Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 771

Search results for: Conflict of civilizations

771 Alternative Futures for the Middle East

Authors: Dorsa Bakhshandehgeyazdi

Abstract:

This paper examines elective future of security in the Middle East trying to find a way that could take the district from a shaky past to a more secure future. Taking a gander at five situations about the eventual future of world legislative issues, in particular, globalization, fragmentation, conflict of civilizations, majority rule peace and the development of a security group, the paper contends that albeit every situation has its qualities (and in addition shortcomings), it is the situation that predicts the foundation of a security group that joins a more express thought for forming a more secure future for the Middle East.

Keywords: Middle East, Globalization, Fragmentation, Conflict of civilizations, Majority rule peace, Development of a security group

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
770 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper offers a critique of Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington's thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between 'groups' and 'categories'. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain the capacity for concerted action, i.e., become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations' transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington's clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of the presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: clash of civilizations, groups, categories, groupism

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769 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is largely a response/critique of Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington´s thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between ´groups´ and ´categories´. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain capacity for concerted action i.e. become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations´ transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington´s clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: categories, civilizations, clash, groups, groupness

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
768 The Efficacy of Contractual Governance on Task and Relationship Conflict in Construction Projects

Authors: Jingya You, Yongqiang Chen, Yuanyuan Hua, Wenqian Wang

Abstract:

Conflict is commonplace in construction projects, and construction projects always involve designing contracts between the owner and the contractor. However, how the contract affects the level of conflict between the owner and the contractor has not been elaborated. The purpose of this paper is to explain the effects of contractual complexity on the level of conflict, including task conflict and relationship conflict, and then to demonstrate the moderating role played by the interdependence between the owner and the contractor. Using data from owners and general contractors in the Chinese construction industry, this research reveals that contractual control will reduce relationship conflict. Contractual coordination will also reduce relationship conflict by the mediating effect of task conflict. Besides, under high joint interdependence, the positive relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict is strengthened, while high interdependence asymmetry has effects on weakening the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict. The findings provide guidance for contract designers to draft suitable contracts in order to effectively deal with conflict. Additionally, this research implies that project managers should highlight the importance of contract in conflict management.

Keywords: construction projects, contract governance, interdependence, relationship conflict, task conflict

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767 The Canaanite Trade Network between the Shores of the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

Abstract:

The Canaanite civilization was one of the early great civilizations of the Near East, they influenced and been influenced from the civilizations of the ancient world especially the Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations. The development of the Canaanite trade started from the Chalcolithic Age to the Iron Age through the oldest trade route in the Middle East. This paper will focus on defining the Canaanites and from where did they come from and the meaning of the term Canaan and how the Ancient Manuscripts define the borders of the land of Canaan and this essay will describe the Canaanite trade route and their exported goods such as cedar wood, and pottery.

Keywords: archaeology, bronze age, Canaanite, colonies, Massilia, pottery, shipwreck, vineyards

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
766 The Effect of Arms Embargoes on Ongoing Armed Conflict: Are They Really Reducing Conflict Duration?

Authors: Mustafa Kirisci

Abstract:

Arms embargoes have not been adequately examined in terms of their effects on conflict duration. Prior research on arms embargoes has generally investigated the effect of arms embargoes on arms import/export practices and violations in arms embargoes, but it says little about the effect on conflict duration. This paper attempts to fill this gap and aims to investigate the effect of arms embargoes on conflict duration throughout the world. More precisely, the purpose of the paper is to understand how arms embargoes affect the duration of both internal and interstate conflicts. Given the theoretical framework, the main hypothesis of the paper is arms embargoes will have no reduction effect on conflict duration when arms transfer and region are controlled. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression. Results indicate that arms embargoes have no effect on both internal and interstate conflict duration. Another crucial result is that both small and major arms transfers made by the embargoed countries during the internal conflict increase the duration of the conflict, but no effect on interstate conflict duration. The final part concludes and provide explanations on what these results imply for finishing the conflict and bringing the peace.

