Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5053

Search results for: primary school

5053 Predictors of School Safety Awareness among Malaysian Primary School Teachers

Authors: Ssekamanya, Mastura Badzis, Khamsiah Ismail, Dayang Shuzaidah Bt Abduludin

Abstract:

With rising incidents of school violence worldwide, educators and researchers are trying to understand and find ways to enhance the safety of children at school. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the demographic variables of gender, age, length of service, position, academic qualification, and school location predicted teachers’ awareness about school safety practices in Malaysian primary schools. A stratified random sample of 380 teachers was selected in the central Malaysian states of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that none of the factors was a good predictor of awareness about school safety training, delivery methods of school safety information, and available school safety programs. Awareness about school safety activities was significantly predicted by school location (whether the school was located in a rural or urban area). While these results may reflect a general lack of awareness about school safety among primary school teachers in the selected locations, a national study needs to be conducted for the whole country.

Keywords: school safety awareness, predictors of school safety, multiple regression analysis, malaysian primary schools

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5052 A Study on Classic Literature Education in Primary School Using Out-of-School Literature Appreciation Program: An Practice Study Applied to Primary School in Korea

Authors: Hyo Jung Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a literature appreciation education program for classic literatures and apply them to the field, and to derive the achievements and improvement points. Classic literature is a work of value recognized in the context of literature history and culture history, and learners can develop interest in literature and inherit tradition through appreciation of classic literature. However, in Korean educational environment, classic literature is a means for college entrance examination, and many learners analyze contents and language in textbooks and concentrate on memorizing the whole plot. This study is one of the reasons that classic literature appreciation education is not done properly and it is not able to give an opportunity to appreciate the whole work in the early learning stage. In Korean primary education, classic literature is used as a means to achieve the goals of reading, writing, speaking and listening, rather than being used as a material for its own appreciation. It is problematic to make the piece appreciation experience fragmentary. This study proposes a program to experience classic literatures by linking school education and school library with primary school students in grades 4-6. We work with local primary schools (siheung-si, gyeonggi-do, Korea) to provide appropriate activities and rewards to learners, observe their participation, and introduce student learning outcomes. Through this, we are able to systematically improve the learner 's ability to appreciate the literature and to diversify primary education.

Keywords: classic literature education, primary education, out-of-school program, learning by appreciation experience

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5051 The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners from a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa

Abstract:

There is arguably a lack of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary school learners in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst primary school learners in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to 14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated according to the EUROFIT fitness standards by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys, and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a significantly (p = 0.002) higher mean age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policymakers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and health promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, body fat, children, physical fitness, primary school

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5050 E-teaching Barriers: A Survey from Shanghai Primary School Teachers

Authors: Liu Dan

Abstract:

It was considered either unnecessary or impossible for primary school students to implement online teaching until last year. A large number of E-learning or E-teaching researches have been focused on adult-learners, andragogy and technology, however, primary school education, it is facing many problems that need to be solved. Therefore, this research is aimed at exploring barriers and influential factors on online teaching for K-12 students from teachers’ perspectives and discussing the E-pedagogy that is suitable for primary school students and teachers. Eight hundred and ninety-six teachers from 10 primary schools in Shanghai were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. Data were analysed by hierarchical regression, and the results stress the significant three barriers by teachers with online teaching: the existing system is deficient in emotional interaction, teachers’ attitude towards the technology is negative and the present teacher training is lack of systematic E-pedagogy guidance. The barriers discovered by this study will help the software designers (E-lab) develop tools that allow for flexible and evolving pedagogical approaches whilst providing an easy entry point for cautious newcomers, so that help the teachers free to engage in E-teaching at pedagogical and disciplinary levels, to enhance their repertoire of teaching practices.

