Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: psychoanalysis

22 Introduction to Political Psychoanalysis of a Group in the Middle East

Authors: Seyedfateh Moradi, Abas Ali Rahbar

Abstract:

The present study focuses on investigating group psychoanalysis in the Middle East. The study uses a descriptive-analytic method and library resources have been used to collect the data. Additionally, the researcher’s observations of people’s everyday behavior have played an important role in the production and analysis of the study. Group psychoanalysis in the Middle East can be conducted through people’s daily behaviors, proverbs, poetry, mythology, etc., and some of the general characteristics of people in the Middle East include: xenophobia, revivalism, fatalism, nostalgic, wills and so on. Members of the group have often failed to achieve Libido wills and it is very important in unifying and reproduction violence. Therefore, if libidinal wills are irrationally fixed, it will be important in forming fundamentalist and racist groups, a situation that is dominant among many groups in the Middle East. Adversities, from early childhood and afterwards, in the subjects have always been influential in the political behavior of group members, and it manifests itself as counter-projections. Consequently, it affects the foreign policy of the governments. On the other hand, two kinds of subjects are identifiable in the Middle East, one; classical subject that is related to nostalgia and mythology and, two; modern subjects which is self-alienated. As a result, both subjects are seeking identity and self-expression in public in relation to forming groups. Therefore, collective unconscious in the Middle East shows itself as extreme boundaries and leads to forming groups characterized with violence. Psychoanalysis shows important aspects to identify many developments in the Middle East; totally analysis of Freud, Carl Jung and Reich about groups can be applied in the present Middle East.

Keywords: political, psychoanalysis, group, Middle East

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21 Perception and Control in the Age of Surrealism: A Critical History and a Survey of Pita Amor’s Poetic Ontology

Authors: Oliver Arana

Abstract:

Within the common vein of social understanding, surrealism is often understood to rely on disconcerting images and fragmented collage, both in its visual representation and literary manifestations. By tracing the history and literature of surrealism, the author makes the argument that there were certain factions within Latin America that employed characteristics of surrealism in order to reach some sense of understanding, and not to further complicate or disorient -an aim that most closely aligns to Freudian psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis should, however, be a comparable practice only to understand how Latin American surrealism had more of a concrete goal than its European counterpart. The primary subject of the paper is the Mexican poet, Pita Amor, who has retroactively been associated with the movement; and therefore, it should be duly noted that the adjective, surrealism, only applies to her as something that describes traits within the literary lexicon.

Keywords: Latin America, Pita Amor, poetry, surrealism

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20 'Freud and Jung: Dissenting Friends'; An Analysis of the Foundations of the Psychoanalytical Theory in Theirs Letters

Authors: Laurence Doremus

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Freud as the builder of psychoanalysis as a discipline had created the science with Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), a psychiatry specialist from Zurich who was very important in the Freudian theory. The knowledge about the foundation of psychoanalysis is often focused on the influence of the works from Breuer or Charcot in the Freudian praxis, at least at the beginning of his career, and Jung's influence is often under-estimated. The paper focuses on the importance of the Jungian contributions in Freud's theories at the beginning of the creation of the discipline in the 1910s. We often meet Jungian schools on the first hand and Freudian schools, on the other hand in the academic field, but the Freudian field has to admit the importance of the Jungian theories in Freudian science. And also, the dialectical energy which appears in the letters exchanged between both of the fathers of psychoanalysis is important to understand the foundations of Freud Theory. That's why the paper will analyze in detail the correspondence between them in an epistemological and historical approach. Effectively the letters were translated and published (in French but also in English and other languages) lately in history and are still not well knew by the researchers in the psychoanalytical field. We well explain how Freud was helped by Jung despite his desire to build the theory. We analyze how the second topic named 'unconscious, preconscious, and conscious', is the result of the first topic that Jung built with Freud. The paper is a contribution to the knowledge we should have about the intense friendship between the two protagonists.

