribbling performance.

Keywords: Young soccer players, vision perception, postural control, technical

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
63 The Difference in Basic Skills among Different Positional Players in Football

Authors: Habib Sk, Ashoke Kumar Biswas

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Football is a team game. Eleven players of each team are arranged in different positions of play to serve the specific task during a game situation. Some such basic positions in a soccer game are (i) goal keepers (ii) defenders (iii) midfielders and (iv) forwards. Irrespective of the position, it is required for all football players to learn and get skilled in basic soccer skills like passing, receiving, heading, throwing, dribbling, etc. The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in these basic soccer skills among positional players in football if any. A total of thirty-nine (39) teen aged football players between 13 to 19 years were selected from Hooghly district in West Bengal, India, as subjects. Out of them, there were seven (7) goal keepers, twelve (12) defenders, thirteen (13) midfielders, and seven (7) forwards. Passing, dribbling, tackling, heading, and receiving were the selected basic soccer skills. The performance of the subjects of different positional groups in different selected soccer skills was tested using a standard test for each. On the basis of results obtained through statistical analysis of data, following results were obtained: i) there was significant difference among the groups in passing, dribbling and heading but not in receiving; ii) the goal keepers and defenders were the weakest in all selected soccer skills; iii) midfielders were found better in receiving than other three skills of passing, dribbling and heading; and iv) the forward group of players was found to be the better in passing, dribbling and heading but weakest in receiving than other groups.

Keywords: performance, difference, skill, fundamental, soccer, position

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
62 Predictor Factors in Predictive Model of Soccer Talent Identification among Male Players Aged 14 to 17 Years

Authors: Muhamad Hafiz Ismail, Ahmad H., Nelfianty M. R.

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The longitudinal study is conducted to identify predictive factors of soccer talent among male players aged 14 to 17 years. Convenience sampling involving elite respondents (n=20) and sub-elite respondents (n=20) male soccer players. Descriptive statistics were reported as frequencies and percentages. The inferential statistical analysis is used to report the status of reliability, independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and multiple regression analysis. Generally, there are differences in mean of height, muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, task orientation, cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, juggling skills, short pass skills, long pass skills, dribbling skills, and shooting skills for 20 elite players and sub-elite players. Accordingly, there was a significant difference between pre and post-test for thirteen variables of height, weight, fat percentage, muscle strength, muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, BMI, task orientation, juggling skills, short pass skills, a long pass skills, and dribbling skills. Based on the first predictive factors (physical), second predictive factors (fitness), third predictive factors (psychological), and fourth predictive factors (skills in playing football) pledged to the soccer talent; four multiple regression models were produced. The first predictive factor (physical) contributed 53.5 percent, supported by height and percentage of fat in soccer talents. The second predictive factor (fitness) contributed 63.2 percent and the third predictive factors (psychology) contributed 66.4 percent of soccer talent. The fourth predictive factors (skills) contributed 59.0 percent of soccer talent. The four multiple regression models could be used as a guide for talent scouting for soccer players of the future.

Keywords: soccer talent identification, fitness and physical test, soccer skills test, psychological test

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
61 Optimization Parameters Using Response Surface Method on Biomechanical Analysis for Malaysian Soccer Players

Authors: M. F. M. Ali, A. R. Ismail, B. M. Deros

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Soccer is very popular and ranked as the top sports in the world as well as in Malaysia. Although soccer sport in Malaysia is currently professionalized, but it’s plunging achievements within recent years continue and are not to be proud of. After review, the Malaysian soccer players are still weak in terms of kicking techniques. The instep kick is a technique, which is often used in soccer for the purpose of short passes and making a scoring. This study presents the 3D biomechanics analysis on a soccer player during performing instep kick. This study was conducted to determine the optimization value for approach angle, distance of supporting leg from the ball and ball internal pressure respect to the knee angular velocity of the ball on the kicking leg. Six subjects from different categories using dominant right leg and free from any injury were selected to take part in this study. Subjects were asked to perform one step instep kick according to the setting for the variables with different parameter. Data analysis was performed using 3 Dimensional “Qualisys Track Manager” system and will focused on the bottom of the body from the waist to the ankle. For this purpose, the marker will be attached to the bottom of the body before the kicking is perform by the subjects. Statistical analysis was conducted by using Minitab software using Response Surface Method through Box-Behnken design. The results of this study found the optimization values for all three parameters, namely the approach angle, 53.6º, distance of supporting leg from the ball, 8.84sm and ball internal pressure, 0.9bar with knee angular velocity, 779.27 degrees/sec have been produced.