Keywords: online teaching barriers (OTB), e-teaching, primary school, teachers, technology

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5049 Health Status among Government and Private Primary School Children in the Central of Thailand

Authors: Petcharat Kerdonfag, Supunnee Thrakul

Abstract:

School health services through regular screening of school students’ health status have been the main responsibility for community or school health nurses. The purposes of these retrospective study were to assess and compare health problems between government and private primary school students in the central region of Thailand. The data were collected from the school health records in October at the end of the first semester in the academic year 2018. Two thousand and fifty primary school health records from government and private primary schools were gathered to assess health problems regarding anthropometric measurements, physical examination/personal hygiene, and clinical findings for this study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were used to be analyzed. The results revealed that health problems of all the school students remained high magnitude. The five top ranks for prevalence rate of health problems were dental caries (36.6%), visual acuity problem (27.7%), over-nutrition (16.8%), head lice (12.8%), and under-nutrition (6.8%), respectively. However, when compared between government and private schools among five health problems; dental caries (55.0% vs 19.9%), visual acuity problem (23.1% vs 31.9%), over-nutrition (20.2% vs 13.8%), head lice (26.5% vs 0.3%), and under-nutrition (10.6% vs 3.4%) with Chi-square analysis, there were significantly different (p < .001). The problem of visual acuity seems to be more serious in private schools while other health problems tend to be more critical in government schools. The findings have suggested that parents who have children in the private primary schools should pay more attention to visual health defects whereas parents with children in the government school should pay more vigilance regards to hygiene and health behavior problems.

Keywords: community health nursing, school health service, health status, primary school children

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5048 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, primary school teachers, procedural knowledge, rational numbers

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5047 A Conversation about Inclusive Education: Revelations from Namibian Primary School Teachers

Authors: M. D. Nghiteke, A. Mji, G. T. Molepo

Abstract:

Inclusive education stems from a philosophy and vision, which argues that all children should learn together at school. It is not only about treating all pupils in the same way. It is also about allowing all children to attend school without any restrictions. Ten primary school teachers in a circuit in Namibia volunteered to participate in face-to-face interviews about inclusive education. The teachers responded to three questions about their (i) understanding of inclusive education; (ii) whether inclusive education was implemented in primary schools; and (iii) whether they were able to work with learners with special needs. Findings indicated that teachers understood what inclusive education entailed; felt that inclusive education was not implemented in their primary schools, and they were unable to work with learners with special needs in their classrooms. Further, the teachers identified training and resources as important components of inclusive education. It is recommended that education authorities should perhaps verify the findings reported here as well as ensure that the concerns raised by the teachers are addressed.

Keywords: classrooms and schools, inclusive education, resources, training

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5046 Salient Issues in Reading Comprehension Difficulties Faced by Primary School Children

Authors: Janet Fernandez

Abstract:

Reading is both for aesthetic and efferent purposes. In order for reading comprehension to take place, the reader needs to be able to make meaningful connections and enjoy the reading process. The notion of reading comprehension is discussed along with the plausible causes of poor reading comprehension abilities among primary school children. Among the major contributing causes are imaging, lack of schemata, selection of reading materials, and habits of the readers. Instruction methods are an integral part of making reading comprehension a meaningful experience, hence several models are presented for the classroom practitioner. Suggestions on how primary school children can improve their reading comprehension skills are offered.

Keywords: children, improve, reading comprehension, meaningful strategies

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5045 Parents' Attitude toward Compulsory Pre-School Education in Slovakia

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova

Abstract:

Compulsory pre-school education in Slovakia will be established by the Education Act for all five-year-old children from September 2021. The implementation of this law will change pre-school education in our country from optional to compulsory, and children will be able to complete this education either in institutional form school facilities or in the form of individual education at the request of the parent. The primary purpose of this change is that all children achieve pre-school education before entering primary school, thus eliminating differences between children before entering primary school. The benefits of introducing compulsory pre-school education are obvious to the professional public. However, as this fundamental change in children's education is perceived by parents who have a prime position in the upbringing and education of their children, research pays minimal attention. The aim of the study is to interpret the findings of quantitatively oriented research, which was focused on finding out the attitudes of parents to the planned introduction of compulsory preschool education in Slovakia. The data were obtained through questionnaires primarily intended for parents of preschool children. In the distributed questionnaire, the degree of agreement or disagreement with individual items could be expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of the research present how perceived compulsory pre-school education is perceived by the parental public in Slovakia and what perspectives and limitations parents anticipate after its introduction.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education act, childs' learning and development, kindergarten, parents' perspectives

