Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 128

Search results for: etiology

128 Klippel Feil Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed Abdelmoula, Afifa Sellami, Salima Daoud, Tarek Rebai

Abstract:

Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is characterized by congenital vertebral fusion of the cervical spine resulting from faulty segmentation along the embryo's developing axis. A wide spectrum of associated anomalies may be present. This heterogeneity has complicated elucidation of the genetic etiology and management of the syndrome. We report a case of an isolated Klippel-Feil Syndrome with C5-C6 fusion on the cervical spine. It‘s the rarest form of congenital fused cervical vertebrae which is predisposed to the risk of spinal cord injury and neurologic problems. The aim of this paper was to review clinical heterogeneity; radiographic abnormalities and genetic etiology in Klippel-Feil Syndrome. We insist in comprehensive evaluation and delineation of diagnostic and prognostic classes.

Keywords: Klippel–Feil anomaly, genetic, clinical heterogeneity, radiographic abnormalities

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
127 Orientia Tsutsugamushi an Emerging Etiology of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Northern Part of India

Authors: Amita Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Suruchi Shukla

Abstract:

Introduction: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a complex multi etiology syndrome posing a great public health problem in the northern part of India. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is an established etiology of AES in this region. Recently, Scrub typhus (ST) is being recognized as an emerging aetiology of AES in JE endemic belt. This study was conducted to establish the direct evidence of Central nervous system invasion by Orientia tsutsugamushi leading to AES. Methodology: A total of 849 cases with clinical diagnosis of AES were enrolled from six districts (Deoria and its adjoining area) of the traditional north Indian Japanese encephalitis (JE) belt. Serum and Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested for major agent causing acute encephalitis. AES cases either positive for anti-ST IgM antibodies or negative for all tested etiologies were investigated for ST-DNA by real-time PCR. Results: Of these 505 cases, 250 patients were laboratory confirmed for O. tsutsugamushi infection either by anti-ST IgM antibodies positivity (n=206) on serum sample or by ST-DNA detection by real-time PCR assay on CSF sample (n=2) or by both (n=42).Total 29 isolate could be sequenced for 56KDa gene. Conclusion: All the strains were found to cluster with Gilliam strains. The majority of the isolates showed a 97–99% sequence similarity with Thailand and Cambodian strains. Gilliam strain of O.tsusugamushi is an emerging as one of the major aetiologies leading to AES in northern part of India.

Keywords: acute encephalitis syndrome, O. tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, North India, cerebrospinal fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
126 Outcomes in New-Onset Diabetic Foot Ulcers Stratified by Etiology

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Lia Ferreira, Sofia Garcia, Jaime Babulal, Luís Costa, Luís Castelo, José Muras, Isabel Gonçalves, Rui Carvalho

Abstract:

Introduction: Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the outcomes in terms of need for hospitalization, amputation, healing time and mortality in patients with new-onset diabetic foot ulcers in subgroups stratified by etiology. Methods: A retrospective study based on clinical assessment of patients presenting with new ulcers to a multidisciplinary diabetic foot consult during 2012. Outcomes were determined until September 2014, from hospital registers. Baseline clinical examination was done to classify ulcers as neuropathic, ischemic or neuroischemic. Results: 487 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers were observed; 36%, 15% and 49% of patients had neuropathic, ischemic and neuroischemic ulcers, respectively. For analysis, patients were classified as having predominantly neuropathic (36%) or ischemic foot (64%). The mean age was significantly higher in the group with ischemic foot (70±12 vs 63±12 years; p <0.001), as well as the duration of diabetes (18±10 vs 16 ± 10years, p <0.05). A history of previous amputation was also significantly higher in this group (24.7% vs 15.6%, p <0.05). The evolution of ischemic ulcers was significantly worse, with a greater need for hospitalization (27.2% vs 18%, p <0.05), amputation (11.5% vs 3.6% p <0.05) mainly major amputation (3% vs. 0%; p <0.001) and higher mean healing time (151 days vs 89 days, p <0.05). The mortality rate at 18 months, was also significantly higher in the ischemic foot group (7.3% vs 1.8%, p <0.05). Conclusions: All types of diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, the presence of arterial disease confers a poor prognosis. Diabetic foot can be successfully treated only by the multidisciplinary team which can provide more comprehensive and integrated care.

Keywords: diabetes, foot ulcers, etiology, outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
125 Evaluation of the Spectrum of Cases of Perforation Peritonitis at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University

Authors: Mujahid Ali, Wasif Mohammed Ali, Meraj Ahmad

Abstract:

Background: Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by surgeons all over the world as well as in India. The etiology of perforation peritonitis in India continues to be different from its western counterparts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the spectrum of cases of perforation peritonitis at our hospital. Methods: A prospective study conducted includes three hundred thirtysix patients of perforation peritonitis at J. N. Medical College from October 2015 to July 2017. The patients were admitted, resuscitated and underwent emergency laparotomy. Data were collected in terms of demographic profile, clinical presentations, site of perforations, causes and surgical outcomes. Results: In this study, the most common cause of perforation peritonitis was peptic ulcer disease (43%), followed by enteric perforation (12.8%), tubercular perforation (12.5%), traumatic perforation (11.9%), appendicular perforation (9.8%), amoebic caecal perforation (3%), malignant perforation (1.5%), etc. The sites of perforations were stomach in majority (38.3%), ileum (31%), appendix (8%), duodenum (5.%), caecum (4.4%) ,colon (3%), jejunum (8.5%) and gall bladder (2%). The overall mortality was 21% in our study. Age >50 years (p= <0.0001, OR= 3.9260, CI= 2.2 to 6.9), organ failure (p= <0.0001, OR= 29.2, CI= 14.8 to 57.6), shock (p=<0.0001, OR=20.20, CI= 10.56 to 38.6), diffuse peritonitis (p<0.0015, OR= 6.8810, CI= 2.09 to 22.57) and faecal exudates (p<0.0001) were found to be significant factors affecting mortality. The most common complication associated was superficial wound infection (40%), followed by burst abdomen seen in 21% cases, intra-abdominal sepsis in 18% cases, electrolyte imbalances in 15% cases, anastomotic leak in 6% cases. Conclusion: In this study, stomach is the most common site of perforation with peptic ulcer disease being the most common etiology. Older age, presence of shock, organ failure and faecal peritonitis were the risk factors affecting the mortality of the patients. Early recognition, adequate resuscitation and referral of patients can influence outcome and reduces mortality as well as morbidity.