Keywords: arms embargo, arms transfer, internal conflict, international conflict

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765 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

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764 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: work and family conflict, self-esteem, employee

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763 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

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The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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762 The Effectiveness of Conflict Management of Factories' Employee in Thailand

Authors: Pacharaporn Lekyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the conflict management affecting the workplace and analyze the ability of the prediction of leadership of the headman and the methods to handle the conflict in an organization. The quantitative research and developed the questionnaire in order to collect information from the respondents from 200 samples from leader or manager who worked in frozen food factories in Thailand. The result analysis shows about the problem of the relationship between conflict management factors, leadership, and the confliction in organization. The emotion of the leader in the organization is not the only factor that can affect conflict management but also the emotion of surrounding people which this factor can happen all the time and shows that four out of five factors of interpersonal conflict management have affected on emotion intelligence and also shows that the behaviors of leadership have an influence on conflict management.

Keywords: conflict management, emotional intelligence, leadership, factories' employee

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761 Opportunities for Effective Conflict Management Caused by Global Crises

Authors: Marine Kobalava

Abstract:

The article analyzes current global crises in the world, explains the causes of crises, substantiates that in the main cases the process accompanying the crisis are conflict situations. The paper argues that crises can become predictable if threats are identified and addressed by a company, organization, corporation, and others. Accordingly, mechanisms for the neutralization of conflict potential are proposed, the need to develop a communication strategy and create and redistribute information flows is justified. Conflict situations are assessed according to the types of crisis and it is considered that the conflict can become a prerequisite for the crisis. The paper substantiates the need to differentiate theories of crises and conflicts. Based on the evaluative judgment, conflict management measures are proposed taking into account institutionalization, conflict resolution norms and rules. The paper identifies the potential for conflicts created in the context of global crises and suggests local ways and mechanisms for their effective management. The involvement of the company's Public relations (PR) and relevant communication from the qualified staff is considered important. Conclusions are drawn on the problems of effective conflict management caused by global crises and recommendations for conflict resolution have been proposed.

Keywords: global crises, conflict situations, conflict identification, conflict management, conflict potential

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760 Impact of Work Experience and Gender on Decisional Conflict

Authors: Mohsin Aslam Khan

Abstract:

Decision making tendency varies in people with different socio demographics. This study was conducted to identify the impact of work experience on decisional conflict and whether there is a gender differences in decisional conflict. Convenience sampling was more appropriate for this exploratory research. AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale, (1995) with cronbach alpha 0.900 was administered on sample size of 109 participants (62males, 47females). The responses were scored according to the AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale manual, (1995). The results of the study indicate that work experience has no significant impact on decisional conflict, whereas gender differences in decisional conflict illustrates significant mean score differences among male and female participants.

Keywords: decision making, decisional conflict, gender decision making, work experience

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759 The Influence of Work Experience on Conflict Management Styles of Organizational Members

Authors: Faris Alghamdi

Abstract:

Identifying which conflict management styles organizational members prefer, and what variables influence these selections, is an essential component of organizational conflict management as well as human resource management, particularly in training and development strategies. This study aims to examine the relationship between work experience and preferred conflict management styles. Utilizing the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory- II Form C, data were collected from 109 full-time employees of various organizations in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between the integrating conflict management style and the length of work experience. Nevertheless, this relationship was negative, not positive as hypothesized.