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5044 Comparative Analysis of Teachers’ Performance in Private and Public Primary Schools in Oyo State

Authors: Babajide Solomon Faloore

Abstract:

This study on the comparative analysis of the performance of teachers in private and public schools was carried out in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. This study examined the justification for the claim that there is a difference in the performance of teachers in private and public primary schools and at the same time identified factors responsible for the difference in the performance of these teachers. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Data generated were analyzed using t-test and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there is significance difference in the performance of teachers in private and private primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State( t=64.09; df=459; p,.05). The findings also revealed that the method of teaching in private primary schools is significantly different from the method of teaching in public primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=73.08; df=459; p,.05). Findings revealed that school leadership and management have a significant contribution on the performance of private and public primary school teachers in Ibadan North West Local Area of Oyo State. Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made: Primary school teachers need to be motivated and rewarded for excellent performance. Primary schools should be properly equipped with teaching–aid facilities, laboratories, and libraries. The government should use the findings of this study to improve on teaching materials provided to the primary school teachers in Nigeria. Public primary schools should be designed by education planners, administrators, and government. Headmasters, proprietors, and teachers of primary schools should look inward and give a performance appraisal and evaluation of themselves from time to time based on the subject they taught. Finally, school administrators should be conscious of the way they manage the teachers in schools not only in informal situations but also in formal settings.

Keywords: private education, public education, school leadership, school management, teachers performance

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5043 Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions on Water Quality in Primary Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Jamil Ahmed, Li P. Wong, Yan P. Chua

Abstract:

The United Nation's sustainable development goals include the target to ensure access to water and sanitation for all; however, very few studies have assessed school-based drinking water in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to characterize water quality in primary schools of Pakistan and to characterize how recent WASH interventions were associated with school water quality. We conducted a representative cross-sectional study of primary schools in the Sindh province of Pakistan. We used structured observations and structured interviews to ascertain the school’s WASH conditions. Our primary exposures of interest were the implementation of previous WASH interventions in the school and the water source type. Outcomes of interest included water quality (measured by various chemical and microbiological indicators) and water availability at the school’s primary drinking water source. We used log-binomial regression to characterize how WASH exposures were associated with water quality outcomes. We collected data from 256 schools. Groundwater was the primary drinking water source at most schools (87%). Water testing showed that 14% of the school’s water had arsenic above the WHO recommendations, and over 50% of the water samples exceeded recommendations for both lead and cadmium. A majority of the water sources (52%) had fecal coliform contamination. None of the schools had nitrate contamination (0%), and few had fluoride contamination (5%). Regression results indicated that having a recent WASH intervention at the school was not associated with either arsenic contamination (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95% CI: 0.46-2.1) or with fecal coliform contamination (PR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.67-1.17). Our assessment unveiled several water quality gaps that exist, including high heavy metal and fecal contamination. Our findings will help various stakeholders to take suitable action to improve water quality in Pakistani schools.

Keywords: WASH interventions, water quality, primary school children, heavy metals

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5042 Comparative Analysis of Teachers’ Performance in Private and Public Primary Schools in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyetunji John Adenuga

Abstract:

This study on the comparative analysis of the performance of teachers in private and public schools was carried out in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. This study examined the justification for the claim that there is difference in the performance of teachers in private and public primary schools and at the same time identified factors responsible for the difference in the performance of these teachers. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Data generated were analysed using t-test and regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the performance of teachers in private and private primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=64.09; df=459; p,.05). The findings also revealed that the method of teaching in private primary schools is significantly different from the method of teaching in public primary schools in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State (t=73.08; df=459; p,.05). Findings revealed that school leadership and management have significant contribution on the performance of private and public primary school teachers in Ibadan North West Local Area of Oyo State. Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made: Primary school teachers need to be motivated and rewarded for excellent performance. Primary schools should be properly equipped with teaching-aid facilities, laboratories and libraries. Government should use the findings of this study to improve on teaching materials provided to the primary school teachers in Nigeria. Public primary schools should be designed by education planners, administrators and government. Headmasters, proprietors and teachers of primary schools should look inward and give a performance appraisal and evaluation of themselves form time to time based on subject they taught. Finally, school administrators should be conscious of the way they manage the teachers in schools not only in informal situations but also in formal settings.