Keywords: biomechanics, instep kick, soccer, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
60 A Phenomenological Study of Sports for the Analysis of Soccer Game: On Embodiment of the Goal Type Ball Games of Team Sports

Authors: K. Kiniwa, S. Kitagawa, M. Kawamoto, H. Uchiyama

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This study aims to identify phenomenologically the embodiment of soccer in order to analyze soccer games. In this paper the authors focused on the embodiment of sports and the embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports. The authors revealed that the embodiment of sports is represented by inverse proportional body. It is possible for this structure (body scheme) of intercorporeality of sports to be compared to the symbolic figure of Uroboros which is a monster connected the tails of two snakes. The embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports has dependency on situation and complexity. In doing this, it revealed that soccer is sensitive and emotional sports.

Keywords: intercorporeality, structure, body scheme, Uroboros, inverse proportional body, dependency on situation, complexity

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
59 Differences in Activity Patterns between Adult and U-21 Major League Players in Four Field Positions

Authors: U. Harel, E. Carmeli

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The Purpose was to measure differences in activity patterns between major league adult and U-21 soccer players. Four U-21 players and four adult team players were evaluated using a repeated measures technique. All eight players were affiliated with the Maccabi Haifa soccer club from the Israeli professional and U-21major leagues, depending on the player’s age. GPS sensors were attached to the players during five consecutive games to identify patterns regarding running distance and speed according to the field positions. There was no significant difference in the total running distances covered by two age groups. When measuring running speed, an advantage was observed in the adult group when comparing two players from different age groups that played the same position. Differences in activity patterns were evident between adult and U-21 major league soccer players. Furthermore, differences in within group activity pattern emerged between the positions under investigation. These findings provide valuable knowledge that may serve the principle of training specificity.

Keywords: physical fitness, soccer, positional differences, GPS, training specificity

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
58 Body Mass Components in Young Soccer Players

Authors: Elizabeta Sivevska, Sunchica Petrovska, Vaska Antevska, Lidija Todorovska, Sanja Manchevska, Beti Dejanova, Ivanka Karagjozova, Jasmina Pluncevic Gligoroska

Abstract:

Introduction: Body composition plays an important role in the selection of young soccer players and it is associated with their successful performance. The most commonly used model of body composition divides the body into two compartments: fat components and fat-free mass (muscular and bone components). The aims of the study were to determine the body composition parameters of young male soccer players and to show the differences in age groups. Material and methods: A sample of 52 young male soccer players, with an age span from 9 to 14 years were divided into two groups according to the age (group 1 aged 9 to 12 years and group 2 aged 12 to 14 years). Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the method of Mateigka. The following measurements were made: body weight, body height, circumferences (arm, forearm, thigh and calf), diameters (elbow, knee, wrist, ankle) and skinfold thickness (biceps, triceps, thigh, leg, chest, abdomen). The measurements were used in Mateigka’s equations. Results: Body mass components were analyzed as absolute values (in kilograms) and as percentage values: the muscular component (MC kg and MC%), the bone component (BCkg and BC%) and the body fat (BFkg and BF%). The group up to 12 years showed the following mean values of the analyzed parameters: MM=21.5kg; MM%=46.3%; BC=8.1kg; BC%=19.1%; BF= 6.3kg; BF%= 15.7%. The second group aged 12-14 year had mean values of body composition parameters as follows: MM=25.6 kg; MM%=48.2%; BC = 11.4 kg; BC%=21.6%; BF= 8.5 kg; BF%= 14. 7%. Conclusions: The young soccer players aged 12 up to 14 years who are in the pre-pubertal phase of growth and development had higher bone component (p<0.05) compared to younger players. There is no significant difference in muscular and fat body component between the two groups of young soccer players.