Keywords: etiology, mortality, perforation, spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
124 Psoriasis Diagnostic Test Development: Exploratory Study

Authors: Salam N. Abdo, Orien L. Tulp, George P. Einstein

Abstract:

The purpose of this exploratory study was to gather the insights into psoriasis etiology, treatment, and patient experience, for developing psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test. Data collection methods consisted of a comprehensive meta-analysis of relevant studies and psoriasis patient survey. Established meta-analysis guidelines were used for the selection and qualitative comparative analysis of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis research studies. Only studies that clearly discussed psoriasis etiology, treatment, and patient experience were reviewed and analyzed, to establish a qualitative data base for the study. Using the insights gained from meta-analysis, an existing psoriasis patient survey was modified and administered to collect additional data as well as triangulate the results. The hypothesis is that specific types of psoriatic disease have specific etiology and pathophysiologic pattern. The following etiology categories were identified: bacterial, environmental/microbial, genetic, immune, infectious, trauma/stress, and viral. Additional results, obtained from meta-analysis and confirmed by patient survey, were the common age of onset (early to mid-20s) and type of psoriasis (plaque; mild; symmetrical; scalp, chest, and extremities, specifically elbows and knees). Almost 70% of patients reported no prescription drug use due to severe side effects and prohibitive cost. These results will guide the development of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test. The significant number of medical publications classified psoriatic arthritis disease as inflammatory of an unknown etiology. Thus numerous meta-analyses struggle to report any meaningful conclusions since no definitive results have been reported to date. Therefore, return to the basics is an essential step to any future meaningful results. To date, medical literature supports the fact that psoriatic disease in its current classification could be misidentifying subcategories, which in turn hinders the success of studies conducted to date. Moreover, there has been an enormous commercial support to pursue various immune-modulation therapies, thus following a narrow hypothesis/mechanism of action that is yet to yield resolution of disease state. Recurrence and complications may be considered unacceptable in a significant number of these studies. The aim of the ongoing study is to focus on a narrow subgroup of patient population, as identified by this exploratory study via meta-analysis and patient survey, and conduct an exhaustive work up, aiming at mechanism of action and causality before proposing a cure or therapeutic modality. Remission in psoriasis has been achieved and documented in medical literature, such as immune-modulation, phototherapy, various over-the-counter agents, including salts and tar. However, there is no psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis diagnostic test to date, to guide the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating and, thus far, incurable disease. Because psoriasis affects approximately 2% of population, the results of this study may affect the treatment and improve the quality of life of a significant number of psoriasis patients, potentially millions of patients in the United States alone and many more millions worldwide.

Keywords: biologics, early diagnosis, etiology, immune disease, immune modulation therapy, inflammation skin disorder, phototherapy, plaque psoriasis, psoriasis, psoriasis classification, psoriasis disease marker, psoriasis diagnostic test, psoriasis marker, psoriasis mechanism of action, psoriasis treatment, psoriatic arthritis, psoriatic disease, psoriatic disease marker, psoriatic patient experience, psoriatic patient quality of life, remission, salt therapy, targeted immune therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
123 Etiology and Postnatal Management of Prenatal Hydronephrosis: A Study of Two Teaching Hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Saima Ali, Liaqat Ali, Nasir Orakzai

Abstract:

Background: Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with Ultrasonography. The prenatal hydronephrosis is a diagnostic dilemma in differentiating between obstructive variant versus physiologic hydronephrosis. The assessment and prompt diagnosis of prenatal hydronephrosis is important because of the fact that untreated obstructive hydronephrosis usually leads to recurrent UTI, Urosepsis, deterioration of renal functions, non-functioning kidneys, and even end-stage renal disease. Objectives: To determine the etiology and outcome of postnatal treatment of children with prenatal hydronephrosis in two teaching hospitals of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Methods: It is a multicentric descriptive study that was conducted in department of Paediatrics in Kuwait teaching hospital Peshawar and Department of Urology in Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar from January 2008 till December 2010. Total numbers of 64 neonates were included in the study with the mean follow-up of 14.5 months. All the diagnostic data in prenatal, postnatal data, and operative and non-operative data were collected on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: Out of 64 patients, 39 (60.9 %) were male while 25 were female. 52 patients had unilateral while 12 patients had bilateral hydronephrosis. Based upon prenatal USG in term of AP diameter, 37 (57 %) patients had mild hydronephrosis (5-10 mm AP diameter), 14 patients had moderate hydronephrosis (10-15 mm AP diameter) while 13 patients had gross hydronephrosis (More than 15mm). Regarding etiology, 44(76 %) patients were labeled as physiologic hydronephrosis, 11 patients (9.3%) with PUJ obstruction, 5 patients with Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and 4 patients with posterior urethral valves. Surgery was performed in total of 15 (23.4%) patients that included open Pyeloplasty in 11 patients, Vesicostomy followed by posterior valve fulguration in 4 patients. All the patients of VUR treated medically. The severity in the grade of prenatal hydronephrosis is significantly associated with the need for definitive urological surgery p < 0.005. Ancillary procedures like percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) were inserted 7 patients. Conclusions: Prenatal hydronephrosis is a common ailment associated with significant morbidity. Physiological Hydronephrosis and VUR can be successfully treated with medical treatment. However obstructive PUJ obstructions and posterior urethral valves require surgical correction with a good success rate.

