Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 98

Search results for: minorities

98 Minorities and Soccer in the Middle East: Yelling From the Touchline

Authors: Saeb Farhan Al Ganideh

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We draw on insights from theories of group threat and identity to explore how soccer rivalries can decode the relationship between ethnic minorities and local societies. How ethnic minorities used soccer, in the Arab countries of the Middle East, to express their racial-ethnic heritage is the main question that this paper grapples with at its most general level. The rhetoric around soccer and minorities in the Middle East show that ethnic minorities’ soccer clubs have faced varying degrees of discrimination. The paper relies on an analysis of 4 ethnic minorities’ soccer clubs, namely, Circassians in Jordan, Kurds in Syria, Sahrawis in Morocco, and Amazighs in Algeria, focusing on previous and current performance of these clubs. Ethnic minorities’ soccer clubs were the pinnacle in the Middle East region a few decades ago. Nonetheless, these soccer clubs, currently, fighting for not only their place in their countries’ local competitions but also for their existence as soccer clubs. Minorities’ soccer clubs have been plagued with challenges related to the change in political and social contexts in these countries.

Keywords: minorities, rivalries, soccer, middle east

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97 The Erasure of Sex and Gender Minorities by Misusing Sex and Gender in Public Health

Authors: Tessalyn Morrison, Alexis Dinno, Taurica Salmon

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Sex and gender conflation continue to perpetuate the invisibility of gender minorities and obscure information about the ways that biological sex and gender affect health. The misuse of sex and gender terms, and their respective binaries, can yield inaccurate results. But more importantly, it contributes to the erasure of sex and gender minority health experiences. This paper discusses ways in which public health researchers can use sex and gender terms correctly and center the health experiences of intersex, transgender, non binary, and a-gender individuals. It includes promoting sensitivity in approaching minority communities, improving survey questions, and collaborating with sex and gender minority communities to improve research quality and participant experiences. Improving our standards for the quality of sex and gender term usage and centering sex and gender minorities in public health research are imperative to address the health inequalities faced by sex and gender minorities.

Keywords: epidemiology, gender, intersex, research methods, sex, transgender

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96 Fiqh Al Aqalliyat (Jurisprude for Muslim Minorities): An Emerging Discourse for Western Minorities

Authors: Sana Tahzeeb

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Role of Muslim minority in a democratic state has been the most debatable as well as attractive issue in the writings of the contemporary Muslim scholars, never discussed in the classical Islamic literature of history. Islam as a dominant religion has been the issue of academic discussions in the entire classical literature of Islamic jurisprudence the division of world into Dar al-Islam (abode of Islam), Dar al-Harb (abode of war) has been the main division on the basis of which Islam’s relation with the remaining world were defined and formulated. Now living in a global society the classical division of territories seems to be irrelevant. The new division of the same became necessary in the present situation particularly in view of the pluralistic society and need of power sharing in non-Muslim countries. It is important to note that a number of Muslim scholars of modern period examined this problem and other issues of Muslim minorities from legal point of view. Fiqh al-Aqalliyat is a newly developed discipline of Islamic jurisprudence. The rationale for this development is that there are so many issues of the Muslim minorities particularly in the European countries which are required to be discussed and examined juridically by Muslim jurists and scholars. There was also need for reinterpreting the term Dar al-Harb and relevance of its applicability to the west. The present paper shed a light on these emerging trends in Islamic world.

Keywords: fiqh al Aqalliyat, Muslim minorities, Europe, Islam

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95 The Influence on Sexual Minorities of School-Related Gender-Based Violence and Strategies to Respond

Authors: KangQi Jin

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School-Related Gender-Based Violence (SRGBV) seriously impacts the victim's physical and mental health and academic and employment prospects. Due to the lack of protective policies for sexual minority students in mainland China at present, the well-being of those students in China is seriously endangered by SRGBV, and their physical and mental health is at great risk. By analyzing the current situation of stigmatization of sexual minority students and the harm brought to them by gender violence, this study proposes some strategies to reduce SRGBV on sexual minorities. First, the nation should set laws to protect the rights and interests of sexual minorities, and second, universities should make multifaceted efforts to reduce these violent phenomena. The violence experienced by students of sexual minorities has a crucial impact on their future physiology and psychology, and through the research, in this paper, the author hope can provide suggestions for scholars who try to study related fields in the future.

Keywords: sexual minority, school-related gender-based violence, response, strategies

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94 Social Influences on HIV Services Engagement among Sexual Minorities Experiencing Intersectional Stigma and Discrimination during COVID-19 Pandemic in Uganda

Authors: Simon Mwima, Evans Jennifer Mann, Agnes Nzomene, Edson Chipalo, Eusebius Small, Moses Okumu, Bosco Mukuba

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Introduction: In Uganda, sexual minorities experience exacerbated intersectional stigma and discrimination that exposes them to elevated HIV infections and impedes access to HIV testing and PrEP with low treatment adherence. We contribute to the lack of information about sexual minorities living with HIV in Uganda by using modified social-ecological theory to explore social influences impacting HIV services engagement. Findings from focused group discussion (FGD) involving 31 sexual minorities, ages 18-25, recruited through urban HIV clinics in Kampala reveal the protective and promotive social influence within the individual and interpersonal relationships (sexual partners and peers). Further, inhibitive social influences were found within family, community, societal, and healthcare settings. During the COVID-19 pandemic, these adolescents strategically used promotive social influences to increase their engagement with HIV care services. Interviews were recorded in English, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Dedoose. Conclusions: The findings revealed that young people (identified as sexual minorities) strategically used promotive social influences and supported each other to improve engagement with HIV care in the context of restrictive laws in Uganda during the COVID-19-Pandemic. Future HIV prevention, treatment, and care responses could draw on how peers support each other to navigate the heavily criminalized and stigmatized settings to access healthcare services.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS services, intersectional stigma, discrimination, adolescents, sexual minorities, COVID-19 pandemic Uganda

