Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: hegemony

57 Re-Evaluating the Hegemony of English Language in West Africa: A Meta-Analysis Review of the Research, 2003-2018

Authors: Oris Tom-Lawyer, Michael Thomas

Abstract:

This paper seeks to analyse the hegemony of the English language in Western Africa through the lens of educational policies and the socio-economic functions of the language. It is based on the premise that there is a positive link between the English language and development contexts. The study aims to fill a gap in the research literature by examining the usefulness of hegemony as a concept to explain the role of English language in the region, thus countering the negative connotations that often accompany it. The study identified four main research questions: i. What are the socio-economic functions of English in Francophone/lusophone countries? ii. What factors promote the hegemony of English in anglophone countries? iii. To what extent is the hegemony of English in West Africa? iv. What are the implications of the non-hegemony of English in Western Africa? Based on a meta-analysis of the research literature between 2003 and 2018, the findings of the study revealed that in francophone/lusophone countries, English functions in the following socio-economic domains; they are peace keeping missions, regional organisations, commercial and industrial sectors, as an unofficial international language and as a foreign language. The factors that promote linguistic hegemony of English in anglophone countries are English as an official language, a medium of instruction, lingua franca, cultural language, language of politics, language of commerce, channel of development and English for media and entertainment. In addition, the extent of the hegemony of English in West Africa can be viewed from the factors that contribute to the non-hegemony of English in the region; they are French language, Portuguese language, the French culture, neo-colonialism, level of poverty, and economic ties of French to its former colonies. Finally, the implications of the non-hegemony of English language in West Africa are industrial backwardness, poverty rate, lack of social mobility, drop out of school rate, growing interest in English, access to limited internet information and lack of extensive career opportunities. The paper concludes that the hegemony of English has resulted in the development of anglophone countries in Western Africa, while in the francophone/lusophone regions of the continent, industrial backwardness and low literacy rates have been consequences of English language marginalisation. In conclusion, the paper makes several recommendations, including the need for the early introduction of English into French curricula as part of a potential solution.

Keywords: developmental tool, English language, linguistic hegemony, West Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
56 Dominant Ideology among Filipino Women as Dictated by Cosmopolitan Magazine

Authors: Yvonne Christelle M. de Guzman, Charity Faye T. Cabie

Abstract:

This study analyzed the contents of ten issues of Cosmopolitan Magazine from 2011 to 2015. The researcher found out the hegemony among Filipino women as dictated by Cosmopolitan magazine through the use of Semiotic Analysis, Laura Mulvey’s Male Gaze and Gramsci’s concept of hegemony. The researcher also looked at the themes of cover stories, words used to describe women, meanings behind the color of magazine’s front cover, clothing, physique and pose such as gesture and facial expression used by the cover girl. However, the entire content of the magazine was not taken into account.

Keywords: dominant ideology, male gaze, semiotics, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
55 Counter-Hegemonic Movements and Their Consequences at the International Level: Transposing Gramsci to the 21st Century

Authors: Hanna Corsini

Abstract:

This article provides an analysis of counter-hegemonic movements and their consequences for the neoliberal world order at the international level. Even if calls for change are becoming louder, current research on populist forces at the domestic level in comparative politics is lacking an investigation of the international dimensions of the rise of such movements. At the same time, in the International Relations field, the focus still remains on the surge of challengers at the global level, while the national one stays neglected. This paper argues that to fill this gap as identified in the academic literature, the concept of hegemony, and more precisely, as deployed by Antonio Gramsci, can bear some interesting insights. An adaptation to the 21st century of Gramsci’s concept is proposed, highlighting the explanatory power that key concepts of his theoretical framework have. Transposing it to contemporary politics provides precious elements for an in-depth understanding of counter-hegemonic movements and the consequences of their rise for the neoliberal world order. In an era of disruption and turmoil in national politics, International Relations theory cannot avoid to engage with this dimension. However, populism as a theoretical concept lacks the capacity to go beyond the domestic border. It is therefore essential to create a dialogue between these two fields. Ultimately, the paper claims that (counter-)hegemony is crucial to build a bridge between the international and the domestic level.

Keywords: counter-hegemonic movements, Gramsci, hegemony, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
54 China's Middle East Policy and the Competition with the United States

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on China’s policy in the Middle East and the rivalry with the U.S. The question is that what are the main factors on China’s Middle East policy and its competition with the U.S? The hypothesis regards to three effective factors: 'China’s energy dependency' on the Middle East, 'economy' and support for 'stability' in the Middle East. What is important in China’s competition with the U.S regarding to its Middle East policy is the substantial difference in ways of treating the countries of the region; China is committed to Westphalia model based on non-interference in internal affairs of the countries and respect the sovereignty of the governments. However, after 9/11, the U.S is seeking a balance between stability and change through intervention in the international affairs and in some cases is looking for a regime change. From the other hand, China, due to its dependency on the region’s energy welcomes America’s military presence in the region for providing stability. The authors by using a descriptive analytical method try to explain the situation of rivalry between China and the United States in Middle East. China is an 'emerging power' with high economic growth and in demand of more energy supply. The problem is that a rising power in the region is often a source of concern for hegemony.