Keywords: prenatal hydronephrosis, Pelviureteric Junction (PUJ) Obstruction, vesicoureteric reflux, posterior urethral valve, renography

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
122 Underivatized Amino Acid Analyses Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Scalp Hair of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Ayat Bani Rashaid, Zain Khasawneh, Mazin Alqhazo, Shreen Nusair, Mohammad El-Khateeb, Mahmoud Bashtawi

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) is a psychiatric disorder with unknown etiology that mainly affects children in the first three years of life. Alterations of amino acid levels are believed to contribute to ASD. The levels of six essential amino acids (methionine, histidine, valine, leucine, threonine, and phenylalanine), five conditional amino acids (proline, tyrosine, glutamine, cysteine, and cystine), and five non-essential amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, alanine, serine, and glutamic acid) in hair samples of children with ASD (n = 25) were analyzed and compared to corresponding levels in healthy age-matched controls (n = 25). The results showed that the levels of methionine, alanine, and asparagine were significantly lower in the hair samples of ASD group compared to those of the control group (p ≤ 0.05). However, the levels of glutamic acid were significantly higher in the ASD group than the control group (p ≤ 0.05). The current findings could contribute towards further understanding of ASD etiology and provide specialists with a hair amino acid profile utilized as a biomarker for early diagnosis of ASD. Such biomarkers could participate in future developments of therapies that reduce ASD-related symptoms.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, amino acids, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, human hair

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
121 Psychological Characteristic Patients with Takotsubo - Etiology of Stress and Family Functioning

Authors: Treder Natalia, Siemiński Mariusz

Abstract:

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a recently defined clinical entity. First described by Japanese researchers, today is diagnosed worldwide in 1-2% of patients admitted with the preliminary diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome. The etiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy remains still largely unknown. Currently, the most likely cause of takotsubo is direct cytotoxicity caused by catecholamine surge triggered by emotional stress. There is a strong relation between recent severe emotional stress and TC. The aim of this study was to analysis the role of stress and personality as a risk factor of TT. The presented research involves 35 people who are diagnosed TC. All patients were women, mean age 60 years. The methods used in the research are popular psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale, DS14 scale to measure type D personality, The Neo-Five Factor Inventory of Personality and psychological interview. The obtained results prove that stress events may directly precede or even release TC. The stressful events occurred directly before the symptoms in 75% examined. 65% assessed their family life as very stressful. Examiners have also a high level of experienced stress. Only 25% of the TC were classified as having type D personality but they have a high level of negative affectivity. The subjects had a high level of extraversion, openness to experiences and an average level of neuroticism. The results suggested that such a type of personality profile may predispose to the development of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients with TT are the individuals who reveal joint tendency to the experience of negative emotions and very stressful family life.

Keywords: stress, personality trails, familiar problems, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
120 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
119 Tibial Hemimelia Type VIIa: A Case Report

Authors: M. Medrano, M. D. M. S., L. Younes, M. D.

Abstract:

Introduction: Incidence of tibial hemimelia is 1:1,000,000. Due to pre-existing case studies and literature, there is now a better understanding of the genetics, etiology and pathoanatomy of tibial hemimelia, but an underlying cause is generally unknown. This presentation aims to discuss a rare, congenital lower limb deficiency observed in a patient in order to identify potential prenatal risk factors and future considerations for the patient’s well-being. Observation: A newborn female child, born full term via spontaneous vaginal delivery after induction of labor to unaffected and non-consanguineous parents. The prenatal course was notable for limited and disjointed prenatal care as well as maternal tobacco and marijuana use, anemia of pregnancy, and inadequate weight gain. Prenatal imaging showed lower extremity deformity with the inability to visualize tibia and bilateral clubfeet in the setting of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR). The patient presented with right equino varus deformity of the foot and right knee joint deformity. Radiological imaging showed the absence of the right tibia and varus angulation of the right foot with dislocation of the tibiotalar joint. Normal femur with lateral and mild anterior displacement of a wide fibula (Weber Type VIIa). Due to the absence of the patient’s tibia and knee extensor mechanism, the patient was not a candidate for reconstructive surgery and ultimately underwent successful right knee disarticulation. Discussion and Conclusion: By utilizing a retrospective chart review of this case, possible risk factors in prenatal care may be identified and add to existing knowledge on etiology. Hopefully, a cause can be clearly identified in the future and, thus, addressed in the prenatal period. In addition, we can investigate the patient’s well-being and adjustment post-operatively to support outpatient management of an uncommon anomaly.