Keywords: Carl Gustav Jung, correspondence, Freud's letters, psychoanalytic theory

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19 A Psychoanalytical Approach to Edgar A. Poe’s Short Story ‘The Tell-Tale Heart’

Authors: José Antonio Núñez

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Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis was a groundbreaking contribution to the province of the human psyche and behavior. Nowadays, psychoanalytic theory is applied to numerous fields. One of them is literature. Literary criticism has put into practice the basis of Freud’s idea to analyze literary works. This essay is about the analysis of Edgar A. Poe’s short story ‘The Tell-Tale Heart,’ under the lens of Freud’s psychoanalytical perspective. In 1919, it was published ‘Das Unheimliche’ (The Uncanny) by Freud. On this article, the famous Austrian psychoanalyst showed his explanations about what he called ‘the uncanny,’ and its relation to the human unconscious. In this paper, Freud’s famous article has been used to analyze Poe’s short story ‘The Tell-Tale Heart,’ and to find the analogies that exist between Poe’s macabre short story and Freud’s theory of ‘the uncanny.’

Keywords: psychoanalysis, theory of the unconscious, the uncanny, unheimlich

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18 Uncloaking Priceless Pieces of Evidence: Psychotherapy with an Older New Zealand Man; Contributions to Understanding Hidden Historical Phenomena and the Trans-Generation Transmission of Silent and Un-Witnessed Trauma

Authors: Joanne M. Emmens

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This paper makes use of the case notes of a single psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy of a now 72-year-old man over a four-year period to explore the potential of qualitative data to be incorporated into a research methodology that can contribute theory and knowledge to the wider professional community involved in mental health care. The clinical material arising out of any psychoanalysis provides a potentially rich source of clinical data that could contribute valuably to our historical understanding of both individual and societal traumata. As psychoanalysis is primarily an investigation, it is argued that clinical case material is a rich source of qualitative data which has relevance for sociological and historical understandings and that it can potentially aluminate important ‘gaps’ and collective blind spots that manifest unconsciously and are a contributing factor in the transmission of trauma, silently across generations. By attending to this case material the hope is to illustrate the value of using a psychoanalytic centred methodology. It is argued that the study of individual defences and the manner in which they come into consciousness, allows an insight into group defences and the unconscious forces that contribute to the silencing or un-noticing of important sources (or originators) of mental suffering.

Keywords: dream furniture (Bion) and psychotic functioning, reverie, screen memories, selected fact

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17 Music in the Early Stages of Life: Considerations from Working with Groups of Mothers and Babies

Authors: Ana Paula Melchiors Stahlschmidt

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This paper discusses the role of music as a ludic activity and constituent element of voice in the construction and consolidation of the relationship of the baby and his/her mother or caretaker, evaluating its implications in his/her psychic structure and constitution as a subject. The work was based on the research developed as part of the author’s doctoral activities carried out from her insertion in a project of the Music Department of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, which objective was the development of musical activities with groups of babies from 0 to 24 months old and their caretakers. Observations, video recordings of the meetings, audio testemonies, and evaluation tools applied to group participants were used as instruments for this research. Information was collected on the participation of 195 babies, among which 8 were more focused on through interviews with their mothers or caretakers. These interviews were analyzed based on the referential of French Discourse Analysis, Psychoanalysis, Psychology of Development and Musical Education. The results of the research were complemented by other posterior experiences that the author developed with similar groups, in a context of a private clinic. The information collected allowed the observation of the ludic and structural functions of musical activities, when developed in a structured environment, as well as the importance of the musicality of the mother’s voice to the psychical structuring of the baby, allowing his/her insertion in the language and his/her constituition as a subject.