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93 Reviewing the Relation of Language and Minorities' Rights

Authors: Mohsen Davarzani, Ehsan Lame, Mohammad Taghi Hassan Zadeh

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Language is considered as a powerful and outstanding feature of ethnicity. However, humiliating and prohibiting using human language is one the most heinous and brutal acts in the form of racism. In other words, racism can be a product of physiological humiliations and discrimination, such as skin color, and can also be resulted from ethnic humiliation and discrimination such as language, customs and so on. Ethnic and racial discrimination is one of the main problems of the world that minorities and occasionally the majority have suffered from. Nowadays, few states can be found in which all individuals and its citizens are of the same race and ethnicity, culture and language. In these countries, referred to as the multinational states, (eg, Iran, Switzerland, India, etc.), there are the communities and groups which have their own linguistic, cultural and historical characteristics. Characteristics of human rights issues, diversity of issues and plurality of meanings indicate that they appear in various aspects. The states are obliged to respect, as per national and international obligations, the rights of all citizens from different angles, especially different groups that require special attention in order of the particular aspects such as ethnicity, religious and political minorities, children, women, workers, unions and in case the states are in breach of any of these items, they are faced with challenges in local, regional or international fields.

Keywords: law, language, minorities, ethnicity

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92 Assessing Finance by Ethnic Entrepreneurs in United Kingdom and Policy Implication

Authors: Aliyu Aminu Baba

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Ethnic entrepreneurship is defined as a set of connections and regular patterns of interaction among people sharing common national background or migration experience. The disadvantage faced by ethnic minority on paid labour induced them to become self-employed. Also, enclaves motivates trading, creativity, innovation are all to provide specific service or products to certain people. These ethnic minorities are African –Caribbean, Indians, Pakistanis, Banghaladashi and Chinese. For policy development ethnic diversity was among the problem of developing policy in United Kingdom. The study finds that there is a danger in treating all ethnic minority businesses as homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. The diversity is due to religious beliefs, culture and race. This indicates that there is a wide range have shortfall in addressing the peculiarities of ethnic minority businesses in policy formulation. Also, there are differences between ethnic minorities in accessing finance. It is recommended that diversity and peculiarities between ethnic minorities should be considered in policy formulation.

Keywords: ethnic entrepreneurship, finance, policy implication, diversity

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91 Promoting Psychosocial Intervention in Social Work to Manage Intersectional Stigma among Sexual Minorities during COVID-19 Pandemic in Uganda: Implications for Social Work Practice

Authors: Simon Mwima, Kasule Solomon Kibirige, Evans Jennifer Mann, Bosco Mukuba, Edson Chipalo, Agnes Nzomene, Eusebius Small, Moses Okumu

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Introduction: Social workers must create, implement, and evaluate client-centered psychosocial interventions (CCPI) to reduce the impact of intersectional stigma on HIV service utilization among sexual minorities. We contribute to the scarcity of evidence about sexual minorities in Uganda by using social support theory to explore clients' perceptions that shape CCPI. Based on Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with 31 adolescents recruited from Kampala's HIV clinics in 2021, our findings reveal the positive influence of instrumental, informational, esteem, emotional, and social network support as intersectional stigma reduction interventions. Men who have sex with men, lesbians, and bisexual women used such strategies to navigate a heavily criminalized and stigmatizing setting during the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the social work profession to develop and implement psychosocial interventions that reduce HIV stigma and discrimination among MSM, lesbians, and bisexual young people living with HIV in Uganda.

Keywords: pyschosocial interventions, social work, intersectional stigma, HIV/AIDS, adolescents, sexual minorities, Uganda

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90 Minority Students' Attitudes on Preferential Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China: Case Study of an Institute of Education for Ethnic Minorities

Authors: Xiaoxu Liu, Yuwen Chen

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In this study, we investigated ethnic minority students’ perception of the implementation of preferential policies in China. Using a mixed methods design, we surveyed 320 students from an institute of education for ethnic minorities and conducted further in-depth interviews with seven respondents. Although interviewees were from 30 ethnic groups, most of them were from mainstream high schools. We found that minority students from preparatory classes have an overall positive attitude towards preferential policies and preparatory class but lack sense of belonging to the university for various reasons. Findings indicate that although preparatory class is regarded as being helpful for minority students’ academic development, there are differences of attitude mainly depending on the high schools they graduated from and their ethnic identities. Our analyses suggest that ethnicity, high school graduated from, hometown and family income are more important than gender, religion, and political affiliation when accounting for their perceptions of the implementation of preferential policies in China.