Keywords: China's foreign policy, energy, hegemony, the Middle East

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
53 Analysing Anime as the Narration of Resistance: Case Study of Japanese Vampire Anime

Authors: Patrycja Pichnicka

Abstract:

Anime is the Japanese art of animation and a kind of Japanese animated movie, different from the Western ones by its specific features. In the world dominated by live action movies, mostly the ones produced in the United States, Japanese animated movies, which constitute a large part of the Japanese movie industry, play the role of the Other. They adapt elements of Western culture and technology to create something that resists global Western domination. This phenomenon is particularly interesting to observe in the case of narration borrowed from the Western culture, yet transformed in a specific manner: such as Vampire Narration. The phenomenon should be examined using the theory of cultural adaptation of Siergiei Arutiunow, as well as theory of cultural hegemony and postcolonial theories, including the theory of the discourse of resistance. Relations of cultural hegemony and resistance have been mentioned in works of Susan Napier, however they are worth to be fully developed. Anime relations to globally dominating culture reveal tension between submission and resistance in which non-Western identity is constructed and performed. Nonetheless, the tension between the Global/Western and the Japanese is not the only one existing in contemporaneous Japanese society and culture. Sexual, gender, class, and ethnic issues are also expressed in and through pop culture narrations. Using the basic division of the types of cultural adaptation we can trace the line of the evolution of the Japanese cultural attitude towards the West, expressed in the Vampire Narration from the time of American occupation till now. These attitudes changed from the submissive assimilation or reproduction of cultural models, through the simple opposition, to the more nuanced attitude of nowadays. However, according to Kimberlé Crenshaw’s intersectional theory, there is no one category of discrimination or submission. There are individuals or groups existing on the cross of two or more categories of emancipation. If the Japanese were culturally subdued to the Westerner, the Japanese woman was doubly subdued: as a woman and as a Japanese. The emancipation of one group can deepen the submission of another one, of internal Other, of the group in which two or more categories of domination/submission intersect. That is why some Japanese female authors enthusiastically reproduce the Western cultural models, even if this means a cultural hegemony of the West over the Japanese. They see, as women, more liberal attitudes towards their gender in the Western culture than in the Japanese culture, as it is constructed and produced by Japanese men. The Japanese anime is the realm in which sophisticated art meets social tendencies and cultural attitudes. Anime examination permits to study of the composed contemporaneous Japanese identity, as well as general rules of cultural relations.

Keywords: anime, cultural hegemony, intercultural relations, resistance, vampire narration

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
52 Man Eaters and the Eaten Men: A Study of the Portrayal of Indians in the Writings of Jim Corbett

Authors: Iti Roychowdhury

Abstract:

India to the Colonial mind was a crazy quilt of multicoloured patchwork- a land of untold wealth and bejewelled maharajas, of snake charmers and tight rope walkers. India was also the land that offered unparalled game. Indeed Shikar (hunting) was de rigueur for the Raj experience. Tales of shootings and trophies were told and retold in clubs and in company. Foremost among the writers of this genre is Jim Corbett – tracker, hunter, writer, conservationist. Corbett is best known for the killing of man eating tigers and his best known books are Man eaters of Kumaon, The Temple Tiger, Man eating Leopard of Rudraprayag etc. The stories of Jim Corbett are stories of hunting, with no palpable design, no subtext of hegemony, or white man’s burden. The protagonists are the cats. Nevertheless from his writings emerge a vibrant picture of Indian villages, of men, women and children toiling for a livelihood under the constant shadow of the man eaters. Corbett shared a symbiotic relationship with the villagers. They needed him to kill the predators while Corbett needed the support of the locals as drum beaters, coolies and runners to accomplish his tasks. The aim of the present paper is to study the image of Indians in the writings of Jim Corbett and to examine them in the light of colonial perception of Indians.

Keywords: hegemony, orientalism, Shikar literature, White Man's Burden

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
51 Red Dawn in the Desert: A World-Systems Analysis of the Maritime Silk Road Initiative

Authors: Toufic Sarieddine

Abstract:

The current debate on the hegemonic impact of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is of two opposing strands: Resilient and absolute US hegemony on the one hand and various models of multipolar hegemony such as bifurcation on the other. Bifurcation theories illustrate an unprecedented division of hegemonic functions between China and the US, whereby Beijing becomes the world’s economic hegemon, leaving Washington the world’s military hegemon and security guarantor. While consensus points to China being the main driver of unipolarity’s rupturing, the debate among bifurcationists is on the location of the first rupture. In this regard, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has seen increasing Chinese foreign direct investment in recent years while that to other regions has declined, ranking it second in 2018 as part of the financing for the Maritime Silk Road Initiative (MSRI). China has also become the top trade partner of 11 states in the MENA region, as well as its top source of machine imports, surpassing the US and achieving an overall trade surplus almost double that of Washington’s. These are among other features outlined in world-systems analysis (WSA) literature which correspond with the emergence of a new hegemon. WSA is further utilized to gauge other facets of China’s increasing involvement in MENA and assess whether bifurcation is unfolding therein. These features of hegemony include the adoption of China’s modi operandi, economic dominance in production, trade, and finance, military capacity, cultural hegemony in ideology, education, and language, and the promotion of a general interest around which to rally potential peripheries (MENA states in this case). China’s modi operandi has seen some adoption with regards to support against the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, oil bonds denominated in the yuan, and financial institutions such as the Shanghai Gold Exchange enjoying increasing Arab patronage. However, recent elections in Qatar, as well as liberal reforms in Saudi Arabia, demonstrate Washington’s stronger normative influence. Meanwhile, Washington’s economic dominance is challenged by China’s sizable machine exports, increasing overall imports, and widening trade surplus, but retains some clout via dominant arms and transport exports, as well as free-trade deals across the region. Militarily, Washington bests Beijing’s arms exports, has a dominant and well-established presence in the region, and successfully blocked Beijing’s attempt to penetrate through the UAE. Culturally, Beijing enjoys higher favorability in Arab public opinion, and its broadcast networks have found some resonance with Arab audiences. In education, the West remains MENA students’ preferred destination. Further, while Mandarin has become increasingly available in schools across MENA, its usage and availability still lag far behind English. Finally, Beijing’s general interest in infrastructure provision and prioritizing economic development over social justice and democracy provides an avenue for increased incorporation between Beijing and the MENA region. The overall analysis shows solid progress towards bifurcation in MENA.

Keywords: belt and road initiative, hegemony, Middle East and North Africa, world-systems analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
50 Sexual Diversity Training for Hong Kong Teachers Preliminary Themes Identified from Qualitative Interviews

Authors: Diana K. Kwok

Abstract:

Despite the fact that Hong Kong government aims to develop an inclusive society, sexual minority students continue to encounter sexual prejudice without legal protection. They also have difficulties accessing relevant services from mental health and educational professionals, who do not receive systematic training to work with sexual minority students. Informed by the literature on sexual prejudice, heterosexual hegemony, genderism, as well as code of practice for frontline practitioners, the authors explored self-perceived knowledge of teachers and sexual minorities on sexuality and sexual prejudice, and how they perceive prejudice towards sexual minorities in Chinese cultural context. Semi-structure qualitative interviews were carried out with 31 school personnel informants (school teachers and counseling team members) and 25 sexual minority informants on their understanding of sexuality knowledge, their perception of sexual prejudice within school context in Hong Kong, as well as their suggested themes on teachers training on sexual prejudice reduction. This presentation specifically focuses on transcripts from sexual minority informants. Data analysis was carried out through NVivo, and followed the procedures spelt out in the qualitative research literature. Trustworthiness of the study was addressed through various strategies. Preliminary themes emerged from transcript content analysis: 1) A gap of knowledge between sexual minority informants and teachers; 2) Perception on sexual prejudice within cultural context; 3) Heterosexual hegemony and genderism within school system; 4) Needs for mandatory training: contents and strategies. The sexual minority informants found that teachers they encountered were predominantly adopted concepts of binary sex and dichotomous gender. Informants also indicated that the teachings of Confucianism cultural values, religiosity in Hong Kong might well be important cultural forces contributing to sexual prejudice manifested in school context. Although human rights and social justice concepts were embedded in professional code of practice of teachers and school helping professionals, informants found that teachers they encountered may face a dilemma when supporting sexual minority students navigating heterosexual hegemony and genderism in, as a consequence of their personal, institutional, cultural and religious backgrounds. Acknowledgments: The sexual prejudice project was funded by the Hong Kong Research Grant Council (ECS28401614), 2015 to 2017.

Keywords: sexual prejudice, Chinese teachers, Chinese sexual minorities, teacher training

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
49 The Red Persian Carpet: Iran as Semi-Periphery in China's Belt and Road Initiative-Bound World-System

Authors: Toufic Sarieddine

Abstract:

As the belt and road Initiative (henceforth, BRI) enters its 9th year, Iran and China are forging stronger ties on economic and military fronts, a development which has not only caused alarm in Washington but also risks staining China’s relationships with the oil-rich Gulf monarchies. World-systems theory has been used to examine the impact of the BRI on the current world order, with scholarship split on the capacity of China to emerge as a hegemon contending with the US or even usurping it. This paper argues the emergence of a new China-centered world-system comprised of states/areas and processes participating in the BRI and overlapping with the global world-system under (shaky) US hegemony. This world-system centers around China as core and hegemon via economic domination, capable new institutions (Shanghai Cooperation Council), legal modi operandi, the common goal of infrastructure development to rally support among developing states, and other indicators of hegemony outlined in world-systems theory. In this regard, while states like Pakistan could become peripheries to China in the BRI-bound world-system via large-scale projects such as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Iran has greater capacities and influence in the Middle East, making it superior to a periphery. This paper thus argues that the increasing proximity between Iran and China sees the former becoming a semi-periphery with respect to China within the BRI-bound world-system, having economic dependence on its new core and hegemon while simultaneously wielding political and military influence on weaker states such as Iraq, Lebanon, Yemen, and Syria. The indicators for peripheralization as well as the characteristics of a semi-periphery outlined in world-systems theory are used to examine the current economic, political, and militaristic dimensions of Iran and China’s growing relationship, as well as the trajectory of these dimensions as part of the BRI-bound world-system.