Keywords: music and babies, maternal voice, Psychoanalysis and music, psychology and music

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16 The Implications of the Lacanian Concept of 'Lalangue' for Lacanian Theory and Clinical Practice

Authors: Dries Dulsster

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This research we want to discuss the implications of the concept of ‘lalangue’ and illustrate its importance for lacanian psychoanalysis and its clinical practice. We will look at this concept through an in depth reading of Lacan’s later seminars, his lectures at the North-American universities and his study on James Joyce. We will illustrate the importance of this concept with a case study from a clinical practice. We will argue that the introduction of ‘lalangue’ has several theoretical and clinical implications that will radically change Lacans teachings. We will illustrate the distinction between language and lalangue. Language serves communication, but this is not the case with lalangue. We will claim that there is jouissance in language and will approach this by introducing the concept of ‘lalangue’. We will ask ourselves what the effect will be of this distinction and how we can use this in clinical practice. The concept of ‘lalangue’ will introduce a new way of thinking about the unconscious. It will force us to no longer view the unconscious as Symbolic, but as Imaginary or Real. Another implication will be the approach on the symptom, no longer approaching it as a formation of the unconscious. It will be renamed as ‘sinthome’, as function of the real. Last of all it will force us to rethink the lacanian interpretation and how we direct the treatment. The implications on a clinical level will be how we think about the lacanian interpretation and the direction of the treatment. We will no longer focus on language and meaning, but focus on jouissance and the ways in which the subject deals with this. We will illustrate this importance with a clinical case study. To summarize, the concept of lalangue forces us to radically rethink lacanian psychoanalysis, with major implications on a theoretical and clinical level. It introduces new concepts such as the real unconscious and the sinthome. It will also make us rethink the way we work as lacanian psychoanalysts.

Keywords: Lacan's later teaching, language, Lalangue, the unconscious

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15 Perpetrator Trauma in Current World Cinema

Authors: Raya Morag

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This paper proposes a new paradigm for cinema/trauma studies - the trauma of the perpetrator. Canonical trauma research from Freud’s Aetiology of Hysteria to the present has been carried out from the perspective of identification with the victim, as have cinema trauma research and contemporary humanities-based trauma studies, climaxing during the 1990s in widespread interest in the victim vis-à-vis the Holocaust, war, and domestic violence. Breaking over 100 years of repression of the abhorrent and rejected concept of the perpetrator in psychoanalytic-based research proposes an uncanny shift in our conception of psychoanalysis' trajectory from women's 'hysteria' to 'post-traumatic stress disorder'. This new paradigm is driven by the global emergence of new waves of films (2007-2015) representing trauma suffered by perpetrators involved in the new style of war entailing deliberate targeting of non-combatants. Analyzing prominent examples from Israeli post-second Intifada documentaries (e.g., Ari Folman’s Waltz with Bashir), and post post-Iraq (and Afghanistan) War American documentaries (e.g., Errol Morris' Standard Operating Procedure), the paper discusses the limitations of victim trauma by the firm boundaries it (rightly) set in order to defend such victims of nineteenth and especially twentieth-century catastrophes; the epistemological processes needed in order to consider perpetrators’ trauma as an inevitable part of psychiatric-psychological and cultural perspectives on trauma, and, thus, the definition of perpetrators' trauma in contrast to victims'. It also analyzes the perpetrator's figure in order to go beyond the limitation of current trauma theory's relation to the Real, thus transgressing the 'unspeakableness' of the trauma itself. The paper seeks an exploration of what perpetrator trauma teaches us not only as a counter-paradigm to victim trauma, but as a reflection on the complex intertwining of the two paradigms in the twenty-first century collective new war unconscious, and on what psychoanalysis might offer us in the first decade of this terrorized-ethnicized century.

Keywords: American war documentaries, Israeli war documentaries, 'new war', perpetrator trauma

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14 Uni … Mihi ('to Me Only'): Patterns of Uniqueness in Statius' Thebaid and Silius' Punica

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti

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There is a rich and frequent representation of uniqueness in Statius’ poem called Thebaid. This topos interweave with a psychoanalytical study about groups and individual but is also a literary device. This paper will analyze all the passages in the 'Thebaid' referred to uniqueness and exceptionality. Antigone, Adrastus and other characters are, in fact, often characterized as the only ones to behave in a specific way or to do something. Also, the insomniac characters are often the only ones who do not sleep. The material of such a tòpos is very rich throughout the 'Thebaid'. The methodology will be text-oriented. Conclusions will enlighten Statius’ specific use of this tòpos, as related to his models, and will be interdisciplinary. In concluding, this is a study linking philology and psychoanalysis and focused on a topic which deserves a specific analysis.