Keywords: Chinese minority education, higher education, preferential policies, survey analysis

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89 Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Investigation of the Relationship between Race, Ethnicity, Health Care Access, and Health Status

Authors: Dorcas Matowe

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Inequality in health care for racial and ethnic minorities continues to be a growing concern for many Americans. Some of the barriers hindering the elimination of health disparities include lack of insurance, socioeconomic status (SES), and racism. This study will specifically focus on the association between some of these factors- health care access, which includes insurance coverage and frequency of doctor visits, race, ethnicity, and health status. The purpose of this study will be to address the following questions: is having health insurance associated with increased doctor visits? Are racial and ethnic minorities with health insurance more or less likely to see a doctor? Is the association between having health insurance moderated by being an ethnic minority? Given the current implications of the 2010 Affordable Care Act, this study will highlight the need to prioritize health care access for minorities and confront institutional racism. Critical Race Theory (CRT) will demonstrate how racism has reinforced these health disparities. This quantitative study design will analyze secondary data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) questionnaire, a telephone survey conducted annually in all 50 states and three US territories by state health departments in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). Non-identifying health-related data is gathered annually from over 400,000 adults 18 years and above about their health status and use of preventative services. Through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relationship between the predictor variables of health care access, race, and ethnicity, the criterion variable of health status, and the latent variables of emotional support and life satisfaction will be examined. It is hypothesized that there will be an interaction between certain racial and ethnic minorities who went to see a doctor, had insurance coverage, experienced racism, and the quality of their health status, emotional support, and life satisfaction.

Keywords: ethnic minorities, health disparities, health access, racism

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88 Clubhouse: A Minor Rebellion against the Algorithmic Tyranny of the Majority

Authors: Vahid Asadzadeh, Amin Ataee

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Since the advent of social media, there has been a wave of optimism among researchers and civic activists about the influence of virtual networks on the democratization process, which has gradually waned. One of the lesser-known concerns is how to increase the possibility of hearing the voices of different minorities. According to the theory of media logic, the media, using their technological capabilities, act as a structure through which events and ideas are interpreted. Social media, through the use of the learning machine and the use of algorithms, has formed a kind of structure in which the voices of minorities and less popular topics are lost among the commotion of the trends. In fact, the recommended systems and algorithms used in social media are designed to help promote trends and make popular content more popular, and content that belongs to minorities is constantly marginalized. As social networks gradually play a more active role in politics, the possibility of freely participating in the reproduction and reinterpretation of structures in general and political structures in particular (as Laclau‎ and Mouffe had in mind‎) can be considered as criteria to democracy in action. The point is that the media logic of virtual networks is shaped by the rule and even the tyranny of the majority, and this logic does not make it possible to design a self-foundation and self-revolutionary model of democracy. In other words, today's social networks, though seemingly full of variety But they are governed by the logic of homogeneity, and they do not have the possibility of multiplicity as is the case in immanent radical democracies (influenced by Gilles Deleuze). However, with the emergence and increasing popularity of Clubhouse as a new social media, there seems to be a shift in the social media space, and that is the diminishing role of algorithms and systems reconditioners as content delivery interfaces. This has led to the fact that in the Clubhouse, the voices of minorities are better heard, and the diversity of political tendencies manifests itself better. The purpose of this article is to show, first, how social networks serve the elimination of minorities in general, and second, to argue that the media logic of social networks must adapt to new interpretations of democracy that give more space to minorities and human rights. Finally, this article will show how the Clubhouse serves the new interpretations of democracy at least in a minimal way. To achieve the mentioned goals, in this article by a descriptive-analytical method, first, the relation between media logic and postmodern democracy will be inquired. The political economy popularity in social media and its conflict with democracy will be discussed. Finally, it will be explored how the Clubhouse provides a new horizon for the concepts embodied in radical democracy, a horizon that more effectively serves the rights of minorities and human rights in general.

Keywords: algorithmic tyranny, Clubhouse, minority rights, radical democracy, social media

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87 Studying Iranian Religious Minority Architecture: Differences and Commonalities in Religious and National Architecture after Safavid

Authors: Saeideh Soltanmohammadlou, Pilar M Guerrieri, Amir Kianfar, Sara Sadeghian, Yasaman Nafezi, Emily Irvin

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Architecture is rooted in the experiences of the residents in a place. Its foundations are based on needs and circumstances of each territory in terms of climate, available materials, economics and governmental policies, and cultural ideals and ideas of the people that live there. The architectural history of Iran echoes these architectural origins and has revealed certain trends reflecting this territory and culture. However, in recent years, new architectural patterns are developing that diverge from what has previously been considered classic forms of Iranian architecture. This article investigates architectural elements that make up the architecture created by religious minorities after the Safavid dynasty (one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran (from 1501 to 1736) in Iranian cities: Isfahan, Tabriz, Kerman, and Uremia. Similarities and differences are revealed between the architecture that composes neighborhoods of religious minorities in Iran and common national architectural trends in each era after this dynasty. This dynasty is specific as a point of reference in this article because Islam was identified as the state religion of Iran during this era. This decision changed the course of architecture in the country to incorporate religious motifs and meanings. The study associated with this article was conducted as a survey that sought to find links between architecture of religious minorities with Iranian national architecture. Interestingly, a merging of architectural forms and trends occur as immigrants interact with Iranian Islamic meanings. These observations are significant within the context of modern architecture around the world and within Western discourse because what are considered religious minorities in Iran are the dominant religions in Western nations. This makes Iran’s architecture particularly unique as it creates a kind of inverse relationship, than that of Western nations, to the ways in which religion influences architectural history.