Keywords: private education, public education, school leadership, school management, teachers performance

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5041 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

Abstract:

This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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5040 Experimental Study on the Effectiveness of Extracurricular Football Training for Improving Primary Students Physical Fitness

Authors: Yizhi Zhang, Xiaozan Wang, Mingming Guo, Pengpeng Li

Abstract:

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of after-school football training in improving the physical fitness of primary school students, so as to provide corresponding suggestions for carrying out after-school football training in primary schools. Methods: A total of 72 students from the experimental primary school of Mouping district, Yantai city, Shandong province, participated in this experiment. The experiment was conducted for two semesters. During the experiment period, the experimental group conducted one-hour football training after school from Monday to Thursday afternoon every week, and two hours of football training on Saturday morning every week. The control group conducted sports teaching and extracurricular activities as usual without other intervention. Before and after the experiment, both the experimental group and the control group underwent physical fitness tests according to the physical fitness test standards of Chinese students, including lung capacity, 50-meter run, one-minute skipping rope, sitting forward flexor, and one-minute sit-ups. The test results were all converted to the 100-point system according to the scoring standards. Results: (1) Before the experiment, there was no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in various physical fitness indicators (p > 0.05). (2) After the experiment, the lung capacity score (T = 3.108, p < 0.05), the 50-meter run score (T = 6.593, p < 0.05), the skipping score (T = 9.227, p < 0.05), the sitting forward flexor score (T = 3.742, p < 0.05), and the sit-up score (T = 5.210, p < 0.05) of the experimental group were significantly higher than that of the control group. Conclusion: This study shows that the physical fitness of primary school students can be improved by football training in their spare time. It is suggested to carry out after-school football training activities in primary schools so as to effectively improve the physical fitness of pupils.

Keywords: after-school football training, physical fitness, primary school students, school sports

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5039 Micropolitical Leadership in a Taiwanese Primary School

Authors: Hsin-Jen Chen

Abstract:

Primary schooling in Taiwan is in a process of radical restructuring during the decade. At the center of these restructuring is the position of the principal and questions to do with how principals, as school leaders, respond to radical change. Adopting a case-study approach, the study chose a middle Taiwanese primary school to investigate how the principal learned to be political. Using micropolitical leadership, the principal at the researched site successfully coped with internal change and external demands. On the whole, judging from the principal’s leadership style on the mediation between parents and teachers, as well as school-based curriculum development, it could be argued that the principal was on the stance of being a leader of the cultural transformation instead of cultural reproduction. In doing so, the qualitative evidence has indicated that the principal seemed to be successful in coping with the demands of rapid change. Continuing learning for leadership is the core of working as a principal.

Keywords: micropolitics, leadership, micropolitical leadership, learning for leadership

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5038 The Role of Teaching Assistants for Deaf Pupils in a Mainstream Primary School in England

Authors: Hatice Yildirim

Abstract:

This study was an investigation into the role of teaching assistants (TAs) for deaf pupils in an English primary school. This study aimed to provide knowledge about how TAs support deaf pupils in mainstream schools in England. It is accepted that TAs have an important role in the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream schools. However, there has been a lack of attention paid to the role of TAs for deaf pupils in the literature. A qualitative case study approach was used to address the research questions. Twelve semi-structured classroom observations and six semi-structured interviews were carried out with four TAs and two teachers in one English mainstream primary school. The data analysis followed a thematic analysis framework. The results indicated that TAs are utilised based on a one-on-one support model and are deployed under the class teachers in the classroom. The classroom activities are carried out in small groups with the TAs and the class teacher’s agreement, as per the school’s policy. Findings show that TAs carried out seven different roles in the education of deaf pupils in an English mainstream primary school. Supporting the academic and social development of deaf pupils is TA`s main role. Also, they record pupils’ progress, communicate with pupils’ parents, take on a pastoral care role, tutor pupils in additional support lessons and raise awareness of deaf pupils’ issues.

