Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: cinema

79 Society and Cinema in Iran

Authors: Seyedeh Rozhano Azimi Hashemi

Abstract:

There is no doubt that ‘Art’ is a social phenomena and cinema is the most social kind of art. Hence, it’s clear that we can analyze the relation’s of cinema and art from different aspects. In this paper sociological cinema will be investigated which, is a subdivision of sociological art. This term will be discussed by two main approaches. One of these approaches is focused on the effects of cinema on the society, which is known as “Effects Theory” and the second one, which is dealing with the reflection of social issues in cinema is called ” Reflection Theory”. "Reflect theory" approach, unlike "Effects theory" is considering movies as documents, in which social life is reflected, and by analyzing them, the changes and tendencies of a society are understood. Criticizing these approaches to cinema and society doesn’t mean that they are not real. Conversely, it proves the fact that for better understanding of cinema and society’s relation, more complicated models are required, which should consider two aspects. First, they should be bilinear and they should provide a dynamic and active relation between cinema and society, as for the current concept social life and cinema have bi-linear effects on each other, and that’s how they fit in a dialectic and dynamic process. Second, it should pay attention to the role of inductor elements such as small social institutions, marketing, advertisements, cultural pattern, art’s genres and popular cinema in society. In the current study, image of middle class in cinema of Iran and changing the role of women in cinema and society which were two bold issue that cinema and society faced since 1979 revolution till 80s are analyzed. Films as an artwork on one hand, are reflections of social changes and with their effects on the society on the other hand, are trying to speed up the trends of these changes. Cinema by the illustration of changes in ideologies and approaches in exaggerated ways and through it’s normalizing functions, is preparing the audiences and public opinions for the acceptance of these changes. Consequently, audience takes effect from this process, which is a bi-linear and interactive process.

Keywords: Iranian Cinema, Cinema and Society, Middle Class, Woman’s Role

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78 Political Cinema: Rewriting The Malaysian Political History Through Documentary Films

Authors: Raja Rodziah Binti Raja Zainal Hassan

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The development of Malaysian political cinema is rapidly taking shape in the local film industry. The paper focuses on the production of independent political documentary by two Malaysian filmmakers, Amir Muhammad and Fahmi Reza. Revolutionary cinema can be understood by utilizing the Third Cinema Theory in order to analyse the meaning and its impact on the audience. The issue surrounding the political cinema in Malaysia is the question of national identity. The implementation of racial or ethnic based politics has resulted in hostility within Malaysia’s multiracial society. Amir Muhammad and Fahmi Reza revisit the Malaysian political history through their films in order to understand the reasons behind the hostility and conflict.

Keywords: Political cinema, third cinema theory, revolutionary cinema, national identity, racial or ethnic politics

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77 Relationship between Cinema and Culture: Reel and Real life in India

Authors: Prachi Chavda

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The world, as of today, is smaller than it was for those who lived few decades ago. Internet, media and telecommunications have impacted the world like never before. Culture is the pillar upon which a society mushrooms. A culture develops with human creativity over the years and also by the exchange and intermixing of ideas and way of life across different civilizations and we can say that one of the influencing medium of exchange and intermixing of these ideas is cinema. Cinema has been the wonderful as well as important medium of communication since it has been emerged. Change is the thumb rule of life and so have been Indian cinema. As society has evolved from time to time so has the stories of Indian Cinema and its characters, hence it directly effects to the Indian culture as cinema has been very strong mediator for information exchange. The paper tries to discuss deeply how Indian cinema (reel life) and Indian culture (real life) has been influencing each other that results into a constant modification in both. Moreover, the research tries to deal with the issue with some examples that as a outcome how movies impact the Indian culture positively and negatively on culture. Therefore, it spreads the wave of change in cultural settings of society. The paper also tries to light the psychology of youth of India. Today, children and youth greatly admire the ostentatious materialistic display of outfits and style of the actors in the movies. Also, the movies bearing romanticism and showcasing disputatious issues like pre-marital sex, live-in relationship, homo-sexuality etc. though without highlighting them extensively have indeed inspired the commoners. Pros and cons always exist. Such revelation of issues certainly give a spark in the minds of those who are in their formative years and the effect of which is seen with the passage of time Thus, we can say that emergence of cinema as a strong tool of social change as well as culture as a triggering factor for transformation in cinema. As, a finding we can say that culture and cinema of India are influencing factors for each other. Cinema and culture are two sides of a coin, where both are responsible for evolution of each other.