Keywords: conflict management style, organizational members, work experience

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758 On the Use of Reliability Factors to Reduce Conflict between Information Sources in Dempster-Shafer Theory

Authors: A. Alem, Y. Dahmani, A. Hadjali, A. Boualem

Abstract:

Managing the problem of the conflict, either by using the Dempster-Shafer theory, or by the application of the fusion process to push researchers in recent years to find ways to get to make best decisions especially; for information systems, vision, robotic and wireless sensor networks. In this paper we are interested to take account of the conflict in the combination step that took the conflict into account and tries to manage such a way that it does not influence the decision step, the conflict what from reliable sources. According to [1], the conflict lead to erroneous decisions in cases where was with strong degrees between sources of information, if the conflict is more than the maximum of the functions of belief mass K > max1...n (mi (A)), then the decision becomes impossible. We will demonstrate in this paper that the multiplication of mass functions by coefficients of reliability is a decreasing function; it leads to the reduction of conflict and a good decision. The definition of reliability coefficients accurately and multiply them by the mass functions of each information source to resolve the conflict and allow deciding whether the degree of conflict. The evaluation of this technique is done by a use case; a comparison of the combination of springs with a maximum conflict without, and with reliability coefficients.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer theory, fusion process, conflict managing, reliability factors, decision

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757 Neural Correlates of Decision-Making Under Ambiguity and Conflict

Authors: Helen Pushkarskaya, Michael Smithson, Jane E. Joseph, Christine Corbly, Ifat Levy

Abstract:

Studies of decision making under uncertainty generally focus on imprecise information about outcome probabilities (“ambiguity”). It is not clear, however, whether conflicting information about outcome probabilities affects decision making in the same manner as ambiguity does. Here we combine functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and a simple gamble design to study this question. In this design, the levels of ambiguity and conflict are parametrically varied, and ambiguity and conflict gambles are matched on both expected value and variance. Behaviorally, participants avoided conflict more than ambiguity, and attitudes toward ambiguity and conflict did not correlate across subjects. Neurally, regional brain activation was differentially modulated by ambiguity level and aversion to ambiguity and by conflict level and aversion to conflict. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the level of ambiguity and with ambiguity aversion, whereas activation in the ventral striatum was correlated with the level of conflict and with conflict aversion. This novel double dissociation indicates that decision makers process imprecise and conflicting information differently, a finding that has important implications for basic and clinical research.

Keywords: decision making, uncertainty, ambiguity, conflict, fMRI

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756 Economics of Conflict: Core Economic Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian Context

Authors: V. Charaia

Abstract:

This article presents SWOT analysis for Georgian - South Ossetian conflict. The research analyzes socio-economic aspects and considers future prospects for all sides including neighbor countries and regions. Also it includes the possibilities of positive intervention of neighbor countries to solve the conflict or to mitigate its negative results. The main question of the article is: What will it take to award Georgians and South Ossetians with a peace dividend?

Keywords: conflict economics, investments, trade, remittances

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755 Perceived Procedural Justice and Conflict Management in Romantic Relations

Authors: Inbal Peleg Koriat, Rachel Ben-Ari

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to test individual’s conflict management style in romantic relations as a function of their perception of the extent of procedural justice in their partner behavior, and to what extant this relationship is mediated by the quality of the relations. The research procedure included two studies: The first study was a correlative study with 160 participants in a romantic relation. The goal of the first study was to examine the mediation model with self-report questionnaires. The second study was an experimental study with 241 participants. The study was designed to examine the causal connection between perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and conflict management styles. Study 1 indicated a positive connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles (integrating, compromising and obliging). In contrast, a negative connection was not found between PPJ and non-collaborative conflict management styles (avoiding, and dominating). In addition, perceived quality of the romantic relations was found to mediate the connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles. Study 2 validated the finding of Study 1 by showing that PPJ leads the individual to use compromising and integrating conflict management styles. In contrast to Study 1, Study 2 shows that a low PPJ increases the individual’s tendency to use an avoiding conflict management style. The study contributes to the rather scarce research on PPJ role in conflict management in general and in romantic relations in particular. It can provide new insights into cognitive methods of coping with conflict that encourage transformation in the conflict and a way to grow and develop both individually and as a couple.