Keywords: Tibial hemimelia, prenatal care, pediatric orthopedics, congenital deformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
118 The Difference of Serum Tnf-α Levels between Patients Schizophrenic Male with Smoking and Healthy Control

Authors: Rona Hanani Simamora, Bahagia Loebis, M. Surya Husada

Abstract:

Background: The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several etiology theories have been proposed for the disease, including immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Cytokines including Tnf-α has an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the effects of pharmacological treatment with antipsychotics. Nicotine is widespread effects on the brain, immune system and cytokine levels. Smoking among schizophrenic patients could play a role in the altered cytokine profiles of schizophrenia such as Tnf-α. Aims: To determine differences of serum Tnf-α levels between schizophrenic patients with smoking in male and healthy control. Methods: This study was a comparative analytic study, divided into two groups: 1) group of male schizophrenic patients with smoking (n1=30) with inclusion criteria were patients who have been diagnosed schizophrenic based PPDGJ-III, 20-60 years old, male, smoking, chronic schizophrenic patients in the stable phase and willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were having other mental disorders and comorbidity with other medical illnesses. 2) healthy control group (n2=30) with inclusion criteria were 20-60 years old, male, smoking, willing to participate this study. Exclusion criteria were having mental disorder, a family history of psychiatric disorders, the other medical illnesses, a history of alcohol and other substances abuse (except caffeine and nicotine). Serum Tnf-α were analyzed using the Quantikine HS Human Tnf –α Immunoassay. Results: Serum Tnf-α level measure in patient schizophrenia male with smoking and compared with the healthy control subjects. Tnf-α levels were significantly higher in patients schizophrenic male with smoking (25,79±27,96) to healthy control subjects (2,74±2,19), by using the Mann Whitney U test showed a statistically significant difference was observed for serum Tnf-α level (p < 0,001). Conclusions: Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and this study shows an increase Tnf-α as pro-inflammation cytokines in schizophrenics. These results suggest an immune abnormalities may be involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Keywords: male, schizophrenic, smoking, Tnf Alpha

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
117 Medical and Dietary Potentials of Mare's Milk in Liver Diseases

Authors: Bakytzhan Bimbetov, Abay Zhangabilov, Saule Aitbaeva, Galymzhan Meirambekov

Abstract:

Mare’s milk (saumal) contains in total about 40 biological components necessary for the human body. The most significant among them are amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, enzymes (lysozyme, amylase), more minerals and vitamins which are well balanced with each other. In Kazakhstan, Company "Eurasia Invest Ltd.” produces a freeze-dried saumal in form of powder by the use of modern German innovative technology by means of evaporating at low temperature (-35°C) with an appropriate pasteurization. Research of freeze-dried biomilk for the qualitative content showed that main ingredients of freshly drown milk are being preserved. We are currently studying medical and dietary properties of freeze-dried mare's milk for diseases of the digestive system, including for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis (LC) viral etiology. The studied group consisted of 14 patients with NASH, and 7 patients with LC viral etiology of Class A severity degree as per Child-Pugh. Patients took freeze-dried saumal, preliminary dissolved in boiled warm water (24 g. powder per 200 ml water) 3-4 times a day for a month in conjunction with basic therapy. The results were compared to a control group (11 patients with NASH and LC) who received only basic therapy without mare’s milk. Results of preliminary research showed an improvement of subjective and objective conditions of all patients, but more significant improvement of clinical symptoms and syndromes were observed in the treatment group compared to the control one. Patients with NASH significantly over time compared to the beginning of therapy decreased asthenic and dyspeptic syndromes (p<0,01). Hepatomegaly, identified on the basis of ultrasound prior to treatment was observed in 92,8±2,4% of patients, and after combination therapy hepatomegaly the rate decreased by 14,3%, amounting to 78,5±2,8%. Patients with LC also noted the improvement of asthenic (p<0,01) and dyspeptic (p<0,05) syndromes and hemorrhagic syndrome (nosebleeds and bleeding gums when brushing your teeth, p<0,05), and jaundice. Laboratory study also showed improvement in the research group, but more significant changes were observed in the experimental group. Group of patients with NASH showed a significant improvement of index in cytolysis in conjunction with a combination therapy (p<0,05). In the control group, these indicators were also improved, but they were not statistically reliable (p>0,05). Markers of liver failure were additionally studied during the study of laboratory parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis, in particular, bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin index (PTI). Combined therapy with the use of basic treatment and mare's milk showed a significant improvement in cytolysis and bilirubin (p<0,05). In our opinion, a very important and interesting fact is that, in conjunction with basic therapy, the use of mare's milk revealed an improvement of liver function in the form of normalized PTI and albumin in patients with liver cirrhosis viral etiology. Results of this work have shown therapeutic efficiency of the use of mare's milk in complex treatment of patients with liver disease and require further in-depth study.

Keywords: liver cirrhosis, non-alcohol steatohepatitis, saumal, mare’s milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
116 Rapid Detection of the Etiology of Infection as Bacterial or Viral Using Infrared Spectroscopy of White Blood Cells

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Guy Beck, Joseph Kapelushnik, Adam H. Agbaria, Itshak Lapidot, Shaul Mordechai, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel

Abstract:

Infectious diseases cause a significant burden on the public health and the economic stability of societies all over the world for several centuries. A reliable detection of the causative agent of infection is not possible based on clinical features, since some of these infections have similar symptoms, including fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. Moreover, physicians usually encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on symptoms. Therefore, there is an ongoing need for sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for identification of the etiology of the infection. This intricate issue perplex doctors and researchers since it has serious repercussions. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the mid-infrared spectroscopic method for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial and viral infections based on simple peripheral blood samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is considered a successful diagnostic method in the biological and medical fields. Many studies confirmed the great potential of the combination of FTIR spectroscopy and machine learning as a powerful diagnostic tool in medicine since it is a very sensitive method, which can detect and monitor the molecular and biochemical changes in biological samples. We believed that this method would play a major role in improving the health situation, raising the level of health in the community, and reducing the economic burdens in the health sector resulting from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. We collected peripheral blood samples from young 364 patients, of which 93 were controls, 126 had bacterial infections, and 145 had viral infections, with ages lower than18 years old, limited to those who were diagnosed with fever-producing illness. Our preliminary results showed that it is possible to determine the infectious agent with high success rates of 82% for sensitivity and 80% for specificity, based on the WBC data.