Keywords: cinema, culture, influence, transformation

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76 Consumer Behavior and Marketing Mixed Factor Effect on Consumer Decision Making for Independent Movies Presented in Lido Cinema

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth

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This study aims to investigate the consumer behavior and marketing mixed factor affect on consumer decision making for independent movies presented in Lido cinema. The research method will use quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the audience in the Lido cinema for 400 sample by accidental sampling technique. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including independent t-test for hypothesis testing. The results showed that marketing mixed factors affecting consumer decision-making for Independent movies presented in Lido cinema by gender as different as less than the 0.05 significance level, it was found that the kind of movie ,quality of theater ,price of ticket, facility of watching movies, staff services and promotion of Lido cinema respectively had a vital influence on their attention and response which makes the advertisement more attractive is in harmony with the research hypotheses also.

Keywords: consumer behavior, marketing mixed factor, resonance, consumer decision making, Lido cinema

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75 Lesbian Stereotype Representation in Cinema in Turkey

Authors: Hasan Gürkan, Rengin Ozan

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Cinema, as a popular mass media tool, affects the general perception of the society against sexual identity. By establishing on interaction relationship with cinema and social reality, the study also tries to answer what the importance of lesbian identity in social life in films in Turkey is. This article focus on representing the description of the women characters who call their selves lesbian in Turkey cinema. The study tries to answer these three questions: First, how the lesbian characters are represented in films in Turkey? Second, what is the reality of the lesbian sexual identity in the films? Third, what are the differences and similarities between the lesbian characters in films in Turkey before 2000s and after 2000s? The films are analysed by the sociological film interpretation in this study. When comparing the films before 2000 and after 2000, it is possible to say that there have been no lesbian characters in many films. Especially almost all of the films (Haremde Dört Kadın, Ver Elini İstanbul, Dul Bir Kadın, Gramofon Avrat, Lola and Billidikid), during 1960s, just threw looks indirect the lesbian sex identity. Just in the films Düş Gezginleri, İki Genç Kız and Nar, the women character (also called them as lesbian) are the leading role and the plot of the films is progressing over these characters.

Keywords: cinema in Turkey, lesbian identity, representation, stereotype

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74 Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison

Authors: H. Kelkoul, Y. Zaz

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Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.

Keywords: digital cinema, watermarking, wavelet DWT, spread spectrum, JPEG2000 MPEG4

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73 Hot Face of Cold War: 007 James Bond

Authors: Günevi Uslu Evren

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Propaganda is one of the most effective methods for changing individual and mass opinions. Propaganda tries to get the message across to people or masses to effect rather than to provide objective information. There are many types of propaganda. Especially, political propaganda is a very powerful method that is used by states during in both war and peace. The aim of this method is to create a reaction against them by showing within the framework of internal and external enemies. Propaganda can be practiced by many different methods. Especially during the Cold War Era, the US and USSR have tried to create an ideological effect by using the mass media intensively. Cinema, which is located at the beginning of these methods, is the most powerful weapon to influence the masses. In this study, the historical process of the Cold War is examined. Especially, these propagandas that had been used by United States and The Soviet Union were investigated. The purposes of propaganda and construction methods were presented. Cold War events and relations between the US and the USSR during the Cold War will be discussed. Outlooks of two countries to each other during the Cold War, propaganda techniques used defectively during Cold War and how to use the cinema as a propaganda tool will be examined. The film "From Russia with Love, James Bond 007" that was filmed in Cold War were examined to explain how cinema was used as a propaganda tool in this context.

Keywords: cinema, cold war, James Bond, propaganda

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72 Crossing Narrative Waters in World Cinema: Alamar (2009) and Kaili Blues (2015)

Authors: Dustin Dill

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The physical movement of crossing over water points to both developing narrative tropes and innovative cinematography in World Cinema today. Two prime examples, Alamar (2009) by Pedro González-Rubio and Kaili Blues (2015) by Bi Gan, demonstrate how contemporary storytelling in a film not only rests upon these water shots but also emerges from them. The range of symbolism that these episodes in the story provoke goes hand in hand with the diverse filming sequences found in the respective productions. While González-Rubio decides to cut the scene into long and longer shots, Gan uses a single take. The differing angles depict equally unique directors and film projects: Alamar runs parallel to many definitions of the essay film, and Kaili Blues resonates much more with mystery and art film. Nonetheless, the crossing of water scenes influence the narratives’ subjects despite the generic consequences, and it is within the essay, mystery, and art film genres which allows for a better understanding of World Cinema. Tiago de Luca explains World Cinema’s prerogative of giving form to a certain type of spectator does not always line up. Given the immense number of interpretations of crossing water —the escape from suffering to find nirvana, rebirth, and colonization— underline the difficulty of categorizing it. If before this type of cross-genre was a trait that defined World Cinema in its beginning, this study observes that González-Rubio and Gan question the all-encompassing genre with their experimental shots of a universal narrative trope, the crossing of water.