Keywords: architecture, ethnic architecture, national architecture, religion architecture

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86 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao

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Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: crack, drug policy, minorities, racism, substance abuse

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85 Parallels between the Glass and Lavender Ceilings

Authors: Paul E. Olsen

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Researchers, businesses, and governments study the glass ceiling faced by women and members of minority groups at work, but the experiences of gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women with the lavender ceiling have not received similar attention. This qualitative research traces similarities between the lavender ceiling and the glass ceiling. More specifically, it presents a study designed to elucidate the experiences of gay men at work and compare them with those of women and minority group members, as reported in research literature on the glass ceiling. This research asked: 1) What have gay men experienced in the workplace? 2) What experiences have they had with recruitment, mentors, corporate climate, advancement opportunities, performance evaluation, social activities, harassment, and task force and committee assignments? 3) How do these experiences compare with those of women and minorities who have described their experiences with the glass ceiling? Purposeful and convenience sampling were used as participant selection strategies. Participants were diverse in terms of age, education, and industry. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured individual interviews with eight self-identified gay men working in human services, manufacturing, marketing, finance, government, the nonprofit sector, and retail. The gay men in the study described workplace experiences similar to descriptions of the glass ceiling faced by women and minorities. The lavender ceiling parallels the glass ceiling in corporate climates, harassment, mentors, social activities, promotions and performance appraisal, and task force and committee assignments at work. Women and most minorities do not, however, face the disclosure dilemma: Should one reveal his sexual orientation at work?

Keywords: discrimination, diversity, gay and lesbian, human resource

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84 A Closer Look at Inclusion-For-All Approaches to Diversity Initiative Implementation

Authors: Payton Small

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In response to increasing demographic diversity, many U.S. organizations have implemented diversity initiatives to increase the representation of women and ethnic minorities. While these initiatives aim to promote more fair and positive outcomes for underrepresented minorities (URMs) widespread backlash against these policies can negatively impact the groups of individuals that are supposed to be supported by them. A recent theory-based analysis of best practices for instituting diversity policies proposes an "inclusion for all" approach that negotiates the oft-divergent goals and motivations of both marginalized and dominant group members in these contexts. Empirical work finds that "inclusion for all" strategies decrease White's tendency to implicitly associate diversity with exclusion and increased their personal endorsement of diversity initiatives. Similarly, Whites report higher belongingness when considering an inclusion for all approach to diversity versus a colorblind approach. While inclusion-for-all approaches may effectively increase Whites' responsiveness to diversity efforts, the downstream consequences of implementing these policies on URM's have yet to be explored. The current research investigated how inclusion-for-all diversity framing influences Whites' sensitivity to detecting discrimination against URM's as well as perceptions of reverse discrimination against Whites. Lastly, the current research looked at how URM's respond to inclusion-for-all diversity approaches. Three studies investigated the impact of inclusion-for-all diversity framing on perceptions of discrimination against Whites and URM's in a company setting. Two separate mechanisms by which exposure to an inclusion-for-all diversity statement might differentially influence perceptions of discrimination for URMs and Whites were also tested. In Studies 1 and 2, exposure to an inclusion-for-all diversity approach reduced Whites' concerns about reverse discrimination and heightened sensitivity to detecting discrimination against URM's. These effects were mediated by decreased concerns about zero-sum outcomes at the company. Study 3 found that racial minorities are concerned about increased discrimination at a company with an inclusion-for-all diversity statement and that this effect is mediated by decreased feelings of belonging at the company. In sum, companies that adopt an inclusion-for-all approach to diversity implementation reduce Whites' backlash and the negative downstream consequences associated with such backlash; however, racial minorities feel excluded and expect heightened experiences of discrimination at these same companies.

Keywords: diversity, intergroup relations, organizational social psychology, zero-sum

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83 How Do Undergraduates of Ethnic Minorities Perceive Their Sense of Belonging to School? A Mixed Study in China

Authors: Xiao-Fang Wang

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Researchers of educational psychology have proved that students' sense of belonging to school is conducive to their academic achievement, social relations and mental health. However, little attention is paid to undergraduates' sense of belonging, especially, the distinctive student group, i.e., undergraduate students of ethnic minorities. This article utilized a mixed study approach to investigate the perceptions of undergraduates of ethnic minority toward their sense of belonging to school. The findings from qualitative and quantitative data indicate: 1) generally, the sense of belonging to school of ethnic minority undergraduate students was at the middle level. 2) Gender had an important impact on the sense of belonging, and the sense of girls was much larger than boys’. 3) The sense of belonging to school of students who come from city and town was much larger than the one of students who come from the countryside. 4) The category of subjects had significantly effected on the sense of belonging to school, and, the students from social and art science was larger than those from engineer science. The article is concluded with some valuable and relevant suggestions for university' student management activities and teachers' teaching practice.

Keywords: ethnic minority, undergraduate students, sense of belonging, China

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82 LGBTQ+ Visibility: An Analysis of the Mechanisms for Safeguarding Sexual Minorities within the Common European Asylum System

Authors: Alessandra Tosi, Teia M. Rogers

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The Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is the framework that standardises the treatment of applicants for international protection and harmonises asylum systems throughout the European Union. This paper interrogates the rules applied within the CEAS, specifically Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013, which puts forth the standards for the reception of vulnerable people applying for asylum. Absent from the definition of ‘vulnerable people’ are sexual minorities who routinely experience discrimination in reception centres and emergency accommodations. This paper undertakes an analysis of policies and legalisation of reception centres within the European Union. In confronting the flaws inherent to the system of processing asylum applications, this paper argues for the reform of the CEAS with emphasis on the inclusion of LBGTQ+ asylum seekers as vulnerable people following standards set by international human rights law.