Keywords: belt and road initiative, China, China-Middle East relations, Iran, world-systems analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
48 The Political Economy of Conservation at Bhitarkanika Wild Life Sanctuary, India: Conflicts, Sustainability, and Development

Authors: Diptimayee Nayak, V. Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper posits the attempt of conservation and the idea of protected areas from the Marxian primitive accumulation to the politics of sustainability. Using field survey data and secondary literature, this paper analyses an Indian wildlife sanctuary, the Bhitarkanika, Odisha and finds how the hegemony of power among different management regimes attempted for conservation and the present protected area management regime attempted to imbibe the policy of ecotourism for achieving sustainability. The paper contends that the current policy of ecotourism in protected areas acts as a veil for the local deprived people, to avoid many legal conflicts like property rights, livelihood, and man-wildlife issues. Moreover, opening the scope to accumulate on the part of tour operators, the policy of ecotourism establishes a nexus between the profit holders/tour operators (the capitalists) and the power hegemony on the part of management authorities. The sustainability attempt of ecotourism may lead to private benefits maximising the profit accumulation and can expand and continue, showing the bulk of employment generation of local people at petty odd jobs, grabbing a lion share! Positing ecotourism as a capitalist project as against the general assumption of one of the drivers of sustainable development, the paper shows that ecotourism in practice may end up ruining the very social-environmental set up, leading to unsustainability related to waste management, equality, culture, relationship and above all polarised private accumulators in absence of sound mechanism. The paper ends with the caveat that while shopping for neoliberal conservation, the conservators found ecotourism as a product without finalising the hallmark of mechanism/ institutions with appropriate modus operandii to check/guard the quality assurance/standard of ecotourism for sustainability. The paper proposes sound structural and institutional mechanism of ecotourism to be developed to harness sustainability in the local economy as well as in conservation.

Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, Marxian capitalism, protected areas, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
47 The Presence of Carnism on Portuguese Television

Authors: Rui Pedro Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a research about carnism on Portuguese television. It begins by presenting a case study of MasterChef program (TVI) which conveys carnism in both practices and language, and from which some characteristics of their dominant representations are described. Subsequently, the paper presents the indicators of the presence of carnism in the Portuguese television programming, between 2013 and 2014, in the TVI, RTP1, and SICS channels. The data reveals that there is the hegemony of the carnist ideology in the main channels of the Portuguese television. Also, the samples collected and viewed show no mention of the impacts of carnism in its various dimensions (non-human animals, environment, human health and sustainability).

Keywords: carnism, speciesism, television, Portugal

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
46 Stereotyping of Non-Western Students in Western Universities: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis to Undermine Educational Hegemony

Authors: Susan Lubbers

Abstract:

This study applies critical discourse analysis to the language used by educators to frame international students of Asian backgrounds in Anglo-Western universities as quiet, shy, passive and unable to think critically. Emphasis is on the self-promoted ‘internationalised’ Australian tertiary context, where negative stereotypes are commonly voiced not only in the academy but also in the media. Parallels are drawn as well with other Anglo-Western educational contexts. The study critically compares the discourse of these persistent negative stereotypes, with in-class and interview discourses of international students of Asian and Western language, cultural and educational backgrounds enrolled in a Media and Popular Culture unit in an Australian university. The focus of analysis of the student discourse is on their engagement in critical dialogic interactions on the topics of culture and interculturality. The evidence is also drawn from student interviews and focus groups and from observation of whole-class discussion participation rates. The findings of the research project provide evidence that counters the myth of student as problem. They point rather to the widespread lack of intercultural awareness of Western educators and students as being at the heart of the negative perceptions of students of Asian backgrounds. The study suggests the efficacy of an approach to developing intercultural competence that is embedded, or integrated, into tertiary programs. The presentation includes an overview of the main strategies that have been developed by the tertiary educator (author) to support the development of intercultural competence of and among the student cohort. The evidence points to the importance of developing intercultural competence among tertiary educators and students. The failure by educators to ensure that the diverse voices, ideas and perspectives of students from all cultural, educational and language backgrounds are heard in our classrooms means that our universities can hardly be regarded or promoted as genuinely internationalised. They will continue as undemocratic institutions that perpetrate persistent Western educational hegemony.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical thinking, embedding, intercultural competence, interculturality, international student, internationalised education

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
45 Responsibility to Protect: The Continuing Post-Colonial Western Hegemony

Authors: Helyeh Doutaghi

Abstract:

In 2005, the doctrine of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was created by the UN Member States agreeing to not only to have the primary responsibility to protect their civilians from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, but also to be responsible towards those civilians whose State was found manifestly failing in that regard. This paper will assess the doctrine of R2P and will argue that R2P too, just like humanitarian intervention, suffers from a lack of legal basis and political will to implement it. Or better said, it is being selectively used by the hegemon’s power to achieve its political will. In doing so, the origin and development shall be explained. Furthermore, it will be submitted that R2P has failed to achieve its purpose due to the unresolved Security Council’s deadlock. Lastly, the concept of legal morality entailed in R2P and its use in real life cases since 2005 will be examined.