Keywords: conflict management style, marriage, procedural justice, romantic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
754 Does Rumor Shakes Trust: The Role of Emotions in Local Conflict and Peacemaking

Authors: Safiye Ates Burc

Abstract:

This proposal is based on the story of Kurdish tribal conflict and peace in Mardin (Turkey). In the stories that will be detailed with in-depth interviews with the parties to the conflict (family elders, mediators and other tribal lords); It will be examined how rumor has an effect on establishing conflict and peace and whether it shakes the trust between the parties. In fact, this research is still at an ongoing stage. In this paper, the effect of emotions on conflict and reconciliation, which is the main subject of this ongoing study, will be conveyed in line with the data obtained from the preliminary research. In-depth interviews are conducted in the research in which the ethnography method is used. As an early result, it can be said that in organizations such as the Kurdish tribes, where local loyalties and traditions are very strong, the rumor has the potential to shake the trust between the parties and thus can become the excuse for conflict. Because rumors damage the prestige of tribes, that’s, it’s social capital.

Keywords: rumor, trust, Kurdish tribes, local peacemaking, conflict

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753 Examining the Factors That Mediate the Effects of Mindfulness on Conflict Resolution Strategies

Authors: Franco Ceasar Agbalog, Shintaro Yukawa

Abstract:

Mindfulness is increasingly being used as a method for resolving conflict. However, less is known about how its positive outcome develops. To better understand the underlying effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies, this study examines the potential mediating factors between them. The researchers hypothesized that Emotional Intelligence (EI) mediates the effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies due to its similar components to the benefits of mindfulness, such as awareness and control of one’s emotions, awareness and understanding of other’s emotions, and cultivation of compassion and empathy. Using a random sampling, 157 participants completed three questionnaires: Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II). Utilizing the SPSS Process, results showed a significant relationship between mindfulness and EI. However, among the five approaches to conflict resolution, only the integrating style was significantly related to EI. Following the principle of Mediation Analysis, mindfulness has an indirect effect on integrating style. Moreover, mindfulness and conflict resolution strategies were not significantly related. This is a rather surprising result because research literature has always indicated a positive relationship between the two variables. These findings imply that although integrating style is generally considered the best approach in handling conflict, each style may be appropriate depending on the situation. Mindfulness allows practitioners to have a holistic view of the conflict situation and choose the approach they think best for that specific situation. This could explain why statistically, there is no direct effect of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies. This work provides basis for the necessity to investigate the factors of conflict instead of the conflict resolution strategies; factors that can be manipulated and may be directly influenced by mindfulness.

Keywords: conflict resolution strategies, emotional intelligence, mindfulness and conflict, ROCI-II integrating style

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752 Conflict and Hunger Revisit: Evidences from Global Surveys, 1989-2020

Authors: Manasse Elusma, Thung-Hong Lin, Chun-yin Lee

Abstract:

The relationship between hunger and war or conflict remains to be discussed. Do wars or conflicts cause hunger and food scarcity, or is the reverse relationship is true? As the world becomes more peaceful and wealthier, some countries are still suffered from hunger and food shortage. So, eradicating hunger calls for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between conflict and hunger. Several studies are carried out to detect the importance of conflict or war on food security. Most of these studies, however, perform only descriptive analysis and largely use food security indicators instead of the global hunger index. Few studies have employed cross-country panel data to explicitly analyze the association between conflict and chronic hunger, including hidden hunger. Herein, this study addresses this issue and the knowledge gap. We combine global datasets to build a new panel dataset including 143 countries from 1989 to 2020. This study examines the effect of conflict on hunger with fixed effect models, and the results show that the increase of conflict frequency deteriorates hunger. Peacebuilding efforts and war prevention initiative are required to eradicate global hunger.