Keywords: statius, Silius Italicus, uniqueness, epic

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13 The Role of Identifications in Women Psychopathology

Authors: Mary Gouva, Elena Dragioti, Evangelia Kotrsotsiou

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Family identification has the potential to play a very decisive role in psychopathology. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of family identifications on female psychopathology. A community sample of 101 women (mean age 20.81 years, SD = 0.91 ranged 20-25) participated to the present study. The girls completed a) the Symptom Check-List Revised (SCL-90) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for family identifications. The majority of women reported that they matched to the father in terms of identifications (47.1%). Age and birth order were not contributed on family identifications (F(5) =2.188, p=.062 and F(3)=1.244, p=.299 respectively). Multivariate analysis by using MANCOVA found statistical significant associations between family identifications and domains of psychopathology as provided by SCL-90 (P<05). Our results highlight the role of identifications especially on father and female psychopathology as well as replicate the Freudian perception about the female Oedipus complex.

Keywords: family identification, psychoanalysis, psychopathology, women

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12 Cry, the Peacock: A Psychoanalytic Feminist Study

Authors: Taira Bano

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Cry, the Peacock is a famous novel by Anita Desai which deals with the psychic tumult of a young and sensitive female protagonist, Maya. The novel deals with the in-depth study of the psyche of Maya who is haunted by a childhood prophecy of a fatal disaster. This persistent obsession of death either for her or her husband within four years of their marriage is the main reason for Maya’s neurosis. The novel is not only concerned with the psychological aspect of Maya but is also a strong plea for the rights of women. The novel consists of both psychological as well as feministic elements. The attitude of Maya, not to submit to the authority of her husband gives perfect description of second wave feminism. Feminism is a movement which deals with the issues of inequality between men and women. Psychoanalysis is the study of the psychology of characters. It depicts how an incident in one’s life shapes the personality of an individual. This paper will deal with the study of the novel Cry, the Peacock from psychoanalytic perspective and will try to trace out the reason for such an extreme step that Maya takes in the end of the novel- crossing all the limits of a traditional submissive wife.

Keywords: psyche, psychological, mental, feminist

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11 The Reintegration of the Past as Self-Realisation

Authors: Haotian Wu

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This article examines the figure Zhao Tao in Jia Zhangke’s films in light of Carl Jung’s psychoanalytical theory. Zhao is a recurring aesthetic trope in Jia’s films, and the characters she plays often have an intimate relationship with the past. Nevertheless, this relationship has not been systematically investigated, especially its symbolism of the typical relationship between the past and the self in post-social China. To fill this research gap, the article will explore how Zhao’s characters discover, preserve, and adapt the past in I Wish I knew (2010), Mountains May Depart (2015), and Ash Is Purest White (2018). Through a Jungian lens, these three levels of engagement with the past will be demonstrated as corresponding with Jung’s psychoanalytical theory of self-realisation, which entails the confrontation with the shadow, the embodiment of the archetype, and individuation. Thus, by articulating a film-philosophy dialogue between Jia and Jung, this article will develop a new philosophy of self-realisation based on the symbolism of Zhao. Through the reintegration of the past, the individuals can overcome the fragmentation of temporality and selfhood in the postmodern world and achieve self-realisation.

Keywords: Jia Zhangke, Jung, psychoanalysis, self-realisation

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10 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr

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Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the function that called carrier content: on the latter it arises that emotions give the material reasoning that later transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. In this paper I argue that science education should start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if it is to form citizens with scientific or cultural future scientists.