Keywords: body composition, young soccer players, body fat, fat-free mass

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
57 Local Binary Patterns-Based Statistical Data Analysis for Accurate Soccer Match Prediction

Authors: Mohammad Ghahramani, Fahimeh Saei Manesh

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Winning a soccer game is based on thorough and deep analysis of the ongoing match. On the other hand, giant gambling companies are in vital need of such analysis to reduce their loss against their customers. In this research work, we perform deep, real-time analysis on every soccer match around the world that distinguishes our work from others by focusing on particular seasons, teams and partial analytics. Our contributions are presented in the platform called “Analyst Masters.” First, we introduce various sources of information available for soccer analysis for teams around the world that helped us record live statistical data and information from more than 50,000 soccer matches a year. Our second and main contribution is to introduce our proposed in-play performance evaluation. The third contribution is developing new features from stable soccer matches. The statistics of soccer matches and their odds before and in-play are considered in the image format versus time including the halftime. Local Binary patterns, (LBP) is then employed to extract features from the image. Our analyses reveal incredibly interesting features and rules if a soccer match has reached enough stability. For example, our “8-minute rule” implies if 'Team A' scores a goal and can maintain the result for at least 8 minutes then the match would end in their favor in a stable match. We could also make accurate predictions before the match of scoring less/more than 2.5 goals. We benefit from the Gradient Boosting Trees, GBT, to extract highly related features. Once the features are selected from this pool of data, the Decision trees decide if the match is stable. A stable match is then passed to a post-processing stage to check its properties such as betters’ and punters’ behavior and its statistical data to issue the prediction. The proposed method was trained using 140,000 soccer matches and tested on more than 100,000 samples achieving 98% accuracy to select stable matches. Our database from 240,000 matches shows that one can get over 20% betting profit per month using Analyst Masters. Such consistent profit outperforms human experts and shows the inefficiency of the betting market. Top soccer tipsters achieve 50% accuracy and 8% monthly profit in average only on regional matches. Both our collected database of more than 240,000 soccer matches from 2012 and our algorithm would greatly benefit coaches and punters to get accurate analysis.

Keywords: soccer, analytics, machine learning, database

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
56 Common Soccer Injuries and Its Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

Authors: C. Brandt, R. Christopher, N. Damons

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Background: Soccer is one of the most common sports in the world. It is associated with a significant chance of injury either during training or during the course of an actual match. Studies on the epidemiology of soccer injuries have been widely conducted, but methodological appraisal is lacking to make evidence-based decisions. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of common injuries in soccer and their risk factors. Methods: A systematic review was performed based on the Joanna Briggs Institute procedure for conducting systematic reviews. Databases such as SPORT Discus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct, PubMed, and grey literature were searched. The quality of selected studies was rated, and data extracted and tabulated. Plot data analysis was done, and incidence rates and odds ratios were calculated, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. I² statistic was used to determine the proportion of variation across studies. Results: The search yielded 62 studies, of which 21 were screened for inclusion. A total of 16 studies were included for the analysis, ten for qualitative and six for quantitative analysis. The included studies had, on average, a low risk of bias and good methodological quality. The heterogeneity amongst the pooled studies was, however, statistically significant (χ²-p value < 0.001). The pooled results indicated a high incidence of soccer injuries at an incidence rate of 6.83 per 1000 hours of play. The pooled results also showed significant evidence of risk factors and the likelihood of injury occurrence in relation to these risk factors (OR=1.12 95% CI 1.07; 1.17). Conclusion: Although multiple studies are available on the epidemiology of soccer injuries and risk factors, only a limited number of studies were of sound methodology to be included in a review. There was also significant heterogeneity amongst the studies. The incidence rate of common soccer injuries was found to be 6.83 per 1000 hours of play. This incidence rate is lower than the values reported by the majority of previous studies on the occurrence of common soccer injuries. The types of common soccer injuries found by this review support the soccer injuries pattern reported in existing literature as muscle strain and ligament sprain of varying severity, especially in the lower limbs. The risk factors that emerged from this systematic review are predominantly intrinsic risk factors. The risk factors increase the risk of traumatic and overuse injuries of the lower extremities such as hamstrings and groin strains, knee and ankle sprains, and contusion.

Keywords: incidence, prevalence, risk factors, soccer injuries

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
55 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin

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This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
54 Reasons for Adhesion of Membership: A Case Study of Brazilian Soccer Team

Authors: Alexandre Olkoski, Marcelo Curth

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Football in Brazil is considered a passion, being the most popular sport in the country, both by the consumer public and by the means of communication that divulge it individually, when compared with other sports modalities. In the last two decades, the soccer teams have given greater importance to the management, since they understood that the same should be managed as a company, but with peculiarities related to the business. In this sense, Brazilian soccer clubs started to make bigger investments for the adhesion of fans in their social frames, allowing a greater need of understanding about the profile of this group of fans/clients. Thus, this work aims to understand the reasons that cause the fans to join the club and identify variables present in the process of intention to join the club. For that, a qualitative exploratory research was conducted, in which thirty-one membership of a soccer club from southern Brazil were interviewed. Based on the interviews, five categories were classified as emotional aspects (passion and love), cognitive aspects (easy access to the stadium and promotional values in tickets), external influences (family and friends), situational aspects (club moment) and aspects related to the event (engagement by modality). As results found in the analysis, it can be highlighted that the motivation of the majority of the respondents to become a member of the analyzed club, is related to the emotional aspects, such as passion and love. Thus, it is perceived that sport, in the case of soccer, generates in the involved ones (fans and leaders) different manifestations, suggesting that the management of this type of business has great complexity and should not be observed only by the spectrum of the club like a business.