Keywords: responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, United Nations, legitimacy, legality

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
44 Representation of “Gezi Parkı Actions” in Media and Resistance

Authors: Sibel Özkan

Abstract:

This study aims to set forth the perception of young people in Turkey about “Gezi Parkı Actions” which has been represented by different views on social and traditional media. In-depth interview method was carried out with all of the participants who consisted of high school students. All interviews has been conducted in areas where the actions take place and the numbers of participants who are using and not using social media were equal. There are minor differences between young people who are using and not using social media. Participants who are not using social media had an opinion only about saving nature aspect of Gezi Parkı Actions. On the other hand, people who are using social media had another reasons such as freedom of expression, respect to the lifestyles etc. to join Gezi Parkı Actions. It was found that young people do not completely trust traditional media anymore.

Keywords: Gezi Parkı, resistance, social media, hegemony

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
43 Trapped in Hegemonic Binaries: Performing the Body

Authors: Bitopi Dutta

Abstract:

This paper attempts to understand the constructs of binaries while taking into account the politics of the body. It delves into how these constructs get fashioned and recreated while performing the same across normative and non-normative discourses. While it may be almost mundane and commonplace to see the performance of body within binary constructs across the normative discourses, this is to a great extent also true for those queer discourses that have challenged the conventional/normative. With a queer feminist perspective, the paper challenges this performativity while simultaneously engaging with the subtle nuances of blurring the borders of gender markers. The problem with this polarization within binary constructs is that there remains a tendency to reinstate patriarchy within queerness. To substantiate this argument further, the paper will draw from narratives and accounts of identities with alternate sexualities and genders. The paper concludes with problematising this hegemony within queer discourses locating the question of acceptance and visibility of fluidities.

Keywords: binary, body, gender, identity, performativity, queer

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
42 The Destruction of Confucianism and Socialism in Chinese Popular Comedy Films

Authors: Shu Hui

Abstract:

Since 2010, the genre of comedy became predominant in film market in China. However, compared with the huge commercial success, these films received severe public criticism. These films are referred as trash (lan pian) by the public because of the fragment narrative, the non-professional photographing and advocating money warship. The paper aims to explain the contradictive phenomena between the higher box office and the lower mouth of word within hegemony theory. Four popular comedies that ranked top 20 in domestic revenue in the year the film released will be chosen to analyze their popularity in general. Differing from other popular films, these comedies’ popularity is generated from their disruptive pleasures instead of good stories or photographing. The destruction in Confucianism and socialism formulated the public consent or popularity, and caused the public criticism as well. Moreover, the happy-endings restore the normality at the superficial level.

Keywords: Confucianism, destruction, reconcilation, socialism

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
41 Ties of China and the United States Regarding to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the Basis of Soft Power Theory

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

After a period of conflict between Russia and the West, new signs of confrontation between the United States and China are observed. China, as the most populous country in the world with a high rate of economic growth, neither stands the hegemonic power of the United States nor has the intention of direct confrontation with it. By raising the costs of the United States’ leadership at the international level, China seeks to find a better status without direct confrontation with the US. Meanwhile, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), as a soft balancing strategy against the hegemony of the United States is used as a tool to reach this goal. The authors by using a descriptive-analytical method try to explain the policies of China and the United States on Shanghai Cooperation Organization as well as confrontation between these two countries within the framework of 'balance of soft power theory'.

Keywords: balance of soft power, Central Asia, Shanghai cooperation organization, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
40 The Popularity and the Fantasy in Tiny Times

Authors: Shu Hui

Abstract:

From 2013 to 2015, Tiny Times series gained huge commercial success. However, compared with the successful box office, these films received severe public criticism. Some scholars refer to these films as trash (lan pian) because of the fragment narrative, the non-professional photographing, and advocating money warship. Differing from other popular films, the popularity of Tiny Times series is actually generated from the fantasy that presented on screen instead of good stories or photographs. The fantasy is desired by the public and then formulates its popularity. Based on Jacques Lacan’s fantasy theory, the paper aims to explain what kind of fantast the films present. Then, according to hegemony theory, the paper will illustrate why the public desires such a fantasy and how the fantasy causes the criticism as well. The dominant ideology (patriarchy) conspires with or manipulates consumerism, which brings about the female's fantasy in Tiny Times. Because consumerism interrogates Confucianism, the film received public criticism for highlighting the former.