Keywords: epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists., philosophy of emotions

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9 Understanding Lacan’s ‘Name of the Father’ Concept, the Original Introject, and Personality Functioning

Authors: Chloe T. Cohen, Sarah Johnson

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Psychoanalytic literature has traditionally focused on the theoretical explanations of psychological phenomena rather than empirical research to support those ideas. Many clinicians assume a lack of empirical verification of the theories that underpin psychoanalytic treatment disqualifies psychoanalytic psychotherapy as an effective clinical technique. One such theory is Lacan’s ‘Name of the Father’, which extended Freud’s idea of the importance of a successful resolution of the Oedipal problem, situating it even earlier in psychological development. Lacan posited that the Name of the Father construct (establishing psychological structure and preventing psychosis) was best represented in language use, metaphor, and linguistic structure. However, no study to date has empirically examined the Name of the Father construct. The current study attempts to measure Lacan’s ‘Name of the Father’ construct through linguistic structure and metaphor use and to compare it with Freud’s ‘original introject’. We will then investigate whether they relate to adult personality functioning (measured using the Rorschach Inkblot Test). We aim to contribute to the empirical study of psychoanalytic concepts by operationalizing and validating the Name of the Father empirically. We also aim to examine the relationship of the Name of the Father construct to Freud’s concept of the original introject and to adult pathology. We hypothesize that measures of the original introject will mediate the pathway between linguistic indicators of Lacan’s Name of the Father construct and personality functioning.

Keywords: Lacan, Name of the Father, original introject, personality functioning, psychoanalysis

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8 Social Imagination and History Teaching: Critical Thinking's Possibilities in the Australian Curriculum

Authors: Howard Prosser

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This paper examines how critical thinking is framed, especially for primary-school students, in the recently established Australian Curriculum: History. Critical thinking is one of the curriculum’s 'general capabilities.' History provides numerous opportunities for critical thinking’s application in everyday life. The so-called 'history wars' that took place just prior to the curriculum’s introduction in 2014 sought to bring to light the limits of a singular historical narrative and reveal that which had been repressed. Consequently, the Australian history curriculum reflects this shifting mindset. Teachers are presented with opportunities to treat history in the classroom as a repository of social possibility, especially related to democratic potential, beyond hackneyed and jingoistic tales of Australian nationhood. Yet such opportunities are not explicit within the document and are up against pre-existing pedagogic practices. Drawing on political thinker Cornelius Castoriadis’s rendering of the 'social-historical' and 'paidea,' as well as his mobilisation of psychoanalysis, the study outlines how the curriculum’s critical-thinking component opens up possibilities for students and teachers to revise assumptions about how history is understood. This ontological shift is ultimately creative: the teachers’ imaginations connect the students’ imaginations, and vice versa, to the analysis that is at the heart of historical thinking. The implications of this social imagination add to the current discussions about historical consciousness among scholars like Peter Seixas. But, importantly, it has practical application in the primary-school classroom where history becomes creative acts, like play, that is indeterminate and social rather than fixed and individual.

Keywords: Australia, Castoriadis, critical thinking, history, imagination

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7 From Transference Love to Self Alienation in the Therapeutic Relationship: A Case Study

Authors: Efi Koutantou

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The foundation of successful therapy is the bond between the psychotherapist and the patient, Psychoanalysis would argue. The present study explores lived experiences of a psychotherapeutic relationship in different moments, initial and final with special reference to the transference love developed through the process. The fight between moments of ‘leaving a self’ behind and following ‘lines of flight’ in the process of creating a new subjectivity and ‘becoming-other’ will be explored. Moments between de-territorialisation – surpassing given constraints such as gender, family and religion, kinship bonds - freeing the space in favor of re-territorialisation – creation of oneself creation of oneself will also be analyzed. The generation of new possibilities of being, new ways of self-actualization for this patient will be discussed. The second part of this study will explore the extent to which this ‘transference love’ results for this specific patient to become ‘the discourse of the other’; it is a desideratum whether the patient finally becomes a subject of his/her own through his/her own self-exploration of new possibilities of existence or becomes alienated within the thought of the therapist. The way in which the patient uses or is (ab)used by the transference love in order to experience and undergo alienation from an ‘authority’ which may or may not sacrifice his/her own thought in favor of satisfying the therapist will be investigated. Finally, from an observer’s perspective and from the analysis of the results of this therapeutic relationship, the counter-transference will also be analyzed, in terms of an attempt of the analyst to relive and satisfy his/her own desires through the life of the analysand. The accession and fall of an idealized self will be analyzed, the turn of the transference love into ‘hate’ will conclude this case study through a lived experience in the therapeutic procedure; a relationship which can be called to be a mixture of a real relationship and remnants from a past object relationship.