Keywords: consumer behavior, marketing, membership, soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
53 The Consumption of Limited Edition Products in Soccer Clubs of Southern Brazil

Authors: Eduardo Wiebbelling, Marcelo Curth

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Among the sporting modalities, soccer stands out as the one that reached the world's largest spray today, moving large monetary sums. However, the modality presents potential to be explored by the agents inserted in it. New advertising campaigns have overwhelmed the media and the consumption of sports goods, especially soccer, has increased over the years by having experts increase their marketing projects linked to this specific area. However, little is studied about consumer behavior regarding the purchase of specific products linked to the club. In this sense, the research aims to understand the reasons that lead the fans of two rival clubs in southern Brazil to consume limited edition products from their respective soccer clubs. The method used was an in-depth exploratory survey with thirty memberships and non-memberships. The results showed that in the group of memberships the main motivations are emotional, of historical rescue from memories and feelings that arouse in the fan when they remember their idols and the titles conquered by the club. In the group of non-memberships, a more rational and objective view was perceived, involving aspects such as promotion, utility and extra benefits. Finally, it is realized that fans generally do not value the products to be limited edition. It is believed that this is due to the fact that the products are usually marketed at a higher price when compared to similar products offered on a regular basis.

Keywords: consumer behavior, limited edition, soccer, sports marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
52 Task Kicking Performance with Biomechanical Instrumentation

Authors: T. Hirata, M. G. Silva, L. M. Rosa

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The balance ability during task kick in soccer is a determining factor in the execution of functional movements that require a high-performance motor coordination. The current experiment explored it during an instep soccer kick and functional task kicking. Their kicking performance was measured in terms of the sway characteristics using lateral and antero-posterior balance of the center of pressure (COP) for the supporting leg and the kinematic data, the supporting leg’s knee angle. The motion was realized with one-legged stance of five male indoor soccer players and using the trigger device ball controller. The results showed large balance in antero-posterior direction than in lateral direction. However, each player adopts a different way to kick the ball, and the media-lateral displacement of the COP showed no correlation with the balance skill.

Keywords: kicking performance, center of pressure, one-legged stance, balance ability

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
51 An Integrated Approach of Isolated and Combined Aerobic and Anaerobic Interval Training for Improvement of Stride Length and Stride Frequency of Soccer Players

Authors: K. A. Ramesh

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Purpose: The study is to find out the effect of isolated and combined aerobic and anaerobic interval training on stride length and stride frequency of Soccer players. Method(s): To achieve this purpose, 45 women Soccer players who participated in the Anna University, Tamilnadu, India. Intercollegiate Tournament was selected as subjects and were randomly divided into three equal groups of fifteen each, such as an anaerobic interval training group (group-I), anaerobic interval training group (group-II) and combined aerobic-anaerobic interval training group (group-III). The training program was conducted three days per weeks for a period of six weeks. Stride length and Stride frequency was selected as dependent variables. All the subjects of the three groups were tested on selected criterion variables at prior to and immediately after the training program. The concepts of dependent test were employed to find out the significant improvement due to the influence of training programs on all the selected criterion variables. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was also used to analyze the significant difference, if, any among the experimental groups. Result(s): The result of the study revealed that combined group was higher than aerobic interval training and anaerobic interval training groups. Conclusion(s): It was concluded that when experimental groups were compared with each other, the combined aerobic – anaerobic interval training program was found to be greater than the aerobic and the anaerobic interval training programs on the development of stride length and stride frequency. High intensity, combined aerobic – anaerobic interval training program can be carried out in a more soccer specific way than plain running.