Keywords: infectious diseases, (FTIR) spectroscopy, viral infections, bacterial infections.

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
115 Phantom Phenomena in Subjects after Limb Amutation Who Regularly Practice High Intensity Sports

Authors: Jolanta Uszko, Tomasz Wloch, Aneta Pirowska, Roman Nowobilski

Abstract:

Introduction: Phantom phenomena are often reported by subjects who have undergone limb amputation. Mostly, patients feel the amputated part of the limb as if it was still attached to the body. Two types of phantom phenomena: painless (phantom sensation) and painful (phantom pain) were described. Triggers of phantom sensations and phantom pain, as well as fully effective treatment, have not been clearly described yet. Purpose: To assess the influence of psychosocial factors and some clinical conditions on the occurrence of phantom phenomena in amputee athletes. Subjects: 21 men (age: 31 years, SD = 7.5 years) after lower or upper extremity amputation, who regularly performed high-intensity sports (Amp Football Team Players) were included to the study. Method and equipment: In the research, the following method and tools were used: Questionnaire [Pirowska] adapted for athletes with disabilities, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) - for phantom pain assessment, McGill Pain Assessment Questionnaire (short version), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI): X-1 and X-2, shortened version of The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOLBREFF). Results: In the study group, the lower leg amputations with traumatic etiology were predominant. Phantom sensations were present in all subjects. Half of the respondents claimed to experience phantom sensations at least once a day, paroxysmally. There was a prevalence of phantom sensations characterized as incomplete, immobile limb. Phantom pain was reported by over 85% of respondents. The nature of phantom pain was frequently described as stabbing, squeezing, shooting, pulsing, tiring. There was a significant correlation between phantom pain intensity and anxiety, quality of life, depressive tendencies, perception of phantom pain as the obstacle in daily functioning and intensity of the limb pain before amputation. Conclusions: The etiology of phantom phenomena is complex. Psychological factors seem to have a significant influence on the intensity of the phantom pain. Particular attention should be paid to patients who complain about persistent limb pain before the amputation. These are patients with an increased risk of the phantom pain of relatively high intensity.

Keywords: amputation, phantom pain, phantom sensations, adaptive sports

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
114 Outcome of Comparison between Partial Thickness Skin Graft Harvesting from Scalp and Lower Limb for Scalp Defect: A Clinical Trial Study

Authors: Mahdi Eskandarlou, Mehrdad Taghipour

Abstract:

Background: Partial-thickness skin graft is the cornerstone for scalp defect repair. Routine donor sites include abdomen, thighs, and buttocks. Given the potential side effects following harvesting from these sites and the potential advantages of harvesting from scalp (broad surface, rapid healing, and better cosmetics results), this study is trying to compare the outcomes of graft harvesting from scalp and lower limb. Methods: This clinical trial is conducted among a sample number of 40 partial thickness graft candidates (20 case and 20 control group) with scalp defect presenting to plastic surgery clinic at Besat Hospital during the time period between 2018 and 2019. Sampling was done by simple randomization using random digit table. Data gathering was performed using a designated checklist. The donor site in case group and control group was scalp and lower limb, respectively. The resultant data were analyzed using chi-squared and t-test and SPPS version 21 (SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results: Of the total 40 patients participating in this study, 28 patients (70%) were male, and 12 (30%) were female with and mean age of 63.62 ± 09.73 years. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common comorbidities among patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and trauma being the most common etiology for the defects. There was a statistically meaningful relationship between two groups regarding the etiology of defect (P=0.02). The most common anatomic location of defect for case and control groups was temporal and parietal, respectively. Most of the defects were deep to galea zone. The mean diameter of defect was 24.28 ± 45.37 mm for all of the patients. The difference between diameter of defect in both groups was statistically meaningful, while no such difference between graft diameter was seen. The graft 'Take' was completely successful in both groups according to evaluations. The level of postoperative pain was lower in the case group compared to the control according to VAS scale, and the satisfaction was higher in them per Likert scale. Conclusion: Scalp can safely be used as donor site for skin graft to be used for scalp defects, which is associated with better results and lower complication rates compared to other donor sites.

Keywords: donor site, leg, partial-thickness graft, scalp

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
113 Medical Complications in Diabetic Recipients after Kidney Transplantation