Keywords: alienation, authority, counter-transference, hate, transference love

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6 Anatomical-Bodied and Psyche Represented in Contemporary Art: A Conceptual Study for A Curatorial Practice

Authors: Dumith Kulasekara

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This paper examines the representation of the body that particularly stresses the anatomical organs and the psychic conditions in contemporary art. The paper looks closely at the works that address personal and social meanings implying psychic conditions by bringing the internal hidden anatomical organs of the body to the surface of the visual language. The paper argues that contemporary artists conceptualize the idea of the body as a site of generating psychic conditions by excavating the body as material, subject, and object in art practice. The paper conceptualizes this excavating process of the body acts similarly to the idea of dissecting the corporeal body to understand its internal organism that again shapes the materiality of the surface of the body. In doing so, the paper brings together this argument, knowledge produced in the historical and contemporary anatomical education in art and science, and psychoanalytical approaches to the theme to develop new interpretations of representing psyche in the anatomical-bodied. The present paper defines this new form of body conceptually and materially addresses the issues related to psychic conditions: sexual desires, gender, traumas, and memories. The paper suggests that representation of the anatomical-bodied brings a new direction of the multidisciplinary approach introduced by artists to visualize the body and psyche in the contemporary context. The paper also presents an in-depth- discussion on technological, scientific, and philosophical knowledge employed in representing the idea of the body in addressing different psychic conditions to challenge the experiencing the body in contemporary art. Therefore, the paper focuses on examining the theme in the different forms of visual language and contexts in contemporary art. Finally, this research aims to offer a theoretical and conceptual background to curate an exhibition on the title of the anatomical-bodied and psyche in contemporary art with the body of work discussed in this paper.

Keywords: anatomy, body, contemporary art, psyche, psychoanalysis, representation, trauma

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5 Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Concepts in Paulo Coelho's "The Alchemist"

Authors: Tooba Sabir, Asima Jaffar, Namra Sabir, Mohammad Amjad Sabir

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Ecocriticism is the study of relationship between human and environment which has been represented in literature since the very beginning in pastoral tradition. However, the analysis of such representation is new as compared to the other critical evaluations like Psychoanalysis, Marxism, Post-colonialism, Modernism and many others. Ecocritics seek to find information like anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, ecofeminism, eco-Marxism, representation of environment and environmental concept and several other topics. In the current study the representation of environmental concepts, were ecocritically analyzed in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist, one of the most read novels throughout the world, having been translated into many languages. Analysis of the text revealed, the representations of environmental ideas like landscapes and tourism, biodiversity, land-sea displacement, environmental disasters and warfare, desert winds and sand dunes. 'This desert was once a sea' throws light on different theories of land-sea displacement, one being the plate-tectonic theory which proposes Earth’s lithosphere to be divided into different large and small plates, continuously moving toward, away from or parallel to each other, resulting in land-sea displacement. Another theory is the continental drift theory which holds onto the belief that one large landmass—Pangea, broke down into smaller pieces of land that moved relative to each other and formed continents of the present time. The cause of desertification may, however, be natural i.e. climate change or artificial i.e. by human activities. Imagery of the environmental concepts, at some instances in the novel, is detailed and at other instances, is not as striking, but still is capable of arousing readers’ imagination. The study suggests that ecocritical justifications of environmental concepts in the text will increase the interactions between literature and environment which should be encouraged in order to induce environmental awareness among the readers.