Keywords: cinematography, genre, narrative, world cinema

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71 Cinema Reception in a Digital World: A Study of Cinema Audiences in India

Authors: Sanjay Ranade

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Traditional film theory assumes the cinema audience in a darkened room where cinema is projected on to a white screen, and the audience suspends their sense of reality. Shifts in audiences due to changes in cultural tastes or trends have been studied for decades. In the past two decades, however, the audience, especially the youth, has shifted to digital media for the consumption of cinema. As a result, not only are audiences watching cinema on different devices, they are also consuming cinema in places and ways never imagined before. Public transport often crowded to the brim with a lot of ambient content, and a variety of workplaces have become sites for cinema viewing. Cinema is watched piecemeal and at different times of the day. Audiences use devices such as mobile phones and tablets to watch cinema. The cinema viewing experience is getting redesigned by the user. The emerging design allows the spectator to not only consume images and narratives but also produce, reproduce, and manipulate existing images and narratives, thereby participating in the process and influencing it. Spectatorship studies stress on the importance of subjectivity when dealing with the structure of the film text and the cultural and psychological implications in the engagement between the spectator and the film text. Indian cinema has been booming and contributing to global movie production significantly. In 2005 film production was 1000 films a year and doubled to 2000 by 2016. Digital technology helped push this growth in 2012. Film studies in India have had a decided Euro-American bias. The studies have chiefly analysed the content for ideological leanings or myth or as reflections of society, societal changes, or articulation of identity or presented retrospectives of directors, actors, music directors, etc. The one factor relegated to the background has been the spectator. If they have been addressed, they are treated as a collective of class or gender. India has a performative tradition going back several centuries. How Indians receive cinema is an important aspect to study with respect to film studies. This exploratory and descriptive study looked at 162 young media students studying cinema at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The students, speaking as many as 20 languages amongst them, were drawn from across the country’s media schools. The study looked at nine film societies registered with the Federation of Film Societies of India. A structured questionnaire was made and distributed online through media teachers for the students. The film societies were approached through the regional office of the FFSI in Mumbai. Lastly, group discussions were held in Mumbai with students and teachers of media. A group consisted of between five and twelve student participants, along with one or two teachers. All the respondents looked at themselves as spectators and shared their experiences of spectators of cinema, providing a very rich insight into Indian conditions of viewing cinema and challenges for cinema ahead.

Keywords: audience, digital, film studies, reception, reception spectatorship

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70 Philippine Film Industry and Cultural Policy: A Critical Analysis and Case Study

Authors: Michael Kho Lim

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This paper examines the status of the film industry as an industry in the Philippines—where or how it is classified in the Philippine industrial classification system and how this positioning gives the film industry an identity (or not) and affects (film) policy development and impacts the larger national economy. It is important to look at how the national government recognises Philippine cinema officially, as this will have a direct and indirect impact on the industry in terms of its representation, conduct of business, international relations, and most especially its implications on policy development and implementation. Therefore, it is imperative that the ‘identity’ of Philippine cinema be clearly established and defined in the overall industrial landscape. Having a clear understanding of Philippine cinema’s industry status provides a better view of the bigger picture and helps us determine cinema’s position in the national agenda in terms of priority setting, future direction and how the state perceives and thereby values the film industry as an industry. This will then serve as a frame of reference that will anchor the succeeding discussion. Once the Philippine film industry status is identified, the paper will then clarify how cultural policy is defined, understood, and applied in the Philippines in relation to Philippine cinema by reviewing and analyzing existing policy documents and pending bills in the Philippine Congress and Senate. Lastly, the paper delves into the roles that (national) cultural institutions and industry organisations play as primary drivers or support mechanisms and how they become platforms (or not) for the upliftment of the independent film sector and towards the sustainability of the film industry. The paper concludes by arguing that the role of the government and how government officials perceive and treats culture is far more important than cultural policy itself, as these policies emanate from them.

Keywords: cultural and creative industries, cultural policy, film industry, Philippine cinema

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69 Women Presentation and Roles in Arab-Israeli Female Filmmakers Movies

Authors: Mariam Farah

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With the beginning of the 21 century, female Arab directors entered the industry of cinema in Israel. Before their entrance, the Palestinian cinema, directed in Israel and in other places in the world, was defined as political-masculine cinema. The recent research wonders if the entrance of female directors to the Arab-Israeli cinema brings a new, feminist and un- common discourse, just like female directors movies in other cultures. The research also examines which gendered, social and political identities or statements do the Arab female directors reveal in their works, and what do they say about their real life? In order to get answers to the previous questions, the paper conducts a narrative comparative research between movies that was directed by female and male Arab-Israeli directors. The narrative research examines specific categories in each movie such as: main topic, women role, women appearance and women characteristics. The findings show that a new discourse replaces the political-masculine traditional discourse in the Palestinian cinema. Female Arab directors in Israel leave aside the main theme in Palestinian movies: the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and replace it with new themes related to women lives and reality. Women in female directors movies are presented within non-traditional, empowering, and feminist identities: independent, strong, and active women.