Keywords: stride length, stride frequency, interval training, soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
50 The Use of Global Positioning Systems to Evaluate the Effect of Protein and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Collegiate Soccer Performance

Authors: Joshua Bradley, Matthew Buns

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This study aimed to identify the effect of concurrent nutritional supplementation on soccer performance as players ingested either carbohydrate CHO (52 g of Cytocarb Maltodextrin) or a combined carbohydrate and protein PRO (Muscle Milk Pro Series 17g CHO + 50 g PRO liquid) supplement. Twelve male, junior college soccer players (age: 18 ± 6 years, wt. 73.3 ± 8.6 kg) completed three trials wearing global positioning systems (GPS) to measure total running distance and sprinting distance during soccer simulation games. The first match simulation was a baseline match with no supplementation. One hour prior to the second match, simulation players were randomly assigned to one of two supplemental groups CHO or CHO + PRO. A repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction revealed a statistically significant increase in the total distance run for the CHO supplementation group in comparison to the CHO + PRO group (10.19 ± .200 km vs. 9.77± .194km, p = .035). Although the total running distance was meaningfully influenced by the supplementation, the pattern of response for total sprinting distance was not influenced by supplementation. There was a decline in sprinting distance and total running distance from first half to second half, both for the control (M = -0.01 km, SD = 0.17) and CHO supplementation group (-0.04 km, SD = .19), although these differences were not statistically meaningful. There was a positive correlation between sprinting distance and total distance, which was statistically significant (r = -.514, n = 36, p = .01) In conclusion, supplementation influenced the pattern of activity and demonstrated between-trial differences.

Keywords: GPS, nutrition, simulation, supplementation

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
49 Effects of Gender on Kinematics Kicking in Soccer

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

Abstract:

Soccer is a game which draws more attention in different countries especially in Brazil. Kicking among different skills in soccer and soccer players is an excellent role for the success and preference of a team. The way of point gaining in this game is passing the ball over the goal lines which are gained by shoot skill in attack time and or during the penalty kicks.Regarding the above assumption, identifying the effective factors in instep kicking in different distances shoot with maximum force and high accuracy or pass and penalty kick, may assist the coaches and players in raising qualitative level of performing the skill.The aim of the present study was to study of a few kinematical parameters in instep kicking from 5 and 7 meter distance among the male and female elite soccer players.24 right dominant lower limb subjects (12 males and 12 females) among Tehran elite soccer players with average and the standard deviation (22.5 ± 1.5) & (22.08± 1.31) years, height of (179.5 ± 5.81) & (164.3 ± 4.09) cm, weight of (69.66 ± 4.09) & (53.16 ± 3.51) kg, %BMI (21.06 ± .731) & (19.67 ± .709), having playing history of (4 ± .73) & (3.08 ± .66) years respectively participated in this study. They had at least two years of continuous playing experience in Tehran soccer league.For sampling player's kick; Kinemetrix Motion analysis with three cameras with 1000 Hz was used. Five reflective markers were placed laterally on the kicking leg over anatomical points (the iliac crest, major trochanter, lateral epicondyle of femur, lateral malleolus, and lateral aspect of distal head of the fifth metatarsus). Instep kick was filmed, with one step approach and 30 to 45 degrees angle from stationary ball. Three kicks were filmed, one kick selected for further analyses. Using Kinemetrix 3D motion analysis software, the position of the markers was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean and standard deviation, while the analysis of variance, and independent t-test (P < 0.05) were used to compare the kinematic parameters between two genders.Among the evaluated parameters, the knee acceleration, the thigh angular velocity, the angle of knee proportionately showed significant relationship with consequence of kick. While company performance on 5m in 2 genders, significant differences were observed in internal – external displacement of toe, ankle, hip and the velocity of toe, ankle and the acceleration of toe and the angular velocity of pelvic, thigh and before time contact . Significant differences showed the internal – external displacement of toe, the ankle, the knee and the hip, the iliac crest and the velocity of toe, the ankle and acceleration of ankle and angular velocity of the pelvic and the knee.