Keywords: armed conflict, food scarcity, hidden hunger, hunger, malnutrition

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751 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed

Abstract:

The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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750 An Assessment into Impact of Regional Conflicts upon Socio-Political Sustainability in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Muhammad Muzaffar Abbas

Abstract:

Conflicts in Pakistan are a result of a configuration of factors, which are directly related to the system of the state, the unstable regional setting, and the geo-strategic location of Pakistan at large. This paper examines the impact of regional conflict onto the socio-political sustainability of Pakistan. The magnitude of the spillover from a conflicted region is similar in size of the equivalent increase in domestic conflict. Pakistan has gone at war three times with India; the border with India is named as the tensest borderlines of the world. Disagreements with India and lack of dispute settlement mechanisms have negatively effected the peace in the region, influx of illegal weapons and refugees from Afghanistan as an outcome of 9/11 incidence, have exasperated the criticality of levels of internal conflict in Pakistan. Our empirical findings are based on the data collected on regional conflict levels, regional trade, global trade, comparative defence capabilities of the region in contrast to Pakistan and the government regime (Autocratic, Democratic) over 1972-2007. It has been proposed in this paper that the intent of domestic conflict is associated with the conflict in the region, regional trade, global trade and the government regime of Pakistan. The estimated model (OLS) implies that domestic conflict is effected positively and significantly with long term impact of conflict in the region. Also, if defence capabilities of the region are better than that of Pakistan it effects domestic conflict positively and significantly. Conflict in neighbouring countries are found as a source of domestic conflict in Pakistan, whereas the regional trade as well as type of government regimes in Pakistan lowered the intensity of domestic conflict significantly, while globalized trade imply risk of domestic conflict to be reduced but not significantly.

Keywords: conflict, regional trade, socio-politcal instability

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749 The Role of Leapfrogging: Cross-Level Interactions and MNE Decision-Making in Conflict-Settings

Authors: Arrian Cornwell, Larisa Yarovaya, Mary Thomson

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This paper seeks to examine the transboundary nature of foreign subsidiary exit vs. stay decisions when threatened by conflict in a host country. Using the concepts of nested vulnerability and teleconnections, we show that the threat of conflict can transcend bounded territories and have non-linear outcomes for actors, institutions and systems at broader scales of analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been done before. By introducing the concepts of ‘leapfrogging upwards’ and ‘cascading downwards’, we develop a two-stage model which characterises the impacts of conflict as transboundary phenomena. We apply our model to a dataset of 266 foreign subsidiaries in six conflict-afflicted host countries over 2011-2015. Our results indicate that information is transmitted upwards and subsequent pressure flows cascade downwards, which, in turn, influence exit decisions.

Keywords: subsidiary exit, conflict, information transmission, pressure flows, transboundary

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748 Significance of Life Values in Relationship: A Detailed Analysis of Teenage Population

Authors: Preeti Nakhat

Abstract:

Background: Values are essential part of one's life. They are inculcated since the early years of life and shape the personality of the individual. They play a tremendous role in decision making. Teenagers are seen perplexed about the values of their life. The challenge faced by majority of the teenage population in choosing between a positive and negative value is high. The values they adopt remain throughout their life and in every decision, hence it is a crucial topic of research. Research Methodology: This research aimed at finding out the value conflict of teenagers in relations. Hypothesis of the study are: H₀- There is no significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students; H₁– There is a significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students. For the same, the standardized tool, value conflict scale by R. L. Bhardwaj has been used. The tool consists 24 questions of different life situations with multiple choice options. Findings: There is 96% variation in value conflict due to evasion vs. fortitude, dependence vs. self-reliance, selfishness vs. probity, hate vs. love, fear vs. assertion and pragmatism vs. idealism life values. There is a positive association between all the life values and value conflict of higher secondary school students. Percentages of association are: 0.17% between value conflict and evasion vs. fortitude value, 0.16% between value conflict and dependence vs. self-reliance value, 0.17% between value conflict and selfishness vs. probity value, 0.16% between value conflict and hate vs. love value, 0.17% between value conflict and fear vs. assertion, 0.17% between value conflict and pragmatism vs. idealism value. Discussions: The dilemma faced by the students regarding value conflict is high. Bewilderment of being honest or lying, of loving or hating family and friends, being pragmatic or idealistic in life decision, being selfish or selfless is seen among the students. It is the challenge for the future. Teaching of values with a practical aspect should be added in the school curriculum.