Authors: Hakan Duger, Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is the most common etiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Also, diabetic nephropathy is the etiology of ESRD in approximately 23% of kidney transplant recipients. A successful kidney transplant improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients. However, patients require close follow-up after transplantation due to medical complications. Diabetes mellitus can affect patient morbidity and mortality due to possible effects of immunosuppressive therapy on glucose metabolism. We compared the frequency of medical complications and the outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study conducted in 498 patients who underwent kidney transplant surgery at our center in 10-year periods. The patients were divided into two groups: diabetics (46 ± 10 year, 26 males, 16 females) and non-diabetics (39 ± 12 year, 259 males, 197 females). The medical complications, graft functions, causes of graft loss and death were obtained from medical records. Results: There was no significant difference between recipient age, duration of dialysis, body mass index, gender, donor type, donor age, dialysis type, histories of HBV, HCV and coronary artery disease between two groups. The history of hypertension in diabetics was higher (69% vs. 36%, p < 0.001). The ratios of hypertension (50.1% vs. 57.1%), pneumonia (21.9% vs. 20%), urinary infection (16.9% vs. 20%), transaminase elevation (11.5% vs. 20%), hyperpotasemia (14.7% vs. 17.1%), hyponatremia (9.7% vs. 20%), hypotension (7.1% vs. 7.9%), hypocalcemia (1.4% vs. 0%), thrombocytopenia (8.6% vs. 8.6%), hypoglycemia (0.7% vs. 0%) and neutropenia (1.8% vs. 0%) were comparable in non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. The frequency of hyperglycaemia in diabetics was higher (8.6% vs. 54.3%, p < 0.001). After transplantation, primary non-function (3.4% vs. 2.6%), delayed graft function (25.1% vs. 34.2%) and acute rejection (7.3% vs. 10.5%) ratios of in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were similar, respectively. Hospitalization durations in non-diabetics and diabetics were 22.5 ± 17.5 and 18.7 ± 13 day (p=0.094). Mean serum creatinine levels in non-diabetics and diabetics were 1.54 ± 0.74 and 1.52 ± 0.62 mg/dL at 6th month. Forty patients had graft loss. The ratios of graft loss and death in non-diabetic and diabetic groups were 8.2% vs. 7.1% and 7.1% vs. 2.6% (p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between graft and patient survivals with the development of medical complication. Conclusion: As a result, medical complications are common in the early period. Hyperglycaemia was frequently seen following transplantation due to the effects of immunosuppressant regimens. However, the frequency of other medical complications in diabetic patients did not differ from non-diabetic one. The most important cause of death is still infections. The development of medical complications during the first 6 months did not significantly affect transplant outcomes.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, diabetes mellitus, complication, graft function

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
112 Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis of Primary Progressive Aphasia in a Younger Middle Aged Patient

Authors: Robert Krause

Abstract:

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease similar to frontotemporal and semantic dementia, while having a different clinical image and anatomic pathology topography. Nonetheless, they are often included under an umbrella term: frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In the study, examples of diagnosing PPA are presented through the multidisciplinary lens of specialists from different fields (neurologists, psychiatrists, clinical speech therapists, clinical neuropsychologists and others) using a variety of diagnostic tools such as MR, PET/CT, genetic screening and neuropsychological and logopedic methods. Thanks to that, specialists can get a better and clearer understanding of PPA diagnosis. The study summarizes the concrete procedures and results of different specialists while diagnosing PPA in a patient of younger middle age and illustrates the importance of multidisciplinary approach to differential diagnosis of PPA.

Keywords: primary progressive aphasia, etiology, diagnosis, younger middle age

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
111 Maxillofacial Trauma: A Case of Diacapitular Condylar Fracture

Authors: Krishna Prasad Regmi, Jun-Bo Tu, Cheng-Qun Hou, Li-Feng Li

Abstract:

Maxillofacial trauma in a pediatric group of patients is particularly challenging, as these patients have significant differences from adults as far as the facial skeleton is concerned. Mandibular condylar fractures are common presentations to hospitals across the globe and remain the most important cause of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. The etiology and epidemiology of pediatric trauma involving the diacapitular condylar fractures (DFs) have been reported in a large series of patients. Nevertheless, little is known about treatment protocols for DFs in children. Accordingly, the treatment modalities for the management of pediatric fractures also differ. We suggest following the PDA and intracapsular ABC classification of condylar fracture to increase the overall postoperative satisfaction level that bypasses the change of subjective feelings of patients’ from preoperative to the postoperative condition. At the same time, use of 3-D technology and surgical navigation may also increase treatment accuracy.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, diacapitular fracture, condylar fracture, PDA classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
110 Prevalence of Positive Serology for Celiac Disease in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: A. Venkatakrishnan, M. Juneja, S. Kapoor

Abstract:

Background: Gastrointestinal dysfunction is an emerging co morbidity seen in autism and may further strengthen the association between autism and celiac disease. This is supported by increased rates (22-70%) of gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, constipation, abdominal discomfort/pain, and gastrointestinal inflammation in children with the etiology of autism is still elusive. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors such as toxin exposure, intrauterine exposure to certain teratogenic drugs, are being proposed as possible contributing factors in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in cognizance with reports of increased gut permeability and high rates of gastrointestinal symptoms noted in children with ASD, celiac disease has also been proposed as a possible etiological factor. Despite insufficient evidence regarding the benefit of restricted diets in Autism, GFD has been promoted as an alternative treatment for ASD. This study attempts to discern any correlation between ASD and celiac disease. Objective: This cross sectional study aims to determine the proportion of celiac disease in children with ASD. Methods: Study included 155 participants aged 2-12 yrs, diagnosed as ASD as per DSM-5 attending the child development center at a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Those on gluten free diet or having other autoimmune conditions were excluded. A detailed Performa was filled which included sociodemographic details, history of gastrointestinal symptoms, anthropometry, systemic examination, and pertinent psychological testing was done using was assessed using Developmental Profile-3(DP-3) for Developmental Quotient, Childhood Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2) for severity of ASD, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) for adaptive behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for behavioral problems and BAMBI (Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Scales) for feeding problems. Screening for celiac was done by TTG-IgA levels, and total serum IgA levels were measured to exclude IgA deficiency. Those with positive screen were further planned for HLA typing and endoscopic biopsy. Results: A total of 155 cases were included, out of which 5 had low IgA levels and were hence excluded from the study. The rest 150 children had TTG levels below the ULN and normal total serum IgA level. History of Gastrointestinal symptoms was present in 51 (34%) cases abdominal pain was the most frequent complaint (16.6%), followed by constipation (12.6%). Diarrhea was seen in 8 %. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more common in children with ASD above 5 yrs (p-value 0.006) and those who were verbal (p = 0.000). There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors, anthropometric data, or severity of autism with gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: None of the150 patients with ASD had raised TTG levels; hence no association was found between ASD and celiac disease. There is no justification for routine screening for celiac disease in children with ASD. Further studies are warranted to evaluate association of Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity with ASD and any role of gluten-free diet in such patients.