Keywords: feminism, gender, women presentation, women roles

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68 Vfx-Creativity or Cost Cutting Study of the Use of Vfx in Hindi Cinema

Authors: Nidhi Patel, Amol Shinde, Amrin Moger

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Mainstream Hindi cinema also known as Bollywood, is the largest film producing industry in India. The Indian film industry underwent a sea change since last few years. The industry adapted to the latest technologies and creative manpower to improve visual and cinematic effects. The changes helped the industry to improve its creative looks and ease on production budget. The research focuses on this very change, i.e. the use of VFX. There has been growing use of VFX in feature films. The primary focus is on how VFX can make a difference in the experience of watching a movie. The research examines the use of CGI/VFX in the narrative, which delivers a visually fulfilling film. It also focuses on the use of CGI/ VFX as a cost cutting tool. The research was exploratory in nature. It studies the industry’s evolvement, increment in its use by filmmakers and their intention to use it in their films. The researcher used qualitative method for data collection as an in-depth interview of 10 artists from VFX studios in Mumbai was conducted. The finding reveals the way VFX is used in Hindi cinema by the directors. The researcher learnt that VFX is majorly used as a tool to enhance creativity and provide the audience with creative viewing experience.

Keywords: Bollywood, Hindi cinema, VFX, CGI, technology, creativity, cost cutting

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67 Locating the Davao Film Culture: An Exploration of the Relationship of Geography and the Cinema of a Regional City Center

Authors: Sarah Isabelle Torres

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Using Lefebvre’s (1991) Spatial Triad, this study explores the relationship of geography and cinema and asks the question: how does geography shape the film culture of a regional city center located at the periphery of a country’s capital? This research aims to locate the contemporary film scene of the city in question, Davao City, Mindanao through contextualizing the politics and culture of its tri-people. This study shows that primarily because of local filmmakers' affection and sense of place, progressive films focusing on the tri-people and their struggles mainly due to issues on land have been born. To further understand the city’s film culture, this study maps the following areas: 1) filmmakers and cineastes, 2) films, 3) film festivals, 4) financial stakeholders, 5) institutions, and 6) screening places. From these, the researcher learned that although the local film community has established itself for decades, problems on audience, funding, and institutional support continue to persist. Aside from mapping, this study also explores Davao’s political, economic, and cultural position within the regional and the national arenas.

Keywords: cinema studies, Davao City, film culture, geography, Philippines, place, regional cinema, space

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66 Projection of Health Issues in Contemporary Indian Cinema: A Study on Selected Bollywood Movies

Authors: Sananda Mukherjee, Nandini Lakshmikantha

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Films are considered as the most influential form of mass media. To attract audience films are made on various themes and issues which are assumed to have an impact on the behavioural pattern of the society. Among the various issues that have been bothering Indian society, health is primary. Thus it is important and interesting to study how health is being projected in Bollywood which is largely considered by the world as Indian cinema. This study tries to focus its attention on some select popular movies made in the recent decade and will try to analyse its content and significance of the same with the contemporary Indian society. It is evident that some of the movies made projecting health issues have earned good box office revenues, but have they been successful in making the public understand the significance of health issues they have been trying to project, is an interesting area to understand.

Keywords: box office, health issues, Indian cinema, social awareness

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65 From Script to Film: The Fading Voice of the Screenwriter

Authors: Ana Sofia Torres Pereira

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On January 15th 2015, Peter Bart, editor in chief of Variety Magazine, published an article in the aforementioned magazine posing the following question “Are screenwriters becoming obsolete in Hollywood?” Is Hollywood loosing its interest in well plotted, well written scripts crafted by professionals? That screenwriters have been undervalued, forgotten and left behind since the begging of film, is a well-known fact, but ate they now at the brink of extinction? If fiction films are about people, stories, so, simply put, all about the script, what does it mean to say that the screenwriter is becoming obsolete? What will be the consequences of the possible death of the screenwriter for the cinema world? All of these questions lead us to an ultimate one: What is the true importance of a screenwriter? What can a screenwriter do that a director, for instance, can’t? How should a script be written and read in order not to become obsolete? And what about those countries, like Portugal, for example, in which the figure of the screenwriter is yet to be heard and known? How can screenwriters find their voice in a world driven by the tyrannical voice of the Director? In a demanding cinema world where the Director is considered the author of a film, it’s important to know where we can find the voice of the screenwriter, the true language of the screenplay and the importance this voice and specific language might have for the future of story telling and of film. In a paper that admittedly poses more questions than answers, I will try to unveil the importance a screenplay might have in Hollywood, in Portugal and in the cinema and communication world in general.