Keywords: deaf, mainstream primary school, teaching assistant, teaching assistant`s roles

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5037 Reflection on Using Bar Model Method in Learning and Teaching Primary Mathematics: A Hong Kong Case Study

Authors: Chui Ka Shing

Abstract:

This case study research attempts to examine the use of the Bar Model Method approach in learning and teaching mathematics in a primary school in Hong Kong. The objectives of the study are to find out to what extent (a) the Bar Model Method approach enhances the construction of students’ mathematics concepts, and (b) the school-based mathematics curriculum development with adopting the Bar Model Method approach. This case study illuminates the effectiveness of using the Bar Model Method to solve mathematics problems from Primary 1 to Primary 6. Some effective pedagogies and assessments were developed to strengthen the use of the Bar Model Method across year levels. Suggestions including school-based curriculum development for using Bar Model Method and further study were discussed.

Keywords: bar model method, curriculum development, mathematics education, problem solving

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5036 Literacy Performance among Lower Primary School Children : A Malaysian Case Study

Authors: Ratnawati Mohd Asraf, Hazlina Abdullah

Abstract:

Numerous studies on boys’ performance relative to girls’ have been conducted around the globe. However, little has been done in relation to the literacy of primary school boys in the Malaysian context. This paper discusses the results of a study that sought to determine the literacy performance of Grades 1, 2, and 3 primary school students in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data on approximately 85,000 students from each grade level were obtained from the Ministry of Education Malaysia, which conducts national screening on literacy and numeracy, or LINUS, in all government primary schools. Teachers’ views were also sought through focus group interviews and journal entries. The results show that although there is an overall improvement in literacy performance in the Malay language among the students as they go into Grades 2 and 3, girls are found to outperform boys in every screening for all grade levels.

Keywords: boys’ underperformance, literacy, literacy performance, reading

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5035 School Based Assessment Issues in Selected Malaysian Primary Schools

Authors: Nur Amalina Dayana Abd Aziz

Abstract:

Assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning in any syllabus in the world. Recently, a new assessment system, School-Based Assessment (SBA) was introduced and implemented in the Malaysian education system to promote a more holistic, integrated and balanced assessment system. This effort is part of the reformation made in the Government Transformation Plan (GTP) to produce a world-class human capital as we are reaching and achieving the Vision 2020 in the near future. However, this new change has raised awareness and concerns from teachers, students, parents and non-profit organizations on how the new assessment is to be implemented and how it is affecting the students and teachers particularly. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the issues that teachers face in implementing SBA in primary schools, the measures taken to address the issues and to propose ways of managing school-based assessment. Five national primary schools focusing in the urban areas in the Selangor state are chosen for this study to carry out. Data for the study will be gathered from interviews with teachers from each school, surveys and classrooms observation will be conducted in each school, and relevant documents are collected from the selected schools. The findings of this study will present the current issues that teachers from various types of national primary schools are facing and what actions they took to overcome the problems in carrying out SBA. Suggestions on how to better manage school-based assessment for teachers are also provided in this paper.

Keywords: community of practice, curriculum, managing change, school-based assessment

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5034 Impact of Mid-Day Meal on Nutritional Status of Primary School Children in Haryana, India

Authors: Vinti Davar

Abstract:

India is one among the many countries where child malnutrition is severe and also a major underlying cause of child mortality. The Mid Day Meal (MDM) program was launched to improve the nutritional status of children, attendance, and retention in schools. It was based on one meal provided to the children, who are attending elementary school (primary school). The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of mid-day meal on the nutritional status of primary school children in Haryana, India. The present work was carried out on 1200 children between 6-11years of age, studying in primary schools in Haryana, India. Out of these 960 students as, the experimental group was selected from schools where mid-day meal is supplied by the government, and 240 students as control group where mid-day meal is not supplied. The mean height, weight, and BMI of children of both the groups were found to be significantly low as compared to NCHS standards. Stunting was found in 56.40% MDMB (Mid-day meal beneficiaries) and 62.50 % NMDMC (non- mid-day meal children).The weight of almost all subjects were low according to age indicating thinness. Anemia was more prevalent in MDMB as compared to NMDMC may be because school meals did not include vegetables. The consumption of energy, proteins, fat, calcium, iron, vitamins was significantly low (P ≤ .01) in both groups especially in girls of NMDM. The consumption of various food groups except vegetables was better in MDMB compared to NMDMC. It is concluded that with certain improvements, mid-meal can be beneficial in meeting everyday requirements of school going children.

Keywords: foods, meals, nutritional status, school going children

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5033 Primary School Teacher's Perception of the Efficacy of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Saint Louis University, Laboratory Elementary School

Authors: Villiam Ambong, Kevin Banawag, Wynne Shane Bugatan, Mark Alvin Jay Carpio, Hwan Hee Choi, Moises Kevin Chungalao

Abstract:

This survey research investigated the perception of primary school teachers on the efficacy of MTB-MLE in SLU-LES, Baguio City. SLU-LES has a total of 21 primary school teachers who served as respondents of this study in an attempt to answer the major questions regarding the efficacy of MTB-MLE among primary school teachers. A questionnaire was used in collecting the data which were analyzed using weighted mean and ANOVA. The questionnaire was validated by a statistician and it was administered to a school which does not differ from the intended respondents for further validation of the items. Findings revealed from the intended respondents that they perceive MTB-MLE as effective; however, they do not prefer the use of Mother Tongue as a medium of instruction. A research on the same topic was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria by Dr. David O. Fakeye and although his respondents were students; the results came out that the respondents do perceive MTB-MLE to be efficacious. The results of this study also showed that years of teaching experience and the number of languages spoken by the teachers have no bearing on the preference of the respondents between MT medium and English medium gave that the respondents are in melting pot community. Comparative studies between rural and urban schools are encouraged. Future researchers should include questions that elicit reasons of the respondents on the efficacy of mother tongue as well as their preference between mother tongue medium and English.

Keywords: mother tongue, primary teachers, perception, multilingual education

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5032 Primary School Teachers’ Perception on the Efficacy of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) in Saint Louis University, Laboratory Elementary School

Authors: Villiam C. Ambong, Kevin G. Banawag, Wynne Shane B. Bugatan, Mark Alvin Jay R. Carpio, Hwan Hee Choi, Moses Kevin L. Chungalao

Abstract:

This survey research investigated the perception of primary school teachers on the efficacy of MTB-MLE in SLU-LES, Baguio City. SLU-LES has a total of 21 primary school teachers who served as the respondents of this study in an attempt to answer three major questions regarding the efficacy of MTB-MLE among primary school teachers. A questionnaire was used in collecting the data which were analyzed using weighted mean and ANOVA. The questionnaire was validated by a statistician and it was administered to a school which does not differ from the intended respondents for further validation of the items. Findings revealed from the intended respondents that they perceive MTB-MLE as effective; however, they do not prefer the use of Mother Tongue as medium of instruction. A research of the same topic was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria by Dr. David O. Fakeye and although his respondents were students; the results came out that the respondents do perceive MTB-MLE to be efficacious. The results of this study also showed that years of teaching experience and number of languages spoken by the teachers have no bearing on the preference of the respondents between MT medium and English medium given that the respondents are in a melting pot community. Comparative studies between rural schools and urban schools are encouraged. Future researches should include questions that elicit reasons of the respondents on the efficacy of mother tongue as well as their preference between mother tongue medium and English.

Keywords: mother tongue, primary teachers, perception, multilingual education

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5031 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers and Its Effects on Pupils Achievement of Rational Numbers

Authors: Raliatu Mohammed Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers to determine how it effects on pupil’s achievement on rational number. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual and procedural knowledge about rational number and its effects on their pupils understanding of rational number in primary school was explored. The study was carried out in Bauchi state of Nigeria, Using a multistage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test post-test only quasi experiment design. The population of the study comprises of six mathematics teachers holding the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and their two hundred and ten pupils in intact class. Two instrument namely Conceptual and Procedural knowledge Test (CPKT) and Rational number Achievement Test (RAT) were used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using ANCOVA and Scheffe’s Test. The result revealed a significant differences between pupils taught by teachers with high conceptual and procedural knowledge and those target by teachers with low conceptual and procedural knowledge.

Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, rational numbers, multistage design

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5030 Distributive School Leadership in Croatian Primary Schools

Authors: Iva Buchberger, Vesna Kovač

Abstract:

Global education policy trends and recommendations underline the importance of (distributive) school leadership as a school effectiveness key factor. In this context, the broader aim of this research (supported by the Croatian Science Foundation) is to identify school leadership characteristics in Croatian schools and to examine the correlation between school leadership and school effectiveness. The aim of the proposed conference paper is to focus on the school leadership characteristics which are additionally explained with school leadership facilitators that contribute to (distributive) school leadership development. The aforementioned school leadership characteristics include the following dimensions: (a) participation in the process of making different types of decisions, (b) influence in the decision making process, (c) social interactions between different stakeholders in the decision making process in schools. Further, the school leadership facilitators are categorized as follows: (a) principal’s activities (such as providing support to different stakeholders and developing mutual trust among them), (b) stakeholders’ characteristics (such as developed stakeholders’ interest and competence to participate in decision-making process), (c) organizational and material resources (such as school material conditions, the necessary information and time as resources for making decisions). The data were collected by a constructed and validated questionnaire for examining the school leadership characteristics and facilitators from teachers’ perspective. The main population in this study consists of all primary schools in Croatia while the sample is comprised of 100 primary schools, selected by random sampling. Furthermore, the sample of teachers was selected by an additional procedure taking into consideration the independent variables of sex, work experience, etc. Data processing was performed by standard statistical methods of descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistical program IBM SPSS 20.0 was used for data processing. The results of this study show that there is a (positive) correlation between school leadership characteristics and school leadership facilitators. Specifically, it is noteworthy to mention that all the dimensions of school leadership characteristics are in positive correlation with the categories of school leadership facilitators. These results are indicative for the education policy creators who should ensure positive and supportive environment for the school leadership development including the development of school leadership characteristics and school leadership facilitators.

Keywords: distributive school leadership, school effectiveness , school leadership characteristics, school leadership facilitators

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5029 Music Aptitude and School Readiness in Indonesian Children

Authors: Diella Gracia Martauli

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between music aptitude and school readiness in Indonesian children. Music aptitude is described as children’s music potential, whereas school readiness is defined as a condition in which a child is deemed ready to enter the formal education system. This study presents a hypothesis that music aptitude is correlated with school readiness. This is a correlational research study of 17 children aged 5-6 years old (M = 6.10, SD = 0.33) who were enrolled in a kindergarten school in Jakarta, Indonesia. Music aptitude scores were obtained from Primary Measures of Music Audiation, whereas School readiness scores were obtained from Bracken School Readiness Assessment Third Edition. The analysis of the data was performed using Pearson Correlation. The result found no correlation between music aptitude and school readiness (r = 0.196, p = 0.452). Discussions regarding the results, perspective from the measures and cultures are presented. Further study is recommended to establish links between music aptitude and school readiness.

Keywords: BSRA, music aptitude, PMMA, school readiness

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5028 The Philosophy of Language Theory in the Standard Malay Primary School Curriculum in Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Rashid Bin Hj. Md Idris, Lajiman Bin Janoory, Abdullah Bin Yusof, Mahzir Bin Ibrahim

Abstract:

The Malay language curriculum at primary school level in Malaysia is instrumental in ensuring the status of the language as the official and national language, the language of instruction as well as the language that unites the various ethnics in Malaysia. A research addressing issues related to the curriculum standard is, therefore, essential to provide value added quality to the existing National Education Philosophy in ongoing efforts to produce an individual who is balanced in intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical developments. The objective of this study is to examine the Philosophy of Language Theory, to review the content of the Malay language subject in relation to the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (KSSR), and to identify aspects of Theory of Philosophy in the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools. The Malay language Primary School Curriculum is designed to enable students to be competent speakers and communicators of the language in order to gain knowledge, skills, information, values, and ideas and to enhance skills in social relations. Therefore, this study is designed to help educators to achieve all the stated goals. At the same time students at primary school level are expected to be able to apply the principle of language perfection as stated in the Philosophy of Language Theory to enable them to understand, appreciate and to take pride in being a Malaysian who speaks the language well.