Keywords: fantasy, desire, ideology, popularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
39 The Dilemma of Translanguaging Pedagogy in a Multilingual University in South Africa

Authors: Zakhile Somlata

Abstract:

In the context of international linguistic and cultural diversity, all languages can be used for all purposes. Africa in general and South Africa, in particular, is not an exception to multilingual and multicultural society. The multilingual and multicultural nature of South African society has a direct bearing to the heterogeneity of South African Universities in general. Universities as the centers of research, innovation, and transformation of the entire society should be at the forefront in leading multilingualism. The universities in South Africa had been using English and to a certain extent Afrikaans as the only academic languages during colonialism and apartheid regime. The democratic breakthrough of 1994 brought linguistic relief in South Africa. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa recognizes 11 official languages that should enjoy parity of esteem for the realization of multilingualism. The elevation of the nine previously marginalized indigenous African languages as academic languages in higher education is central to multilingualism. It is high time that Afrocentric model instead of Eurocentric model should be the one which underpins education system in South Africa at all levels. Almost all South African universities have their language policies that seek to promote access and success of students through multilingualism, but the main dilemma is the implementation of language policies. This study is significant to respond to two objectives: (i) To evaluate how selected institutions use language policies for accessibility and success of students. (ii) To study how selected universities integrate African languages for both academic and administrative purposes. This paper reflects the language policy practices in one selected University of Technology (UoT) in South Africa. The UoT has its own language policy which depicts linguistic diversity of the institution and its commitment to promote multilingualism. Translanguaging pedagogy which accommodates minority languages' usage in the teaching and learning process plays a pivotal role in promoting multilingualism. This research paper employs mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative research) approach. Qualitative data has been collected from the key informants (insiders and experts), while quantitative data has been collected from a cohort of third-year students. A mixed methods approach with its convergent parallel design allows the data to be collected separately, analysed separately but with the comparison of the results. Language development initiatives have been discussed within the framework of language policy and policy implementation strategies. Theoretically, this paper is rooted in language as a problem, language as a right and language as a resource. The findings demonstrate that despite being a multilingual institution, there is a perpetuation of marginalization of African languages to be used as academic languages. Findings further display the hegemony of English. The promotion of status quo compromises the promotion of multilingualism, Africanization of Higher Education and intellectualization of indigenous African languages in South Africa under a democratic dispensation.

Keywords: afro-centric model, hegemony of English, language as a resource, translanguaging pedagogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
38 Neighbourhood Research in the Global South: An Insight from Bibliometric Analysis

Authors: Gideon Baffoe

Abstract:

Recent evidence shows that neighbourhood research is largely under the hegemony of global north scholars. The current situation is a reflection of a privileged world of rich-country academics studying ‘first world’ built environment and varied social problems. The most difficult, dangerous and urgent neighbourhood problems, however, are found in the global south cities. The north orientation highlights a major knowledge gap in the south, which is a wakeup call for urban scholars. Until now, it remains unclear how the neighbourhood has been studied in the global south. This study aims to review the state of neighbourhood scholarship in developing countries. In particular, the study brings to the fore the scholarship growth pattern, main research focus areas, key players and methodological approaches that scholars have adopted. The review provides a direction which can form the bases for future neighbourhood research in the global south, particularly in Africa and Asia.

Keywords: neighbourhood, global south, bibliometric analysis, scholarship

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
37 The Pen Is Mightier than the Sword: Kurdish Language Policy in Turkey

Authors: Irene Yi

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the development of Kurdish language endangerment in Turkey and Kurdish language education over time. It examines the historical context of the Turkish state, as well as reasons for the Turkish language hegemony. From a linguistic standpoint, the Kurdish language is in danger of extinction despite a large number of speakers, lest Kurdish language education is more widely promoted. The paper argues that Kurdish is no longer in a stable diglossic state; if the current trends continue, the language will lose its vitality. This paper recognizes the importance of education in preserving the language while discussing the changing political and institutional regard for Kurdish education. Lastly, the paper outlines solutions to the issue by looking at a variety of proposals, from creating a Kurdistan to merely changing the linguistic landscape in Turkey. After analysis of possible solutions in terms of realistic ability and effectiveness, the paper concludes that changing linguistic landscape and increasing Kurdish language education are the most ideal first steps in a long fight for Kurdish linguistic equality.

Keywords: endangered, Kurdish, oppression, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
36 Teaching Philosophy to Nigerian Students: Some Pedagogic Considerations

Authors: Patricia Agboro

Abstract:

The dominant strands of pedagogic ideas are often western in origin/orientation. This is the case because of the hegemony of the western world in global academia. For this reason, peculiarities and considerations of context are often swept to the margins as educational thinkers emphasize patently Eurocentric and one-size-fits-all solutions to the problems of effective teaching. This paper takes as a starting point the notion that pedagogy must be context specific and pragmatic in its application. It is from this perspective that it focuses on the challenges of teaching philosophy to students in the Nigerian tertiary institutions. Philosophy students in Nigeria usually come across philosophy for the first time at the tertiary level. This raises the problem of inadequate exposure. Beyond this, a substantial number of candidates are admitted into the philosophy program based on the Nigerian version of ‘affirmative action’ which is known as the quota system. This paper addresses the problems highlighted above and hosts of other issues as well as provides recommendations that can improve effectiveness of teaching philosophy at the university level.