Keywords: cinema, communication, director, language, screenplay, screenwriting, story

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64 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

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In this paper, subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, 'meta-diegetic' sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which 'mimic' those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: oneiric, ASC, film, sound

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63 New Trends in Pakistani Cinema: Muslim Women, Cinematic Struggle and the Global World

Authors: Sana Zia

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One of the most important questions for research on Muslim women's representation is the relationship between Islam and women’s situation in Islamic countries. In this context, certain questions can be raised like is it possible to analyze women’s situation in Islamic countries like Pakistan? Or what is the relationship between Islam and patriarchy? So this paper will examine all these questions by analysing Muslim women's representation in Pakistani Cinema. It is also significant to note that despite political and religious constraints in Muslim countries, in particular, Pakistan, women have not only been part of the film industry for long, but they also have chosen films as their feminist tool to question and expose the effects of patriarchy, religious fundamentalism, and gender-specific socio-cultural oppression. The religious-cultural ethos that could include gender-specific restrictions and limitations on their creative expression as Muslim women in an Islamic society. A new wave of Pakistani cinema is pivoting around strong Muslim female characters and opened up a new thought about Islamic women.Their contributions and success through this medium emphasized the need to investigate the significance and effectiveness of contemporary cinema as a tool of resistance and cross-cultural communication in a Muslim society. So this research can also provide a better understanding about Islam that needs to be modernized and reclaimed from the clutches of fundamentalism and extremism. This paper thus investigates the interrelation of women's representation and Pakistani cinema by analysing two films ‘Bol: To speak up’ and ‘Dukhter: Daughter’. The feminist analysis of these films not only helps to understand the new trends and dimensions in representation of Muslim women in Pakistani cinema, but this also helps to raise awareness globally regarding the depiction of Muslim women. So to foreground the above mentioned discussion, the films under study helps to evaluate their significance, the role they play towards activism, resistance, and global awareness in terms of what could be termed as a Muslim woman. The paper thus provides a valuable insight that how and why Islam is being used as a mechanism to merge social, political and economic factors to define the rights and conditions of Pakistani Muslim women and highlight the cinematic struggle of the film maker’s which by using films as an awareness tool are going to highlight the problems and issues of Muslim women in the global world.

Keywords: Muslim women, Pakistani cinema, patriarchy, religious fundamentalism

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62 Accuracy and Depiction of Mental Illness-Popular Cinema

Authors: Ankur Kapur, Moosath Vasudevan

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This movie review looks at the depiction of mental illness in popular cinema, using the movie A Beautiful Mind as a case study. It tries to understand cinema and media from a clinical psychology perspective in terms of the portrayal of symptoms and caregiver support. The review aims to analyze the portrayal of schizophrenia in the book and the movie ‘A Beautiful Mind’ on Professor John Nash. It will analyze the differences in portrayal of schizophrenia, under different media and the creative applications of the author, directors and actors in depicting the disorder as closely as it is understood in Clinical Psychology. The differences would be studied for romanticisation of symptoms in the book and the movie. Even within a medium (only the movie), verbal and non-verbal cues of the disorder will be compared for the depiction of schizophrenia. The study will dwell on the comparative description of how the caregivers coped with the patient and his illness. For this, the study will understand it through the lens of Bowen’s Family Systems Theory.

Keywords: caregiver, communication, media, systems theory

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61 Global Dimensions of Shakespearean Cinema: A Study of Shakespearean Presence around the Globe

Authors: Rupali Chaudhary

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Shakespeare has been widely revisited by dramatists, critics, filmmakers and scholars around the globe. Shakespeare's kaleidoscopic work has been borrowed and redesigned into resonant patterns by artists, thus weaving myriad manifestations to pick from. Along with adaptation into wholly verbal medium (e.g., translations) the practice of indigenization through performing arts has played a great role in amplifying the reach of plays. The proliferation of Shakespeare's oeuvre commenced with the spread of colonialism itself. The plays illustrating the core values of Western tradition were introduced in the colonies. Therefore, the colonial domination extended to cultural domination. The plays were translated and adapted by the locals at times as it is and sometimes intermingled with the altered landscape and culture. The present paper discusses the global dimensions of Shakespearean cinema along with the historical cinematic shift from silent era to spoken dialogue in multiple languages. The methodology followed is descriptive in nature, and related information is availed from related literature, i.e., books, research articles and films. America and Europe dominated the silent era Shakespearean film production, thereby giving the term 'global' a less broad meaning. Five nations that dominated silent Shakespearean cinema were the United States, England, Italy, France, and Germany. Gradually the work of the exemplary figure with artistic and literary greatness surpassed the boundaries of the colonies and became a global legacy. Presently apart from English speaking nations Shakespearean films have been shot or produced in many of non-Anglophone locales. The findings indicate that when discussing about global dimensions of Shakespearean cinema various factors can be considered: involvement of actors and directors of foreign origin, transportability and universal comprehensibility of visual imagery across geographical borders, commodification of art or West's use of it as a tool of cultural hegemony or promotion of international amity, propagation of interculturalism through individual director's cultural translations and localization of Western art. Understanding of Shakespeare as a global export also depends on how an individual Shakespearean film works. Shakespeare's global appeal for cinema does not reside alone in his exquisite writings, distinctive characters, the setting, the story and the plots that have nurtured cinema since the medium's formative years. Shakespeare's global cinematic appeal is present in the spirit of cinema itself, i.e., the moving images capturing human behaviour and emotions that the plays invoke in audiences.