Keywords: accommodation, asylum seekers, CEAS, Common European Asylum System, European Union, LGBTQ+, reception conditions, vulnerable people

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81 Minority Language Policy and Planning in Manchester, Britain

Authors: Mohamed F. Othman

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Manchester, Britain has become the destination of immigrants from different parts of the world. As a result, it is currently home to over 150 different ethnic languages. The present study investigates minority language policy and planning at the micro-level of the city. In order to get an in-depth investigation of such a policy, it was decided to cover it from two angles: the first is the policy making process. This was aimed at getting insights on how decisions regarding the provision of government services in minority languages are taken and what criteria are employed. The second angle is the service provider; i.e. the different departments in Manchester City Council (MCC), the NHS, the courts, and police, etc., to obtain information on the actual provisions of services. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with different personnel representing different departments in MCC, solicitors, interpreters, etc.; through the internet, e.g. the websites of MCC, NHS, courts, and police, etc.; and via personal observation of provisions of community languages in government services. The results show that Manchester’s language policy is formulated around two concepts that work simultaneously: one is concerned with providing services in community languages in order to help minorities manage their life until they acquire English, and the other with helping the integration of minorities through encouraging them to learn English. In this regard, different government services are provided in community languages, though to varying degrees, depending on the numerical strength of each individual language. Thus, it is concluded that there is awareness in MCC and other government agencies working in Manchester of the linguistic diversity of the city and there are serious attempts to meet this diversity in their services. It is worth mentioning here that providing such services in minority languages are not meant to support linguistic diversity, but rather to maintain the legal right to equal opportunities among the residents of Manchester and to avoid any misunderstanding that may result due to the language barrier, especially in such areas as hospitals, courts, and police. There is actually no explicitly-mentioned language policy regarding minorities in Manchester; rather, there is an implied or covert policy resulting from factors that are not explicitly documented. That is, there are guidelines from the central government, which emphasize the principle of equal opportunities; then the implementation of such guidelines requires providing services in the different ethnic languages.

Keywords: community language, covert language policy, micro-language policy and planning, minority language

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80 Sexual Diversity Training for Hong Kong Teachers Preliminary Themes Identified from Qualitative Interviews

Authors: Diana K. Kwok

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Despite the fact that Hong Kong government aims to develop an inclusive society, sexual minority students continue to encounter sexual prejudice without legal protection. They also have difficulties accessing relevant services from mental health and educational professionals, who do not receive systematic training to work with sexual minority students. Informed by the literature on sexual prejudice, heterosexual hegemony, genderism, as well as code of practice for frontline practitioners, the authors explored self-perceived knowledge of teachers and sexual minorities on sexuality and sexual prejudice, and how they perceive prejudice towards sexual minorities in Chinese cultural context. Semi-structure qualitative interviews were carried out with 31 school personnel informants (school teachers and counseling team members) and 25 sexual minority informants on their understanding of sexuality knowledge, their perception of sexual prejudice within school context in Hong Kong, as well as their suggested themes on teachers training on sexual prejudice reduction. This presentation specifically focuses on transcripts from sexual minority informants. Data analysis was carried out through NVivo, and followed the procedures spelt out in the qualitative research literature. Trustworthiness of the study was addressed through various strategies. Preliminary themes emerged from transcript content analysis: 1) A gap of knowledge between sexual minority informants and teachers; 2) Perception on sexual prejudice within cultural context; 3) Heterosexual hegemony and genderism within school system; 4) Needs for mandatory training: contents and strategies. The sexual minority informants found that teachers they encountered were predominantly adopted concepts of binary sex and dichotomous gender. Informants also indicated that the teachings of Confucianism cultural values, religiosity in Hong Kong might well be important cultural forces contributing to sexual prejudice manifested in school context. Although human rights and social justice concepts were embedded in professional code of practice of teachers and school helping professionals, informants found that teachers they encountered may face a dilemma when supporting sexual minority students navigating heterosexual hegemony and genderism in, as a consequence of their personal, institutional, cultural and religious backgrounds. Acknowledgments: The sexual prejudice project was funded by the Hong Kong Research Grant Council (ECS28401614), 2015 to 2017.

Keywords: sexual prejudice, Chinese teachers, Chinese sexual minorities, teacher training

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79 Empowering Minority Students Through the use of Critical Educational Technologies: Latinos in the United States

Authors: Oscar Guerra

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Educational technologies have great potential as tools for student empowerment, particularly for members of a marginalized population such as immigrant Latino children in the American public education system. It is not merely a matter of access to the necessary technological devices; rather, it is development and implementation under a critical lens that may prompt a positive change.

Keywords: education, critical technologies, minorities, higher education

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78 Rotection of Old Grant Communal Properties of Minorities in Cantonment of Pakistan: Issues and Problems

Authors: Nayer Fardows, Zarash Nayer, Sarah Nayer Jaffar, Daud Nayer

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This paper analyses the issues related to communal properties of minorities in the cantonment area of Pakistan allotted in the mid-eighteenth centuries by the British Government to facilitate soldiers. These properties were old grants on which churches, institutes, hospitals, and residences were built. The ownership of these properties remained with British Government, but after the creation of Pakistan, changes by putting Government of Pakistan as the landlord of the property disturbed the inheritors as they remained as, holder of occupancy. The government of Pakistan issued a policy in 1997 to convert the status of old grant properties to regular lease. However, heavy taxes and high court’s decisions made it difficult to solve the issue. The study was conducted on six old grant properties of Edwardes College Peshawar cantonment situated in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The paper is descriptive research with a qualitative approach collecting data through government rules, acts, ordinance and decisions of the high courts. The result leads to three aspects; 1) holder of occupancy status of old grant properties in cantonment is similar as allotment of other properties by the government, 2) imposition of heavy taxes on conversion of property from old grant to regular lease restricted inheritors to further construct or transfer, 3) imposition of higher courts ban on conversion of communal properties contradict government policy of conversion. The paper recommends the Government of Pakistan a solution to maintain the status quo for communal properties that fall within the old grant.