Keywords: autism, celiac, gastrointestinal, gluten

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
109 The Role of MAOA Gene in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males

Authors: Jana Kisková, Dana Gabriková

Abstract:

Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) is suggested to be a candidate gene implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analytic review evaluates the relationship between ASD and MAOA markers such as 30 bp variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region (uVNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using findings from recently published studies. It seems that in Caucasian males, the risk of developing ASD increase with the presence of 4-repeat allele in the promoter region of MAOA gene whereas no differences were found between autistic patients and controls in Egyptian, West Bengal and Korean population. Some studies point to the importance specific haplotype groups of SNPs and interaction of MAOA with others genes (e.g. FOXP2 or SRY). The results of existing studies are insufficient and further research is needed.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, MAOA, uVNTR, single nucleotide polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
108 Impact of Obesity on Fertility in a Population of Women in the Wilaya of Batna

Authors: S. Benbia, W. Bouafia, D. Khellaf, A. Chennaf, M. Yahia

Abstract:

Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters (CH, TG, HDL, GOT, GPT, LDL, and CRP), obese women infertile fertile witnesses and research potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work was focused on a population of 24 obese women infertile, compared to controls, subjects without any pathology causing disruption of parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in serum CH, TG, HDL, TGO and TGP (P < 0.0001) and in the rate of LDL (p = 0.0017) and CRP (p = 0.02). The hormonal balance also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001).The present study indicates that obesity is associated with infertility, but there is no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has not been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: obesity, fertility, infertility, biochemical, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
107 Poor Cognitive Flexibility as Suggested Basis for Learning Difficulties among Children with Moderate-INTO-Severe Asthma: Evidence from WCSTPerformance

Authors: Haitham Taha

Abstract:

The cognitive flexibility of 27 asthmatic children with learning difficulties was tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children who have persistence learning difficulties also. The results revealed that the asthmatic group had poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the preservative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor executive functions and specifically poor cognitive flexibility are in the basis of the learning difficulties of asthmatic children with learning difficulties. Neurophysiologic framework was suggested for explaining the etiology of poor executive functions and cognitive flexibility among children with moderate into severe asthma.

Keywords: asthma, learning disabilities, executive functions, cognitive flexibility, WCST

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
106 A Rare Case of Acquired Benign Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Bouayyad, Ajay Nigam, Meera Beena

Abstract:

Acquired benign tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare medical condition that usually results from trauma, foreign bodies, or granulomatous infections. This is an unusual presentation of a male patient with a history of laryngectomy who had had over a period of several years inappropriately and vigorously used valve cleaning brushes to clean tracheal secretions, which had led to the formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula. Due to the patient’s obsessive habit, we couldn’t manage him using conventional surgical methods. Instead, we opted for the placement of a salivary bypass tube, which yielded good results and recovery. To the best of our knowledge, no other case of similar etiology has been published. We would like to highlight the importance of appropriate patient selection and education prior to performing a tracheoesophageal puncture to avoid developing life-threatening complications as demonstrated in our case report.

Keywords: tracheoesophageal fistula, speech valve, endoscopic insertion of salivary bypass tube, head and neck malignancies

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
105 Influenza Virus Circulation among the Population of Kazakhstan in 2012-2014

Authors: N. G. Klivleyeva, T. I. Glebova, G. V. Lukmanova, S. B. Bayseit, S. Z. Taubaeva, M. K. Kalkozhaeva

Abstract:

The role of viral diseases in the general infectious disease incidence increases every year and requires special attention to the problem of interpreting the etiology of infectious agents. Influenza and acute respiratory viral infections are one of the most pressing public health issues. In the period 2012-2014, collection of 419 nasal swabs and 150 blood sera has been carried out in the patient care institutions of the various Kazakhstan regions from patients with symptoms of ARVI and pneumonia. Primary identification of biosamples for the presence of influenza viral antigens in enzyme immunoassay on nitrocellulose membrane gave positive results in 125 swabs (29.8%). Biosample screening in immunofluorescence test revealed the presence of influenza viral antigens against A/H1 in 63 samples (15.0%), A/H3 – in 70 samples (16.7%) and type B – in 9 samples (2.1%). As a result of primary infection, and successive passages in chick embryos and MDCK cell cultures, 38 HAAg were isolated from 419 samples with a clear cytopathic effect and hemagglutination titre in MDCK cell culture within 1:2-1:4, in CE - 1:8-1:256. The infectivity of isolates in chicken embryos were 3.5-6.5 lg EID50/0.2, in MDCK cell culture – 2.5-6.5 lg PFU/ml. Identification of 28 isolates was carried out in inhibition reactions of hemagglutinating activity and neuraminidase activity, showed their belonging to the influenza virus: 26 strains to A/H1N1, one - to A/H3N2, and one - to type B. Serological examination of blood sera for the presence of specific antibodies being an indirect evidence of the performed isolation and contributing to the timely interpretation of the disease etiology in the epidemics takes an important place in the comprehensive study of influenza viruses circulating among people. Serological analyzes were carried out in HAI assay using a kit consisting of 12 reference strains obtained from the WHO centre for reference and research on Influenza (CDC, Atlanta, USA) and three Kazakhstan (A/Almaty/347/09 (H1N1v), A/Almaty/462/11 (H3N2) and B/Almaty/414/10) human influenza viruses that are stored in the laboratory collection. The results of serological analysis of 150 blood sera showed that antihaemagglutinins against the A/H3N2 virus serosubtype were found in 46 samples (49.4%) out of 93 sera collected in 2012-2013. The antibody titres were within 1:160-1:320. 19 sera (20.4%) were seropositive against influenza A/H1N1 virus, the antibodies were observed in titres of 1:20-1:40. Six sera (6.4%) were positive against the influenza A/H1N1+A/H3N2 virus (mixed infection); the antibodies were recorded in titres of 1:20-1:40. Antihaemagglutinins against influenza type B virus were detected only in five sera (5.4%). The results of analysis of 57 sera collected in 2014 showed that antihaemagglutinins against A/H3N2 virus subtype were detected in 32 blood sera (56.1%) in titres of 1:160-1:640. Ten sera (17.5%) were seropositive against A/H1N1 virus; antihaemagglutinins against influenza type B virus were not detected. Therefore, virological and serological studies have shown that in Kazakhstan, as well as in the world, the influenza viruses A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and influenza B viruses were actively circulating during the epidemic seasons in 2012-2014.