Keywords: biodiversity, ecocritical analysis, ecocriticism, environmental disasters, landscapes

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4 Slave Museums and a Site of Democratic Pedagogy: Engagement, Healing and Tolerance

Authors: Elaine Stavro

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In our present world where acts of incivility, intolerance and anger towards minority communities is on the rise, the ways museum practices cultivate ethical generosity is of interest. Democratic theorists differ as to how they believe respect can be generated through active participation. Allowing minority communities a role in determining what artifacts will be displayed and how they will be displayed has been an important step in generating respect. In addition, the rise of indigenous museums, slave museums and curators who represent these communities, contribute to the communication of their history of oppression. These institutional practices have been supplemented by the handling of objects, recognition stories and multisensory exhibitions. Psychoanalysis, object relations theorists believe that the handling of objects: amenable objects and responsive listeners will trigger the expression of anomie, alienation and traumatizing experiences. Not only memorializing but engaging with one’s lose in a very personal way can facilitate the process of mourning. Manchester Museum (UK) gathered together Somalian refugees, who in the process of handling their own objects and those offered at the museum, began to tell their stories. Democratic theorists (especially affect theorists or vital materialists or Actor Network theorists) believe that things can be social actants- material objects have agentic capacities that humans should align with. In doing so, they challenge social constructivism that attributes power to interpreted things, but like them they assume an openness or responsiveness to Otherness can be cultivated. Rich sensory experiences, corporeal engagement (devices that involve bodily movement or objects that involve handling) auditory experiences (songs) all contribute to improve one’s responsiveness and openness to Others. This paper will focus specifically on slave museums/ and exhibits in the U.K, the USA., South Africa to explore and evaluate their democratic strategies in cultivating tolerant practices via the various democratic avenues outlined above.

Keywords: democratic pedagogy, slave exhibitions, affect/emotion, object handling

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3 Providing Support for Minority LGBTQ Students: Developing a Queer Studies Course

Authors: Karen Butler

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The LGBTQ youth of color face stigma related to both race and gender identity. Effectively dealing with racial/ethnic discrimination requires strong connections to family and one’s racial/ethnic group. However, LGBTQ youth of color seldom receive support from family, peer groups or church groups. Moreover, ethnic communities often perceive LGBTQ identities as a rejection of ethnic heritage. Thus, stigma places these young people at greater risk for substance use, violence, risky sexual behaviors, suicide, and homelessness. Offering a Queer Studies (QS) class is one way to facilitate a safer and more inclusive environment for LGBTQ students, faculty and staff. The discipline of Queer Studies encompasses theories and thinkers from numerous fields: cultural studies, gay and lesbian studies, race studies, women's studies, media, postmodernism, post-colonialism, psychoanalysis and more. We began our course development by researching existing programs and classes. Several course syllabi were examined and course materials such as readings, videos, and guest speakers were assessed for possible inclusion. We also employed informal survey methods with students and faculty in order to gauge interest in the course. We then developed a sample course syllabus and began the process of new course approval. Feedback thus far indicates that students of various sexual orientations and gender identities are interested in the course and understand the need to offer it; faculty in Psychology, Social Work, and Interdisciplinary Studies are interested in cross-listing the course; library staff is willing to assist with course material acquisition, and the administration is supportive. The purpose of this session is to 1) explore the various health and wellness issues facing LGBTQ students of color and 2) share our experience of developing a QS course in health education in order to address these needs. This process, from initial recognition of the need to a course offering, will be described and discussed in the hopes that participants will increase their awareness of the issues. A QS course would be an appropriate requirement for any number of majors as well as an elective for any major.

Keywords: black colleges, health education, LGBTQ, queer studies

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2 Violence against Women: A Study on the Aggressors' Profile