Keywords: British Government, communal properties, cantonment, old grant, institutions

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77 Polygamy in the Jewish and Western Tradition - Religion, Class and Tolerance

Authors: S. Zev Kalifon

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The question of polygamy for Moslem minorities in Western nations has often been raised in the political and social discourse. Can polygamy be tolerated as a religious or human right in the West. For example, before the 2015 election in Israel, changes were made in the electoral system, which encouraged three small Arab parties to merge into one list. This “Unity List” included the socially liberal Communist list and a socially conservative Islamist list. Two members of the Islamist list were polygamists. Some rival politicians called for the election board to disqualify these men (and even the whole list) from the election process. This request was denied by the courts, and the men were elected to the parliament. Their subsequent seating in the parliament was questioned by many on both the liberal and conservative sides of the political spectrum. Some political commentators went so far as to describe polygamy as a “mark of disgrace” (a term usually reserved for people convicted on corruption charges). There are also problems in other areas of society; these include the rights of these families for welfare and social services (public policy issues) and residence in Israel. Using qualitative methods (primarily historical and archival data), this paper will analyze at the historic and cultural processes which created the intense opposition to polygamy in Judaism (for Israel) and Christianity (for the Western world). It will look at the debate over the "religious right" of polygamy for Moslem citizens in Israel and other Western cultures. Finally, it will examine the political, cultural, and demographic pressures which encourage polygamy in these minorities. This paper will demonstrate that the debate over polygamy is more than a question of religious freedom or human rights or multi-culturalism. It is a central symbol of modernity and the Western worldview.

Keywords: human rights, Judaism, multi-culturalism, polygamy, western values

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76 The Influence of Migration on Migrants' Culture: A Study on Egyptian Nubians' Migration to Investigate Culture Changes

Authors: Tarek Hassan, Sanaa Abouras

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Some factors such as interaction of migration process, cultural identity have an impact in a way that may lead to cultural disinheritance. Even if migrants' culture would not be lost, it may be affected by the new society culture. Therefore, it is anticipated that migration of an ethnic group would impact the culture of that group. Nubians; an ethnic group originated in South Egypt, have experienced migration that took place in the sixties of the past century. Nubians were forced to leave their origin land and relocate to Kom Ombo; an Egyptian town to the north of Aswan. The effect of migration on national culture, social homogeneity or the interest of social contact influences the attitudes of natives towards migration. Hence, it is very important for societies to help migrants to adapt to the new culture and at the same time not to impede migrants' effort to maintain their own culture. This study aims to investigate the effect of internal migration on the culture of Egyptian Nubians in order to predict if Nubian can maintain their own culture after the migration. Research question: what is the cultural influence of Nubians' migration from Egyptian Nubia to their new destinations? The researchers' hypothesis: there is mutual influence between the two cultures of Nubians and non-Nubians in Egypt. Results supported researchers' hypothesis as they observed that the Nubians managed to reserve balance between the maintenance of their own culture and the adoption of some cultural features of the community of their new destination(s). Also, the study examined why Nubians adhere to their culture although they left their land forever. Questionnaire and interviews were used to collect data from 80 informants; 40 Nubians and 40 non-Nubians in Kom-Ombo and the two cities of Cairo and Alexandria. Results suggested that there is obvious mutual cultural impact between Nubians and non-Nubians. The findings of this study would trigger the researchers to conduct further research on minorities for the deeper understanding of the impact of/on the culture of minorities.

Keywords: culture change, culture influence, culture maintenance, minority migration

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75 The Impact of Project-Based Learning under Representative Minorities Students

Authors: Shwadhin Sharma

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As there has been increasing focus on the shorter attention span of the millennials students, there is a relative absence of instructional tools on behavioral assessments in learning information technology skills within the information systems field and textbooks. This study uses project-based learning in which students gain knowledge and skills related to information technology by working on an extended project that allows students to find a real business problem design information systems based on information collected from the company and develop an information system that solves the problem of the company. Eighty students from two sections of the same course engage in the project from the first week of the class till the sixteenth week of the class to deliver a small business information system that allows them to employ all the skills and knowledge that they learned in the class into the systems they are creating. Computer Information Systems related courses are often difficult to understand and process especially for the Under Representative Minorities students who have limited computer or information systems related (academic) experiences. Project-based learning demands constant attention of the students and forces them to apply knowledge learned in the class to a project that helps retaining knowledge. To make sure our assumption is correct, we started with a pre-test and post-test to test the students learning (of skills) based on the project. Our test showed that almost 90% of the students from the two sections scored higher in post-test as compared to pre-test. Based on this premise, we conducted a further survey that measured student’s job-search preparation, knowledge of data analysis, involved with the course, satisfaction with the course, student’s overall reaction the course and students' ability to meet the traditional learning goals related to the course.