Keywords: justice, quota system, pedagogy, federal character

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
35 A Review of Psychiatric Practices in Issues of Anomalous Experiences

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri

Abstract:

In issues of anomalous experiences commonly referred to as madness or mental illness, attempts have been made to deal with it so that people manage to live their lives in a more functional way. It is in this stance that psychiatry has sort of portraying itself as seeking to ameliorate perturbations which individuals live with via nosological systems and use of medicine to anomalous experiences. It is from this hegemony that has led to the untold harm which people living with madness have endured from antique to contemporary life. The paper reflects via a literature review on the history of psychiatry and argues that it is akin to contemporary psychiatry to be involved in iatrogenic acts. As antique psychiatry meddled with gory issues of inhumanity, deceit and mass murders which some of those the contemporary psychiatry has not weaned itself from such diabolical acts. The objective of the paper is to suggest to psychiatry that it has not comported to the mores of psychological ethics. In doing this, the paper hopes that psychiatry will reflect and reform its curricular and praxis so that it comports to ethical standards in psychological science in ameliorating anomalous experiences.

Keywords: nosology, psychiatry, madness, diagnosis, eugenics

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
34 Manipulation of the Public Sphere to Win Cultural Hegemony: The Process by Which Islamic State Uses the Principles of the Overton Window to Engineer Extremism

Authors: A. Brigitte Coles

Abstract:

In order to be successful in a campaign against terror and maintain a favorable world order, we must recognize the effects of priming, framing, and agenda setting on the public sphere, and address how terrorist organizations are able to manipulate language and symbols to shift public opinion and increase recruitment success. Because of their unprecedented activity in the region and foreign recruitment success, this study specifically addresses how the Islamic State (IS/ISIS/ISIL) manipulates the public sphere to amplify support and increase western recruitment. By following a grounded theory methodology and coding triangulated data from IS propaganda, a model for the process of terrorist recruitment has emerged, concerning both environments and personalities susceptible to recruitment, and the steps by which an extremist can be created. This has resulted in the ability to reverse engineer a method by which counter recruitment operations can be facilitated in an effort to lessen the vulnerability of areas and individuals, as well as create dissent among current extremists.

Keywords: countering violent extremism, counter-terrorism, recruitment, overton window

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
33 The Role of Geo-Strategy in Sino-American Competition in Yemen

Authors: Saddam A. Obaid, Nor Aishah Hanifa

Abstract:

In the ongoing war in Yemen, the foreign actors have evolved into international actors, " The US and China," along with regional actors. "Saudi Arabia and Iran." In light of the competition between these two powerhouses for world hegemony, China adopted the One Belt One Road project, which targets Yemen in its marine version under the name "Silk Road." Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the role of Yemen’s geostrategy in the US-China competition. This study applied a qualitative research approach via a data triangulation approach and Semi-structured interviews. This study found that the Mahan six principles were in the geostrategy of Yemen, and this drove China to include Yemen in its strategic project, the Belt and Road Initiative. On the other hand, the U.S. has attached great importance to Yemen as the dominant country on the Bab al-Mandab Strait to contain China’s efforts to implement the Chinese Silk Road project. Eventually, the geostrategy has intensified the Sino-American competition, especially after the formation of the eastern camp led by Russia versus the Western camp led by the United States and the European Union, which suggests the return of the Cold War.

Keywords: the U.S., China, OBOR, Yemen, rivalry

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
32 Global Processes and Georgian Economic Policy

Authors: Anzor Abralava, Ketevan Kokrashvili, Rusudan Kutateladze, Nino Pailodze, Ketevan Kutateladze, Giorgi Sulashvili

Abstract:

Nowadays when the integration of states is growing fast, it is urgent to study the rules of behavior which they resort to in case of conflicts and disagreements. The reason of disagreement in many ways is the Foreign policy carried out by separate countries, as the market participants define production and export capacity and structure as well as level of international division of labor due to the competition among them. We can say over and over again that outbreak of conflicts in Georgia displays the serious controversy between political and economic powerhouses. However, to tell the truth existence of the unsolved conflicts in Georgia is the result of weakness and inadequacy of Georgian politics. Today the main task of political quarters in Georgia should be a direction to Caucasus, as to the region burdened with the most complicated problems which blockade the settlement of conflicts and farther development of our country (or vice versa). In this situation rehabilitation of our authority, leading role and hegemony; expansion and consolidation of peacekeeping and other missions are considered as the exact activities for accomplishing all Georgian economic and political goals.