Keywords: adaptation, global dimensions, Shakespeare, Shakespearean cinema

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60 Re-Presenting the Egyptian Informal Urbanism in Films between 1994 and 2014

Authors: R. Mofeed, N. Elgendy

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Cinema constructs mind-spaces that reflect inherent human thoughts and emotions. As a representational art, Cinema would introduce comprehensive images of life phenomena in different ways. The term “represent” suggests verity of meanings; bring into presence, replace or typify. In that sense, Cinema may present a phenomenon through direct embodiment, or introduce a substitute image that replaces the original phenomena, or typify it by relating the produced image to a more general category through a process of abstraction. This research is interested in questioning the type of images that Egyptian Cinema introduces to informal urbanism and how these images were conditioned and reshaped in the last twenty years. The informalities/slums phenomenon first appeared in Egypt and, particularly, Cairo in the early sixties, however, this phenomenon was completely ignored by the state and society until the eighties, and furthermore, its evident representation in Cinema was by the mid-nineties. The Informal City represents the illegal housing developments, and it is a fast growing form of urbanization in Cairo. Yet, this expanding phenomenon is still depicted as the minority, exceptional and marginal through the Cinematic lenses. This paper aims at tracing the forms of representations of the urban informalities in the Egyptian Cinema between 1994 and 2014, and how did that affect the popular mind and its perception of these areas. The paper runs two main lines of inquiry; the first traces the phenomena through a chronological and geographical mapping of the informal urbanism has been portrayed in films. This analysis is based on an academic research work at Cairo University in Fall 2014. The visual tracing through maps and timelines allowed a reading of the phases of ignorance, presence, typifying and repetition in the representation of this huge sector of the city through more than 50 films that has been investigated. The analysis clearly revealed the “portrayed image” of informality by the Cinema through the examined period. However, the second part of the paper explores the “perceived image”. A designed questionnaire is applied to highlight the main features of that image that is perceived by both inhabitants of informalities and other Cairenes based on watching selected films. The questionnaire covers the different images of informalities proposed in the Cinema whether in a comic or a melodramatic background and highlight the descriptive terms used, to see which of them resonate with the mass perceptions and affected their mental images. The two images; “portrayed” and “perceived” are then to be encountered to reflect on issues of repetitions, stereotyping and reality. The formulated stereotype of informal urbanism is finally outlined and justified in relation to both production consumption mechanisms of films and the State official vision of informalities.

Keywords: cinema, informal urbanism, popular mind, representation

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59 History on the Screen: Nasser and the Biographical Film in Egyptian Cinema

Authors: Omar Khalifah

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The emergence of Muhammad Fadel’s 1996 film ‘Nasser 56’ ushered in a new era in Egyptian cinema. Not only was it the first biographical film of late Egyptian president Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser (1918-1970); it also broke a long-accepted taboo against cinematic depiction of modern political leaders. Passionately received by Egyptians and Arabs throughout the world, the success of ‘Nasser 56’ empowered other filmmakers to follow Fadel’s suit. Interestingly, the three biographical films that followed had, completely or partially, a Nasser dimension. In addition to another biographical film of Nasser, Anwar al-Qawadri’s ‘Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser’ (1999); Muhammad Khan’s ‘Ayyam al-Sadat (Days of Sadat)’ (2001), and Sherif Arafa’s ‘Halim (Halim)’ (2006) portray, as the titles clearly suggest, two significant figures whose lives thoroughly intersected with Nasser’s - Nasser’s successor Anwar al-Sadat and the legendary singer Abdel Halim Hafiz. Expectedly, therefore, Nasser himself is abundantly referenced in those films, albeit differently. This paper seeks to examine the ways in which Egyptian filmmakers impersonate Nasser on the screen. Starting with scholarly definitions of the biopic, the paper will first ponder the reasons that have made the biopic an unattractive genre to Egyptian filmmakers. It will then argue that the popularity of Nasser and his wide appeal to the public has transformed the status of the biopic genre in Egyptian cinema. However, the impersonation of Nasser in the four films above proved a daunting mission to filmmakers. As this paper will show, unless he is the main character, the reenactment of Nasser in films will constantly pose dilemmas to filmmakers, a few of which will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Ahmad Zaki, bio-pictures, Egyptian cinema, Nasser, Nasser 56

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58 Shameful Heroes of Queer Cinema: A Critique of Mumbai Police (2013) and My Life Partner (2014)

Authors: Payal Sudhan

Abstract:

Popular films in India, Bollywood, and other local industries make a range of commercial films that attract vast viewership. Love, Heroism, Action, Adventure, Revenge, etc., are some of the dearest themes chosen by many filmmakers of various popular film Industries across the world. However, sexuality has become an issue to address within the cinema. Such films feature in small numbers compared to other themes. One can easily assume that homosexuality is unlikely to be a favorite theme found in Indian popular cinema. It doesn’t mean that there is absolutely no film made on the issues of homosexuality. There have been several attempts. Earlier, some movies depicted homosexual (gay) characters as comedians, which continued until the beginning of the 21st century. The study aims to explore how modern homophobia and stereotype are represented in the films and how it affects homosexuality in the recent Malayalam Cinema. The study wills primarily focusing on Mumbai Police (2013) and My Life Partner (2014). The study tries to explain social space, the idea of a cure, and criminality. The film that has been selected for the analysis Mumbai Police (2013) is a crime thriller. The nonlinear narration of the movie reveals, towards the end, the murderer of ACP Aryan IPS, who was shot dead in a public meeting. In the end, the culprit is the enquiring officer, ACP Antony Moses, himself a close friend and colleague of the victim. Much to one’s curiosity, the primary cause turns out to be the sexual relation Antony has. My Life Partner generically can be classified as a drama. The movie puts forth male bonding and visibly riddles the notions of love and sex between Kiran and his roommate Richard. Running through the same track, the film deals with a different ‘event.’ The ‘event’ is the exclusive celebration of male bonding. The socio-cultural background of the cinema is heterosexual. The elements of heterosexual social setup meet the ends of diplomacy of the Malayalam queer visual culture. The film reveals the life of two gays who were humiliated by the larger heterosexual society. In the end, Kiran dies because of extreme humiliation. The paper is a comparative and cultural analysis of the two movies, My Life Partner and Mumbai Police. I try to bring all the points of comparison together and explain the similarities and differences, how one movie differs from another. Thus, my attempt here explains how stereotypes and homophobia with other related issues are represented in these two movies.

Keywords: queer cinema, homophobia, malayalam cinema, queer films

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57 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

Abstract:

The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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56 Cinematic Liberty vs. Offending Social, Religious Beliefs: With Special Reference to the Controversial Contents in Cinema and Print Media

Authors: Govind Ji Pandey

Abstract:

The divergent opinions in the society are important for its development but with reasonable restrictions. The world recently witnessed one of the most violent protests by a group against the editor and publisher of the magazine ‘Charlie Hebdo’ for publishing cartoon of their religious leader. The supporter of freedom of speech and expression around the world were in shock and termed it the strongest attack against the free speech. People all around the world condemned the killing of the journalists but many soft voices from several corners were also coming for reasonable restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression. Of late, Indian society has witnessed many protests and supports of films with controversial content. It is the beauty of the Indian democracy which gives an opportunity to all for discussion and debate on any issue that challenges established social norms. However, many organizations as well as individuals misuse it for their personal benefits. There have been many film directors who faced protest from several quarters for their controversial themes. This research aims at analyzing the controversial contents published in print media and shown in films. To understand the nature and frequency of such media reports, content analysis technique is used. The research also highlights the perception of the public regarding the controversies. For getting the popular opinion on the coverage of controversial content in cinema and print media, five hundred people from Lucknow, UP, India were randomly selected. The findings of this research are important to understand the response of media and society towards the controversial content presented in cinema and print media. The research highlights that how a handful of people curb free speech in a democratic country like India.

Keywords: cinema, censor board, free speech, liberty, social-religious beliefs

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55 Musicals in Film Adaptation in Bollywood with Special Reference to Basu Bhattacharya's Film Teesari Kasam

Authors: Gokul G. Kshirsagar

Abstract:

Native folk theatre and folk songs have a significant influence on the origin and development of Indian cinema. Therefore, the presence of songs and music has been an integral part and special characteristics of Indian cinema which is popularly known as Bollywood. An Indian cinema without songs, either in Hindi or other regional languages, is simply unimaginable. The present paper, in the first part, attempts to explain the use and need of musical songs and also the psychology of Indian audience in this respect with reference to some of the films which give primary importance to songs. In the second part, the paper tries to situate the present study in the context by referring to the Hindi language drama film Teesari Kasam directed by Basu Bhattacharys. The film is based on the Hindi novelist Phanishwarnath Renu’s short story Teesari Kasam (Mare Gaye Gulfam) in this adapted film, the director has made use of eight songs, but these songs are the extensive versions of the songs as used in the original story. Thus, the main aim of the paper is to underscore the fact that through artistic use of the musical, the director has succeeded in transforming the central feelings conveyed in the original story. Eventually, through the present study of the film adaptation, the relevance of songs in films will be illustrated and understood.