Keywords: project-based learning, job-search preparation, satisfaction with course, traditional learning goals

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74 Health Ramifications of Workplace Bullying: Gender, Race and Sexual Orientation as Risk Factors

Authors: Kathleen Canul

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Bullying is on the rise according to several recent studies. Workplace bullying has garnered less attention than other forms yet incidence rates range from 35-45%. The consequences of being bullied at work are broad, ranging from physiological to psychological to occupational. As the bullying progresses, employees begin to exhibit physical and psychological symptoms. Blood pressure rises, along with other cardiac related concerns. For men, covert coping with job unfairness was associated with a four-fold risk of heart attack and death. Gastrointestinal distress, headaches, muscle tension, sleep disorders and exhaustion are also common. Workplace bullying appears to contribute to the risk of subsequent psychotropic medication, as well. Emotionally, anxiety and depression increase along with lowered self-esteem and problems concentrating on the duties of the job. In an attempt to cope, individuals may succumb to unhealthy practices involving food, alcohol and other drugs. Patterns of bullying vary by gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as sexual orientation, with women, ethnic minorities and LGBTQ employees reporting higher rates of bullying in the workplace. Not only is this an issue of inequity on the job, but also a problem of health disparities as there are few mental health professionals confident and competent in dealing with workplace bullying issues, and the lack of culturally competent clinicians exacerbates this inequality in receiving adequate care. Alone, the topic of workplace bullying is not unique; however, the diverse experiences of underrepresented groups who disproportionately are affected on the job and suffer untreated, health related concerns represent a significant and emerging problem requiring attention. Conference participants who have experienced, witnessed or help those bullied on the job would benefit most from this review of the literature on the consequences of bullying experienced by diverse and underrepresented groups in the workplace.

Keywords: bullying, ethnic minorities, health disparities, workplace conflict

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73 Experiences of Students in a Cultural Competence Learning Project in Hong Kong- Themes from Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Diana Kwok

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Introduction: There is a rising concern on the educational needs of school guidance teachers, counselors, and sex educators to work effectively with students from multicultural groups, such as racial minorities, gender minorities, sexual minorities, and disability groups etc., and to respect cultural diversities. A specialized training model, the multicultural framework based on contact theory is recognized as necessary training model for professional training programs. Methodology: While the major focus of this project is on improving teaching and learning in teacher training courses within the department of Special Education and Counselling, it specifically aims to enhance the cultural competence of 102 participants enrolled in counseling and sexuality education courses by integrating the following teaching and learning strategies: 1) Panel presentation; 2) Case studies; 3) Experiential learning. Data sources from the participants consisted of the following: (a) questionnaires (MCKAS and ATLG) administered in classes; (b) weekly reflective journals, and c) focus group interviews with panel members. The focus group interviews with panel members were documented. Qualitatively, the weekly reflections were content analyzed. The presentation in this specific conference put focus on themes we found from qualitative content analysis of weekly reflective journals from 102 participants. Findings: Content analysis had found the following preliminary emergent themes: Theme I) Cultural knowledge and challenges to personal limitation. Students had gained a new perspective that specific cultural knowledge involved unique values and worldview. Awareness of limitation of counsellors is very important after actively acquiring the cultural knowledge. Theme 2 - Observation, engagement and active learning. Through the sharing and case studies, as well as visits to the communities, students recognized that observation and listening to the needs of cultural group members were the essential steps before taking any intervention steps. Theme 3 - Curiosity and desire for further inter-group dialogue. All students expressed their desire, curiosity, and motivation to have further inter-group dialogue in their future work settings. Theme 4: Experience with teaching and learning strategies. Students shared their perspectives on how teaching and learning strategies had facilitated their acquisition of cultural competence. Results of this analysis suggests that diverse teaching and learning strategies based on contact perspective had stimulated their curiosity to re-examine their values and motivated them to acquire cultural knowledge relevant to the cultural groups. Acknowledgment: The teaching and learning project was funded by the Teaching and Development Grant, Hong Kong Institute of Education (Project Number T0142).

Keywords: cultural competence, Chinese teacher students, teaching and learning, contacts

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72 Do Interventions for Increasing Minorities' Access to Higher Education Work? The Case of Ethiopians in Israel

Authors: F. Nasser-Abu Alhija

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In many countries, much efforts and resources are devoted to empowering and integrating minorities within the mainstream population. Major ventures in this route are crafted in higher education institutions where different outreach programs and methods such as lenient entry requirements, monitory incentives, learning skills workshops, tutoring and mentoring, are utilized. Although there is some information regarding these programs, their effectiveness still needs to be thoroughly examined. The Ethiopian community In Israel is one of the minority groups that has been targeted by sponsoring foundations and higher education institutions with the aim to ease the access, persistence and success of its young people in higher education and later in the job market. The evaluation study we propose to present focuses on the implementation of a program designed for this purpose. This program offers relevant candidates for study at a prestigious university a variety of generous incentives that include tuitions, livening allowance, tutoring, mentoring, skills and empowerment workshops and cultural meetings. Ten students were selected for the program and they started their studies in different subject areas before three and half years. A longitudinal evaluation has been conducted since the implementation of the program. Data were collected from different sources: participating students, program coordinator, mentors, tutors, program documents and university records. Questionnaires and interviews were used for collecting data on the different components of the program and on participants' perception of their effectiveness. Participants indicate that the lenient entry requirements and the monitory incentives are critical for starting their studies. During the first year, skills and empowering workshops, torturing and mentoring were evaluated as very important for persistence and success in studies. Tutoring was perceived as very important also at the second year but less importance is attributed to mentoring. Mixed results regarding integration in the Israeli culture emerged. The results are discussed with reference to findings from different settings around the world.