Keywords: biomechanics, kinematics, instep kicking, soccer

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48 A Study of Kinematical Parameters I9N Instep Kicking in Soccer

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

Abstract:

Introduction: Soccer is a game which draws more attention in different countries especially in Brazil. Kicking among different skills in soccer and soccer players is an excellent role for the success and preference of a team. The way of point gaining in this game is passing the ball over the goal lines which are gained by shoot skill in attack time and or during the penalty kicks.Regarding the above assumption, identifying the effective factors in instep kicking in different distances shoot with maximum force and high accuracy or pass and penalty kick, may assist the coaches and players in raising qualitative level of performing the skill. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study of a few kinematical parameters in instep kicking from 3 and 5 meter distance among the male and female elite soccer players. Methods: 24 right dominant lower limb subjects (12 males and 12 females) among Tehran elite soccer players with average and the standard deviation (22.5 ± 1.5) & (22.08± 1.31) years, height of (179.5 ± 5.81) & (164.3 ± 4.09) cm, weight of (69.66 ± 4.09) & (53.16 ± 3.51) kg, %BMI (21.06 ± .731) & (19.67 ± .709), having playing history of (4 ± .73) & (3.08 ± .66) years respectively participated in this study. They had at least two years of continuous playing experience in Tehran soccer league.For sampling player's kick; Kinemetrix Motion analysis with three cameras with 500 Hz was used. Five reflective markers were placed laterally on the kicking leg over anatomical points (the iliac crest, major trochanter, lateral epicondyle of femur, lateral malleolus, and lateral aspect of distal head of the fifth metatarsus). Instep kick was filmed, with one step approach and 30 to 45 degrees angle from stationary ball. Three kicks were filmed, one kick selected for further analyses. Using Kinemetrix 3D motion analysis software, the position of the markers was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean and standard deviation, while the analysis of variance, and independent t-test (P < 0.05) were used to compare the kinematic parameters between two genders. Results and Discussion: Among the evaluated parameters, the knee acceleration, the thigh angular velocity, the angle of knee proportionately showed significant relationship with consequence of kick. While company performance on 5m in 2 genders, significant differences were observed in internal – external displacement of toe, ankle, hip and the velocity of toe, ankle and the acceleration of toe and the angular velocity of pelvic, thigh and before time contact. Significant differences showed the internal – external displacement of toe, the ankle, the knee and the hip, the iliac crest and the velocity of toe, the ankle and acceleration of ankle and angular velocity of the pelvic and the knee.

Keywords: biomechanics, kinematics, soccer, instep kick, male, female

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47 Relationship between the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 and Anaerobic Performance Tests in Youth Soccer Players

Authors: Turgay Ozgur, Bahar Ozgur, Gurcan Yazici

Abstract:

The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1) and relatively easy to conduct anaerobic power tests such as Sergeant (SJ) and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), the flexibility Sit&Reach test (S&R) and Hexagon Agility (HA) test in twenty youth soccer players, aged 14 years. Players completed YYIR1 and other performance tests [(SJ), (SBJ] in two consecutive days. The mean YYIR1 distances for the players was 1454 ± 420 m. Peak Anaerobic Power (PAPw) was calculated using SJ (cm) scores. The mean PAPw was 2966,83w. Spearman’s correlation test results revealed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between HA and YYIR1 tests (r = -0.72, p=0.000) and no significant correlation was found between anaerobic power tests and YYIR1. In conclusion, as a test to measure player’s intermittent aerobic capacity YYIR1 test and anaerobic power test results have not shown significant correlation. Although the YYIR1 test has been used in talent identification, anaerobic qualifications of player’s should be assessed using designated performance tests.

Keywords: yo-yo test, anaerobic power, soccer, sergeant jump test

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46 Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Young Soccer Players in Republic of Macedonia

Authors: Sanja Manchevska, Vaska Antevska, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Sunchica Petrovska, Ivanka Karagjozova, Elizabeta Sivevska, Jasmina Pluncevic Gligoroska

Abstract:

Introduction: A number of positive effects on the player’s physical status, including the body mass components are attributed to training process. As young soccer players grow up qualitative and quantitative changes appear and contribute to better performance. Player’s anthropometric and physiologic characteristics are recognized as important determinants of performance. Material: A sample of 52 soccer players with an age span from 9 to 14 years were divided in two groups differentiated by age. The younger group consisted of 25 boys under 11 years (mean age 10.2) and second group consisted of 27 boys with mean age 12.64. Method: The set of basic anthropometric parameters was analyzed: height, weight, BMI (Body Mass Index) and body mass components. Maximal oxygen uptake was tested using the treadmill protocol by Brus. Results: The group aged under 11 years showed the following anthropometric and physiological features: average height= 143.39cm, average weight= 44.27 kg; BMI= 18.77; Err = 5.04; Hb= 13.78 g/l; VO2=37.72 mlO2/kg. Average values of analyzed parameters were as follows: height was 163.7 cm; weight= 56.3 kg; BMI = 19.6; VO2= 39.52 ml/kg; Err=5.01; Hb=14.3g/l for the participants aged 12 to14 years. Conclusion: Physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake, erythrocytes and Hb) were insignificantly higher in the older group compared to the younger group. There were no statistically significant differences between analyzed anthropometric parameters among the two groups except for the basic measurements (height and weight).