Keywords: influenza, MDCK cell, serological analysis, virus

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
104 Impact of Obesity on Female Fertility

Authors: A. Chennai, M. Yahia, H. Boussenan

Abstract:

Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters such as (CH, TG, HDL, TGO, TGP, LDL, and CRP), hormones (FSH, LH, PRL, TSH, and leptin), in women who suffer from over weight and fertile controls as well as the research for potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work has been focused on a population of 24 over weight infertile women, compared to control subjects without any pathology causing disturbance parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in the serum levels of CH, TG, HDL, and TGO TGP (P <0.0001) as well as the rate of LDL (p=0.0017) and CRP (p=0.02). Hormonal profile also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.0001) for LH and leptin but no difference was found for serum TSH. A significant correlation between leptin and FSH, LH, and FSH, age and LH, PRL and age and between HDL and CRP. The present study suggests that obesity is associated with infertility, but no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has been determined. More in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: fertility, obesity, hormones, biochemical, pathophysiological

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
103 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

Abstract:

Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
102 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

Abstract:

Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
101 Incidence and Etiology of Neonatal Calf Diarrhea in the Region of Blida, Algeria

Authors: A. Dadda, D. Khelef, K. Ait-Oudia, R. Kaidi

Abstract:

Neonatal calf diarrhea is the most important disease of neonatal calves and results in the greatest economic losses due to disease in this age group in both dairy and beef calves. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the morbidity and the mortality of neonatal diarrhea in dairy calves also to determine aetiology and risk factors were caused diarrhea in dairy veal under 60 days old. A total of 324 claves, housed in 30 dairy breeding were followed during two velage season from January to Juan 2013. The total mortality was 5,9% and was significantly higher in calves had less than 15 days of age. The incidence rate of diarrhea was 31,5% and peaked in the first two weeks after velage. The main causes were breeding controls, defect of passive immunity, old of calf, production season, and nutrient of pregnant cattle, veal’s housing and infectious agents. ELISA test on 22 fecal samples revealed that the 31, 82% of dairy breeding were infected, by cryptosporidium parvum in 13, 6% of study population, E.Coli F5 in 9% and Rotavirus with rate of 4, 5%.

Keywords: diarrhoea, neonatal, mortality, aetiology, risk factors, incidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
100 Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome in the Foot and Ankle

Authors: S. Alireza Mirghasemi, Elly Trepman, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Narges Rahimi Gabaran, Shervin Rashidinia

Abstract:

Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) is an uncommon and self-limited syndrome characterized by atraumatic extremity pain with unknown of etiology. Symptom onset may include sudden or gradual swelling and pain at rest or during activity, usually at night. This syndrome mostly affects middle-aged men and younger women who have pain in the lower extremities. The most common sites involved with BMES, in decreasing order of frequency, are the bones about the hip, knee, ankle, and foot. The diagnosis of BMES is made with magnetic resonance imaging to exclude other causes of bone marrow edema. The correct diagnosis often is delayed because of the low prevalence and nonspecific signs in the foot and ankle. This delay may intensify bone pain and impair patient function and quality of life. The goal of BMES treatment is to relieve pain and shorten disease duration. Treatment options are limited and may include symptomatic treatment, pharmacologic treatment, and surgery.

Keywords: transient osteoporosis, bone marrow edema syndrome, iloprost, bisphosphonates

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
99 Idiopathic Gingival Fibromatosis

Authors: Bandana Koirala, Shivalal Sharma

Abstract:

Introduction: Gingival enlargements are quite common and may be either inflammatory, non-inflammatory or a combination of both. Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition with a proliferative fibrous lesion of the gingival tissue that causes esthetic and functional problems. It is of undetermined etiology. Case Description: This case report addresses the diagnosis and treatment of a case of idiopathic gingival enlargement in a 9-year-old male patient. The patient presented with a generalized diffuse gingival enlargement involving the entire maxillary and the mandibular arch with extension on occlusal, buccal, lingual, and palatal surfaces with just parts of occlusal surfaces of few upper and lower molars visible resulting in open mouth, difficulty in mastication and speech. Biopsy report confirmed the diagnosis of fibromatosis gingivae. Gingivectomy was carried out in all four quadrants by using external bevel incision. Conclusion: Though total esthetics could not be restored due to unusual bony enlargement, the general appearance improved satisfactorily. Treatment after complete excision however, improved the masticatory competence to a great extent.

Keywords: idiopathic gingival fibromatosis, gingival enlargement, gingivectomy, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 241