Keywords: access to higher education, minority groups, monitory incentives, torturing, mentoring

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71 To Allow or to Forbid: Investigating How Europeans Reason about Endorsing Rights to Minorities: A Vignette Methodology Based Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Silvia Miele, Patrice Rusconi, Harriet Tenenbaum

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An increasingly multi-ethnic Europe has been pushing citizens’ boundaries on who should be entitled and to what extent to practise their own diversity. Indeed, according to a Standard Eurobarometer survey conducted in 2017, immigration is seen by Europeans as the most serious issue facing the EU, and a third of respondents reported they do not feel comfortable interacting with migrants from outside the EU. Many of these come from Muslim countries, accounting for 4.9% of Europe population in 2016. However, the figure is projected to rise up to 14% by 2050. Additionally, political debates have increasingly focused on Muslim immigrants, who are frequently portrayed as difficult to integrate, while nationalist parties across Europe have fostered the idea of insuperable cultural differences, creating an atmosphere of hostility. Using a 3 X 3 X 2 between-subjects design, it was investigated how people reason about endorsing religious and non-religious rights to minorities. An online survey has been administered to university students of three different countries (Italy, Spain and the UK) via Qualtrics, presenting hypothetical scenarios through a vignette methodology. Each respondent has been randomly allocated to one of the three following conditions: Christian, Muslim or non-religious (vegan) target. Each condition entailed three questions about children self-determination rights to exercise some control over their own lives and 3 questions about children nurturance rights of care and protection. Moreover, participants have been required to further elaborate on their answers via free-text entries and have been asked about their contact and quality of contact with the three targets, and to self-report religious, national and ethnic identification. Answers have been recorded on a Likert scale of 1-5, 1 being "not at all", 5 being "very much". A two-way ANCOVA will be used to analyse answers to closed-ended questions, while free-text answers will be coded and data will be dichotomised based on Social Cognitive Domain Theory for four categories: moral, social conventional and psychological reasons, and analysed via ANCOVAs. This study’s findings aim to contribute to the implementation of educational interventions and speak to the introduction of governmental policies on human rights.

Keywords: children's rights, Europe, migration, minority

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70 Music in Religion Culture of the Georgian Pentecostals

Authors: Nino Naneishvili

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The study of religious minorities and their musical culture has attracted scant academic attention in Georgia. Within wider Georgian society, it would seem that the focus of discourse to date has been on the traditional orthodox religion and its musical expression, with other forms of religious expression regarded as intrinsically less valuable. The goal of this article is to study Georgia's different religious and musical picture which, this time, is presented on the example of the Pentecostals. The first signs of the Pentecostal movement originated at the end of the 19th Century in the USA, and first appeared in Georgia as early as 1914. An ethnomusicological perspective allows the use of anthropological and sociological approaches. The basic methodology is an ethnographic method. This involved attending religious services, observation, in-depth interviews and musical material analysis. This analysis, based on a combined use of various theoretical and methodological approaches, reveals that Georgian Pentecostals, apart from polyphonic singing, are characterised by “ bi-musicality.“ This phenomenon together with Georgian three part polyphony combines vocalisation within “social polyphony.“ The concept of back stage and front stage is highlighted. Chanters also try to express national identity. In some cases however it has been observed that they abandon or conceal certain musical forms of expression which are considered central to Georgian identity. The famous hymn “Thou art a Vineyard” is a case in point. The reason given for this omission within the Georgian Pentecostal church is that within Pentecostal doctrine, God alone is the object of worship. Therefore there is no veneration of Saints as representatives of the Divine. In some cases informants denied the existence of this hymn, and others explain that the meaning conveyed to the Vineyard is that of Jesus Christ and not the Virgin Mary. Others stated that they loved Virgin Mary and were therefore free to sing this song outside church circles. The results of this study illustrates that one of the religious minorities in Georgia, the Pentecostals, are characterised by a deviation in musical thinking from Homo Polyphonicus. They actively change their form of musical worship to secondary ethno hearing – bi-musicality. This outcome is determined by both new religious thinking and the process of globalization. A significant principle behind this form of worship is the use of forms during worship which are acceptable and accessible to all. This naturally leads to the development of modern forms. Obtained material does not demonstrate a connection between traditional religious music in general. Rather, it constitutes an independent domain.

Keywords: Georgia, globalization, music, pentecostal

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69 The Role of Internal and External Control in the Migrant Related Representations of Right-Wing Extremists

Authors: Gabriella Kengyel

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This study aims to describe the differences between the attitudes of the right-wing extremists with internal or external control towards migrants. They both have a significantly higher score on Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and they are quite xenophobic (54%) according to Bogardus Social Distance Scale. Present research suggests their motives are different. Principle components analysis shows that extremists with internal control reject migrants because of welfare chauvinism and they think that there is some kind of political conspirationism behind the European Refugee Crisis. Contrarily extremist with external control believe in a common enemy and they are significantly more ethnocentric and less skeptical in politics. Results suggest that extremist with internal control shows hostility toward minorities and migrants mainly because of their own reference group.

Keywords: control, extremist, migrant, right-wing

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