Authors: Giovana Privatte Maciera, Jair Izaías Kappann

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Introduction: The violence against woman is a complex phenomenon that accompanies the woman throughout her life and is a result of a social, cultural, political and religious construction, based on the differences among the genders. Those differences are felt, mainly, because of the patriarchal system that is still present which just naturalize and legitimate the asymmetry of power. As consequence of the women’s lasting historical and collective effort for a legislation against the impunity of violence against women in the national scenery, it was ordained, in 2006, a law known as Maria da Penha. The law was created as a protective measure for women that were victims of violence and consequently for the punishment of the aggressor. Methodology: Analysis of police inquiries is established by the Police Station of Defense of the Woman of Assis city, by formal authorization of the justice, in the period of 2013 to 2015. For the evaluating of the results will be used the content analysis and the theoretical referential of Psychoanalysis. Results and Discussion: The final analysis of the inquiries demonstrated that the violence against women is reproduced by the society and the aggressor, in most cases it is a member of their own family, mainly the current or former-spouse. The most common kinds of aggression were: the threat bodily harm, and the physical violence, that normally happens accompanied by psychological violence, being the most painful for the victims. The biggest part of the aggressors was white, older than the victim, worker and had primary school. But, unlike the expected, the minority of the aggressors were users of alcohol and/or drugs and possessed children in common with the victim. There is a contrast among the number of victims who already admitted have suffered some type of violence earlier by the same aggressor and the number of victims who has registered the occurrence before. The aggressors often use the discourse of denial in their testimony or try to justify their act like the blame was of the victim. It is believed in the interaction of several factors that can influence the aggressor to commit the abuse, including psychological, personal and sociocultural factors. One hypothesis is that the aggressor has a violence history in the family origin. After the aggressor being judged, condemned or not, usually there is no rehabilitation plan or supervision that enable his change. Conclusions: It has noticed the importance of studying the aggressor’s characteristics and the reasons that took him to commit such violence, making possible the implementation of an appropriate treatment to prevent and reduce the aggressions, as well the creation of programs and actions that enable communication and understanding concerning the theme. This is because the recurrence is still high, since the punitive system is not enough and the law is still ineffective and inefficient in certain aspects and in its own functioning. It is perceived a compulsion in repeat so much for the victims as for the aggressors, because they end involving, almost always, in disturbed and violent relationships, with the relation of subordination-dominance as characteristic.

Keywords: aggressors' profile, gender equality, Maria da Penha law, violence against women

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1 From Victim to Ethical Agent: Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol as Post-Traumatic Writing

Authors: Mona Salah El-Din Hassanein

Abstract:

Faced with a sudden, unexpected, and overwhelming event, the individual's normal cognitive processing may cease to function, trapping the psyche in "speechless terror", while images, feelings and sensations are experienced with emotional intensity. Unable to master such situation, the individual becomes a trauma victim who will be susceptible to traumatic recollections like intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repetitive re-living of the primal event in a way that blurs the distinction between past and present, and forecloses the future. Trauma is timeless, repetitious, and contagious; a trauma observer could fall prey to "secondary victimhood". Central to the process of healing the psychic wounds in the aftermath of trauma is verbalizing the traumatic experience (i.e., putting it into words) – an act which provides a chance for assimilation, testimony, and reevaluation. In light of this paradigm, this paper proposes a reading of Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol, written shortly after his release from prison, as a post-traumatic text which traces the disruptive effects of the traumatic experience of Wilde's imprisonment for homosexual offences and the ensuing reversal of fortune he endured. Post-traumatic writing demonstrates the process of "working through" a trauma which may lead to the possibility of ethical agency in the form of a "survivor mission". This paper draws on fundamental concepts and key insights in literary trauma theory which is characterized by interdisciplinarity, combining the perspectives of different fields like critical theory, psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, history, and social studies. Of particular relevance to this paper are the concepts of "vicarious traumatization" and "survivor mission", as The Ballad of Reading Gaol was written in response to Wilde's own prison trauma and the indirect traumatization he experienced as a result of witnessing the execution of a fellow prisoner whose story forms the narrative base of the poem. The Ballad displays Wilde's sense of mission which leads him to recognize the social as well as ethical implications of personal tragedy. Through a close textual analysis of The Ballad of Reading Gaol within the framework of literary trauma theory, the paper aims to: (a) demonstrate how the poem's thematic concerns, structure and rhetorical figures reflect the structure of trauma; (b) highlight Wilde's attempts to come to terms with the effects of the cataclysmic experience which transformed him into a social outcast; and (c) show how Wilde manages to transcend the victim status and assumes the role of ethical agent to voice a critique of the Victorian penal system and the standards of morality underlying the cruelties practiced against wrong doers and to solicit social action.

Keywords: ballad of reading of reading, post-traumatic writing, trauma theory, Wilde

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