Keywords: dilemma, conflict, school, values

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747 Perceived Power and Conflict Management in Spousal Relationships

Authors: Dana Weimann-Saks, Inbal Peleg-Koriat

Abstract:

The perception of relative power within a couple relies on the resources (emotional-social, materialistic) each partner perceives to have. The present study examines a model in which the perceived power of the couple predicts the spouses’ conflict management. In addition, we examined whether this relationship is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. It was found that the perception of social-emotional power predicts cooperative conflict management styles of the couple. It was also found that this correlation is mediated by the perceived quality of the relationship. Contrary to the hypothesis, perception of social-emotional power did not predict the use of non-cooperative conflict management styles.

Keywords: spouses’ conflict management, conflict management, perceived quality of the relationship, social-emotional power

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746 Mass Media and Electoral Conflict Management in Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Okpanachi Linus Odiji, Chris Ogwu Attah

Abstract:

Election is no doubt widely assumed as one of the most suitable means of resolving political quagmires even though it has never been bereft of conflict which can manifest before, during, or after polls. What, however, advances democracy and promotes electoral integrity is the existence and effectiveness of institutional frameworks for electoral conflict management. Electoral conflicts are no doubt unique in the sense that they represent the struggles of people over the control of public resources. In most cases, the stakes involved are high and emotional that they do not only undermine inter-group relationship but also threaten national security. The need, therefore, for an effectively functional conflict management apparatus becomes imperative. While at the State level, there exist numerous governmental initiatives at various electoral stages aimed at managing conflicts, this paper examines the activities of the mass media, which is another prominent stakeholder in the electoral process. Even though media influence has increased tremendously in the last decade, researchers are yet to agree on its utility in the management of conflicts. Guided by the social responsibility theory of media reporting and drawing data from observed trends in Kogi state, the paper, which context analyses the 2019 gubernatorial election coverage in the state, observes both conflict escalation and de-escalation roles in the media. To mitigate conflict reporting misrepresentation, therefore, a common approach to conflict reporting should be designed and ordered by the National Broadcasting Commission as well as the Nigerian Press Council. This should be garnished with the training of journalists on conflict reporting and development of a standard conflict reporting procedure.

Keywords: conflict management, electoral conflict, mass media, media reporting

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745 Assessment of Pastoralist-Crop Farmers Conflict and Food Security of Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: S. A. Salau, I. F. Ayanda, I. Afe, M. O. Adesina, N. B. Nofiu

Abstract:

Food insecurity is still a critical challenge among rural and urban households in Nigeria. The country’s food insecurity situation became more pronounced due to frequent conflict between pastoralist and crop farmers. Thus, this study assesses pastoralist-crop farmers’ conflict and food security of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to measure the food security status of the respondents, quantify pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict, determine the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers conflict on food security and describe the effective coping strategies adopted by the respondents to reduce the effect of food insecurity. A combination of purposive and simple random sampling techniques will be used to select 250 farming households for the study. The analytical tools include descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, logistic regression, and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the percentage of households that were food secure and insecure will be known. Pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict will be measured empirically by quantifying loses due to the conflict. The logistic regression will indicate if pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict is a critical determinant of food security among farming households in the study area. The coping strategies employed by the respondents in cushioning the effects of food insecurity will also be revealed. Empirical studies on the effect of pastoralist- crop farmers’ conflict on food security are rare in the literature. This study will quantify conflict and reveal the direction as well as the extent of the relationship between conflict and food security. It could contribute to the identification and formulation of strategies for the minimization of conflict among pastoralist and crop farmers in an attempt to reduce food insecurity. Moreover, this study could serve as valuable reference material for future researches and open up new areas for further researches.