Keywords: Awara Group, political centers, administrative services, dynamic process

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
31 The Engagement of Students with Learning Disabilities in Regular Public Primary School in Indonesia

Authors: Costrie Ganes Widayanti

Abstract:

Learning Disabilities (LDs) are less understood by the Indonesia’s educational practitioners. As a result, students with LDs are at risk of being outcast from the learning process that requires participation, which potentially disconnects them academically and socially. Its objective is to raise the voice of students with LDs regarding their engagement in the classroom. This research is conducted in two urban regular public primary schools in Indonesia. The study uses an ethnographic case study research design, which explores the views and experiences of four (4) students with LDs. The data were collected using participant observations and interviews. The preliminary findings highlighted two areas: 1) the stigmatization about LDs; and 2) perceived membership. Having LDs was a barrier to fully engage in the academic and social life. Interestingly, they were more likely dependent on each other for support as limited assistance was offered by teachers and peers. Their peers did not take a keen interest in helping them when they found difficulties with the assignments. Furthermore, due to their low academic performance, they were not in favor of being nominated as a group member. In a situation that required them to do a group assignment, they were not expected to give a contribution, positioning themselves as incompatible. These findings indicated that such practices legitimate the hegemony of the superior over those who are powerless and left behind.

Keywords: engagement, experiences, learning disability, qualitative design

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
30 The Prostitute’s Body in Diasporic Space: Sexualized China and Chineseness in Yu Dafu’s Sinking and Yan Geling’s The Lost Daughter of Happiness

Authors: Haizhi Wu

Abstract:

Sexualization brings together the interdependent experiences of prostitution and diaspora, establishing a masculine structure where a female’s body mediates the hegemony and sexuality of men from different races. Between eroticism and homesickness, writers of the Chinese diaspora develop sensual approaches to reflect on the diasporic experience and sexual frustration. Noticeably, Yu Dafu in Sinking and Yan Geling in The Lost Daughter of Happiness both take an interest in sexual encounters between an immature teen client and an erotically powerful prostitute in Japan or America, both countries considered colonizers in Chinese history. Both are utilizing the metaphor of body-space interplay to hint at the out-of-text transnational interactions, two writers, however, present distinct understandings of their bond with history and memory of the semi-colonial, semi-feudal China. Examining prostitutes’ bodies in multi-layer diasporic spaces, the central analysis of this essay works on the sexual, colonial, and historical representations of this bodily symbol and the prostitution’s engagement in negotiating with diaspora and “Chineseness”.

Keywords: Chineseness, diasporic spaces, prostitutes’ bodies, sexualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
29 Dependency Theory on Examining the Relationship between the United States and the Middle East: In the Case of Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey

Authors: Abdelhafez Abdel Hafez

Abstract:

Dependency theory was developed since 1950s, with economic concerns. It divided the world into two parts, the states of the peripheral (third world countries) and the states of the core (the developed capitalist countries). Another perspective developed to the theory with the implementation of the idea of semi-peripheral states in the new world order. With these divisions (core, peripheral, semi-peripheral) this study aims to develop a concept from the perspective of dependency theory, to understand the nature of the relationship of the U.S. with the Middle East Regions through its relation with Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. The tested countries (Saudi Arabia, Iran and Turkey) are seeking a foothold and influential role in the region. The paper argued that the U.S. directs its policies toward the region, in the way to guarantee no country of the region will be in semi-peripheral level (that could create competitions or danger on the U.S. interest). Therefore, U.S. policies in the region have varied from declaring war to diplomatic channels and sometimes ignoring. The paper is based on the dependency theory, and other international relations theories used to study the Middle East in the international context.

Keywords: dependency, hegemony, imperialism, middle east

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
28 The Turkish Anti-Nuclear Platform: A Counter-Hegemonic Struggle

Authors: Sevgi Balkan-Sahin

Abstract:

The Justice and Development Party (AKP) government has included nuclear power as a major component of Turkey’s new energy strategy by promoting it as the only alternative for Turkey to diversify energy resources, trigger economic growth, and boost competitiveness of the country. The effective promotion of such a framing has created a hegemonic discourse around nuclear energy in Turkey. However, fiercely opposing the nuclear initiative of the government, the Turkish anti-nuclear platform (ANP) composed of more than 50 civil society groups has challenged the hegemonic discourse of the AKP government by presenting nuclear energy as dangerous for human health, human rights, and the protection of environment. Based on an engagement between Gramscian perspective and Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory, this paper considers the discourses of the Turkish anti-nuclear platform and its associated activities as a counter-hegemonic strategy to change the ‘common sense’ on nuclear energy in Turkey. Analyzing the data from interviews with the representatives of the anti-nuclear platform coupled with primary sources, such as Parliamentary Records and official statements by civil society organizations, the paper highlights how the anti-nuclear platform exercises power through counter-hegemonic discourses in terms of the delegitimization of nuclear energy in Turkey.

Keywords: counter-hegemony, discourse, nuclear energy, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 227