Keywords: body composition, young soccer players, BMI, physical status

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45 The Effects of Dynamic Training Shoes Exercises on Isokinetic Strength Performance

Authors: Bergun Meric Bingul, Yezdan Cinel, Murat Son, Cigdem Bulgan, Mensure Aydin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determination of the effects of knee and hip isokinetic performance during the training with the special designed roller-shoes. 30 soccer players participated as subjects and these subjects were divided into 3 groups randomly. Training groups were; with the dynamic training shoes group, without the dynamic training shoes group and control group. Subjects were trained speed strength trainings during 8 weeks (3 days a week and 1 hour a day). 6 exercises were focused on the knee flexors and extensors, also hip adductor and abductor muscles were chosen and performed in 3x30secs at each sets. Control group was not paticipated to the training program. Before and after the training programs knee flexor and extensor muscles and hip abductor and adductor muscles’ peak torques were measured by Biodex III isokinetic dynamometer. Isokinetic strength data were analyzed by using SPSS program. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences among the peak torque values for three groups. The results indicated that soccer players’ peak torque values that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were found higher. Also, hip adductor and abductor peak torques that the group of using the dynamic training shoes, were obtained better than the other groups. In conclusion, the ground friction forces are an important role of increasing strength. With these shoes, using rollers, soccer players were able to move easily because of the friction forces were reduced and created more range of motion. So, exercises were performed faster than before and strength movements in all angles, it ensured that the active state. This was resulted in a better use of force.

Keywords: isokinetic, soccer, dynamic training shoes, training

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44 Bayesian System and Copula for Event Detection and Summarization of Soccer Videos

Authors: Dhanuja S. Patil, Sanjay B. Waykar

Abstract:

Event detection is a standout amongst the most key parts for distinctive sorts of area applications of video data framework. Recently, it has picked up an extensive interest of experts and in scholastics from different zones. While detecting video event has been the subject of broad study efforts recently, impressively less existing methodology has considered multi-model data and issues related efficiency. Start of soccer matches different doubtful circumstances rise that can't be effectively judged by the referee committee. A framework that checks objectively image arrangements would prevent not right interpretations because of some errors, or high velocity of the events. Bayesian networks give a structure for dealing with this vulnerability using an essential graphical structure likewise the probability analytics. We propose an efficient structure for analysing and summarization of soccer videos utilizing object-based features. The proposed work utilizes the t-cherry junction tree, an exceptionally recent advancement in probabilistic graphical models, to create a compact representation and great approximation intractable model for client’s relationships in an interpersonal organization. There are various advantages in this approach firstly; the t-cherry gives best approximation by means of junction trees class. Secondly, to construct a t-cherry junction tree can be to a great extent parallelized; and at last inference can be performed utilizing distributed computation. Examination results demonstrates the effectiveness, adequacy, and the strength of the proposed work which is shown over a far reaching information set, comprising more soccer feature, caught at better places.

Keywords: summarization, detection, Bayesian network, t-cherry tree

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43 Soccer, a Major Social Changing Factor: Kosovo Case

Authors: Armend Kelmendi, Adnan Ahmeti

Abstract:

The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of soccer in the overall wealth fare (education, health, and economic prosperity) of youth in Kosovo (age: 7-18). The research conducted measured a number of parameters (training methodologies, conditions, community leadership impact) in a sample consisting of 6 different football clubs’ academies across the country. Fifty (50) male and female football youngsters volunteered in this study. To generate more reliable results, the analysis was conducted with the help of a set of effective project management tools and techniques (Gantt chart, Logic Network, PERT chart, Work Breakdown Structure, and Budgeting Analysis). The interviewees were interviewed under a specific lens of categories (impact in education, health, and economic prosperity). A set of questions were asked i.e. what has football provided to you and the community you live in?; Did football increase your confidence and shaped your life for better?; What was the main reason you started training in football? The results generated explain how a single sport, namely that of football in Kosovo can make a huge social change, improving key social factors in a society. There was a considerable difference between the youth clubs as far as training conditions are concerned. The study found out that despite financial constraints, two out of six clubs managed to produce twice as more talented players that were introduced to professional primary league teams in Kosovo and Albania, including other soccer teams in the region, Europe, and Asia. The study indicates that better sports policy must be formulated and associated with important financial investments in soccer for it to be considered fruitful and beneficial for players of 18 plus years of age, namely professionals.