Keywords: agriculture, conflict, coping strategies, food security, logistic regression

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744 Between Order and Chaos: Politics and the Challenge of Peace in Mozambique

Authors: Edmilson Nhambe, Belisario Machaieie

Abstract:

Since the signing of the General Peace Agreement-GPA in 1992, Mozambique has seen successive setbacks in the search for effective peace, civil war, social conflicts, terrorism, and armed conflicts mix the reality of Mozambican democracy. The article seeks to understand the dynamics of conflict and peace in Mozambique. Specifically, it seeks to analyze the structural factors that lead to (violent) conflict situations and the factors that favor or promote peace. For this purpose, desk research was chosen to analyze studies of peace and conflict. This article develops the argument that the non-violation of the peace agreement, in particular the GPA in Rome, as it had a structuring effect on the Mozambican political system, no longer guarantees in itself the irreversibility of the pacification process. In fact, the country is currently stagnating in the category of a fragile peace process with the risk of slipping into a situation of war or open armed conflict.

Keywords: peace, conflict, GPA, instability

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743 Gender Difference and Conflict Management Strategy Preference among Managers in Public Organizations in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: D. I. Akintayo, C. O. Aje

Abstract:

This study investigated the moderating influence of gender difference and conflict resolution strategy preference on managers` efficiency in managing industrial conflict in work organizations in South-Western Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of gender difference and conflict resolution strategy preference to managerial efficiency towards ensuring sustainable industrial peace and harmonious labour-management relations at workplaces in Nigeria. Descriptive ex-post-facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of 185 respondents were selected for the study using purposive stratified sampling technique. A set of questionnaire titled ‘Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory’ (ROCI) and Managerial Conflict Efficiency Scale (MCES) were adopted for the study. The three generated hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that: A significant relationship exists between gender difference and conflict management preference of the managers(r = 0.644; P < 0.05). I t was also found that there was no significant difference between male and female managers’ conflict management strategy preference (t (181) = 11.08; P > 0.05).The finding reveals that there is no significant difference between female and male managers’ conflict management efficiency on the basis of conflict management preference of the managers (t (181) = 10.23; P > 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that collective bargaining strategy should be encouraged as conflict resolution strategy in order to guarantee effective management of industrial conflict and harmonious labour-management relations. Also, both male and female managers should be empowered to be appointed to managerial positions and should avoid the use of coercion, competition, aggressiveness and pro-task in the course of managing industrial conflict. Rather, persuasion, compromising, relational, lobbying and participatory approaches should be employed during collective bargaining process in order to foster effective management of conflict at workplaces.

Keywords: conflict management, gender difference, managerial studies, public organization and managers, strategy preference

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742 Conflict Causes within Construction Projects; Conflict Interaction across Project Phases

Authors: Abdullah Mohammed Alshehri

Abstract:

The projects in the construction industry have significantly increased, given its contribution to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries. Reflecting upon the complex nature and involvement of various agents, the study aims to analyze the conflicts cause within construction projects. Therefore, the study strived to come out with understanding the levels of conflict interaction across project phases. However, this conducted by investigating the association between antecedents and apparent conflicts inherent in. The study used a qualitative approach for collecting the data through a quantitative, semi-structured method. Formation of a questionnaire survey has been conducted for over 30 respondents. However, the survey came out with the identification of 25 conflict cause categories, which can take place in different construction project phases, including pre-design phase, pre-construction phase, construction phase, commissioning, and completion phase. For example, conflicts associated with inconsistencies or discrepancies within or between project documents, which took place at tendering time in the pre-construction phase were relatable with the selection of material specifications that should be supplied or used in the construction projects at the construction phase. Its analysis can provide comprehensive understanding, trace the root of the problem, which offers a roadmap to deepen the understanding of the conflict conditions and ‘course of action’ necessary for project management strategy actions toward avoiding or minimizing conflict causes at project life.

Keywords: construction, conflict causes, levels, interaction, phases

Procedia PDF Downloads 63