Keywords: language, philosophy, theory, curriculum, standard, national education philosophy

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5027 A Study on the Factors Affecting Student Behavior Intention to Attend Robotics Courses at the Primary and Secondary School Levels

Authors: Jingwen Shan

Abstract:

In order to explore the key factors affecting the robot program learning intention of school students, this study takes the technology acceptance model as the theoretical basis and invites 167 students from Jiading District of Shanghai as the research subjects. In the robot course, the model of school students on their learning behavior is constructed. By verifying the causal path relationship between variables, it is concluded that teachers can enhance students’ perceptual usefulness to robotics courses by enhancing subjective norms, entertainment perception, and reducing technical anxiety, such as focusing on the gradual progress of programming and analyzing learner characteristics. Students can improve perceived ease of use by enhancing self-efficacy. At the same time, robot hardware designers can optimize in terms of entertainment and interactivity, which will directly or indirectly increase the learning intention of the robot course. By changing these factors, the learning behavior of primary and secondary school students can be more sustainable.

Keywords: TAM, learning behavior intentions, robot courses, primary and secondary school students

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5026 A Study of Primary School Parents’ Interaction with Teachers’ in Malaysia

Authors: Shireen Simon

Abstract:

This study explores the interactions between primary school parents-teachers in Malaysia. Schools in the country are organized to promote participation between parents and teachers. Exchanges of dialogue are most valued between parents and teachers because teachers are in daily contact with pupils’ and the first line of communication with parents. Teachers are considered by parents as the most important connection to improve children learning and well-being. Without a good communication, interaction or involvement between parent-teacher might tarnish a pupils’ performance in school. This study tries to find out multiple emotions among primary school parents-teachers, either estranged or cordial, when they communicate in a multi-cultured society in Malaysia. Important issues related to parent-teacher interactions are discussed further. Parents’ involvement in an effort to boost better education in school is significantly more effective with parents’ involvement. Lastly, this article proposes some suggestions for parents and teachers to build a positive relationship with effective communication and establish more democratic open door policy.

Keywords: multi-cultured society, parental involvement, parent-teacher relationships, parents’ interaction

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5025 Primary School Teachers’ Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Number and Its Effects on Pupils’ Achievement in Rational Numbers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigated primary school teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers and its effects on pupil’s achievement in rational numbers. Specifically, primary school teachers’ level of conceptual knowledge about rational numbers, primary school teachers’ level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers, and the effects of teachers conceptual and procedural knowledge on their pupils understanding of rational numbers in primary schools is investigated. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in the Bauchi state of Nigeria. The design of the study was a multi-stage design. The first stage was a descriptive design. The second stage involves a pre-test, post-test only quasi-experimental design. Two instruments were used for the data collection in the study. These were Conceptual and Procedural knowledge test (CPKT) and Rational number achievement test (RAT), the population of the study comprises of three (3) mathematics teachers’ holders of Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) teaching primary six and 210 pupils in their intact classes were used for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and t- test. The findings indicated that the pupils taught rational number by a teacher that has high conceptual and procedural knowledge understand and perform better than the pupil taught by a teacher who has low conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in primary schools should be encouraged to enrich their conceptual knowledge of rational numbers. Also, the superiority performance of teachers in procedural knowledge in rational number should not become an obstruction of understanding. Teachers Conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational numbers should be balanced so that primary school pupils will have a view of better teaching and learning of rational number in our contemporary schools.

Keywords: conceptual, procedural knowledge, rational number, pupils

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5024 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: education for sustainable development, China, primary education, case study

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