Keywords: youth, prosperity, conditions, investments, growth, free movement

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42 Ranking Theory-The Paradigm Shift in Statistical Approach to the Issue of Ranking in a Sports League

Authors: E. Gouya Bozorg

Abstract:

The issue of ranking of sports teams, in particular soccer teams is of primary importance in the professional sports. However, it is still based on classical statistics and models outside of area of mathematics. Rigorous mathematics and then statistics despite the expectation held of them have not been able to effectively engage in the issue of ranking. It is something that requires serious pathology. The purpose of this study is to change the approach to get closer to mathematics proper for using in the ranking. We recommend using theoretical mathematics as a good option because it can hermeneutically obtain the theoretical concepts and criteria needful for the ranking from everyday language of a League. We have proposed a framework that puts the issue of ranking into a new space that we have applied in soccer as a case study. This is an experimental and theoretical study on the issue of ranking in a professional soccer league based on theoretical mathematics, followed by theoretical statistics. First, we showed the theoretical definition of constant number Є = 1.33 or ‘golden number’ of a soccer league. Then, we have defined the ‘efficiency of a team’ by this number and formula of μ = (Pts / (k.Є)) – 1, in which Pts is a point obtained by a team in k number of games played. Moreover, K.Є index has been used to show the theoretical median line in the league table and to compare top teams and bottom teams. Theoretical coefficient of σ= 1 / (1+ (Ptx / Ptxn)) has also been defined that in every match between the teams x, xn, with respect to the ability of a team and the points of both of them Ptx, Ptxn, and it gives a performance point resulting in a special ranking for the League. And it has been useful particularly in evaluating the performance of weaker teams. The current theory has been examined for the statistical data of 4 major European Leagues during the period of 1998-2014. Results of this study showed that the issue of ranking is dependent on appropriate theoretical indicators of a League. These indicators allowed us to find different forms of ranking of teams in a league including the ‘special table’ of a league. Furthermore, on this basis the issue of a record of team has been revised and amended. In addition, the theory of ranking can be used to compare and classify the different leagues and tournaments. Experimental results obtained from archival statistics of major professional leagues in the world in the past two decades have confirmed the theory. This topic introduces a new theory for ranking of a soccer league. Moreover, this theory can be used to compare different leagues and tournaments.

Keywords: efficiency of a team, ranking, special table, theoretical mathematic

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41 Effects of Kinesio Taping on Postural Stability in Young Soccer Players

Authors: Mustafa Gulsen, Nihan Pekyavas, Emine Atıcı

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Kinesio taping on postural stability and in young soccer players. Subjects and Methods: 62 volunteered soccer players from Cayyolu Sports Club were included in our study. Permissions were also taken from the club directors about the inclusion of their players to our study. Soccer players between the age of 12 and 16 were included in our study. Players that had previous injury on lower extremities were excluded from the study. Players were randomly divided into two groups: Kinesio taping (KT) (n=31), and control group (n = 31). KT application including gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris muscle facilitation techniques were applied to the first group. A rest time for 45 minutes was given in order to see the best effectiveness of the tape. The second group was set as the control group and no application was made. All participants were assessed before the application and 45 minutes later. In order to provide the double-blind design of the study, an experienced physiotherapist has done the assessments and another experienced physiotherapist has done the taping. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two groups using an online random allocation software program. Postural stability was assessed by using Tetrax Interactive Balance System. Thermographic assessment was done by using FLIR E5 (FLIR Systems AB, Sweden) thermal camera in order to see which muscles have the most thermal activity while maintaining postural stability. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in all assessment parameters in both Kinesio Taping and control groups (all p<0.05) except thermal imaging of dominant gastrocnemius muscle results (p=0.668) (Table 1). In comparison of the two groups, statistically significant differences were found in all parameters (all p<0.05). Conclusion: In this study, we investigated the effects of Kinesio taping on postural stability in young soccer players and found that KT application on Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius muscles may have decreased the risk of falling more than the control group. According to thermal imaging assessments, both Quadriceps and Gastrocnemius muscles may be active in maintaining postural stability but in KT group, the temperature of these muscles are higher which leads us to think that they are more activated.

Keywords: Kinesio taping, fall risk, muscle temperature, postural stability

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