Keywords: Bollywood, folk theatre, folk songs, film adaptation

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54 The Making of a Male: Narrative Analysis of the Protagonist in Cholera District

Authors: Behre O. Ozalp

Abstract:

Cinema is a reflection of the society, as much as it captures the social codes. These codes are learned within the society; and through movies these practices of the gender order are reproduced as well. One of the best examples engendering these codes is a modern classic of Turkish cinema, Cholera District (1997), originally Ağır Roman in Turkish. It is a coming of age movie of a teenage boy in an old neighborhood of Istanbul, where he learns to be a 'man' through the hegemonic masculinity codes of the society. The corporal and verbal practices that are used in the representation of the male protagonist's portrayal is based on his performativity. This paper, through narrative analysis of the aforementioned movie, reviews how gender and narrative are intertwined within the context of queer theory. The methodology follows the protagonist's object of desire while evaluating his heterosexuality which requires affirmative performances. The framework of the study firstly focuses on the protagonist's own life and his interactions with the males of his kinship. Later, the focus gravitates towards his interactions with the female object of desire while evaluating how this relationship shapes his status in society. Lastly, the study focuses on the relationship between the protagonist and non-relative males of the neighborhood. The journey of a young male becoming a man by copying the other males delivers a clear representation of how heterosexuality is favored in terms of gender order.

Keywords: hegemonic masculinity, performativity, queer theory, Turkish cinema

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53 An Exploration of Early Cinematic Technology (1890s-1920s) and Shifting Cinematic Styles

Authors: Adam L. Miller

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The aim of this paper is to look back to the very beginning of cinematic history and explore the connection between the differing technology used, and the varying styles adopted by early filmmakers. The paper will be structured chronologically, first looking at the advances that predated Thomas Edison and his Kinetograph and Kinetogram. This paper will then explore how Edison’s technology and films varied from the Lumiere brothers and their Cinematograph. Finally, the paper will go on to draw parallels and differences between French filmmakers such as Alice Guy and George Melies, and American filmmakers like Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith.

Keywords: film studies, early cinema, silent cinema, early cinematic technology, Thomas Edison, Alice Guy, George Melies, Edwin S. Porter, Lumiere brothers, D. W. Griffith

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52 Dying and Sexuality − Controversial Motive in Contemporary Cinema

Authors: Małgorzata Jakubowska, Monika Michałowska

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Since the beginning of the cinematographic industry, there has been a visible interest in two leading themes: death and sexuality. One of the reasons of the unfading popularity of these motives was the fact that death or sex employed as leitmotivs attracted great attention of the viewers, and this guaranteed a financial success. What seems interesting is the fact that the themes of death and sexuality/eroticism seem to be mutually exclusive in the mainstream movies to such extent that they almost never appear together on the screen. As leitmotivs they describe opposite experiences of human life, one refers to affirmation of life, the other points to atrophy and decay. This film paradigm is rarely challenged. Thus, a relatively less attention has been devoted so far to entwining dying and sexuality/eroticism in one movie. In our paper, we wish to have a closer look at the visualizations of dying with focus on the aspect of sexuality/eroticism. Our analysis will concentrate on the contemporary European and American cinema, and especially the recent productions that contribute to the cultural phenomenon of entwining the two realms of human life. We will investigate the main clichés, plot and visual schemes, motives and narrative techniques on the examples of Sweet November (2001), A Little Bit of Heaven (2011) and Now is good (2012). We will also shed some light on the recent film productions that seem to provide a shift in portraying the realms of dying and sexuality concentrating on The Garden of Earthly Delights (2003) as the most paradigmatic example.

Keywords: contemporary cinema, dying and sexuality, narrative techniques, plot and visual schemes

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51 Historical Memory and Social Representation of Violence in Latin American Cinema: A Cultural Criminology Approach

Authors: Maylen Villamanan Alba

Abstract:

Latin America is marked by its history: conquest, colonialism, and slavery left deep footprints in most Latin American countries. Also, the past century has been affected by wars, military dictatorships, and political violence, which profoundly influenced Latin American popular culture. Consequently, reminiscences of historical crimes are frequently present in daily life, media, public opinion, and arts. This legacy is remembered in novels, paintings, songs, and films. In fact, Latin American cinema has a trend which refers to the verisimilitude with reality in fiction films. These films about historical violence are narrated as fictional characters, but their stories are based on real historical contexts. Therefore, cultural criminology has considered films as a significant field to understand social representations of violence related to historical crimes. The aim of the present contribution is to analyze the legacy of past and historical memory in social representations of violence in Latin American cinema as a critical approach to historical crimes. This qualitative research is based on content analysis. The sample is seven multi-award winning films of the International Festival of New Latin American Cinema of Havana. The films selected are Kamchatka, Argentina (2002); Carandiru, Brazil (2003); Enlightened by fire, Argentina (2005); Post-mortem, Chile (2010); No, Chile (2012) Wakolda; Argentina (2013) and The Clan, Argentina (2015). Cultural criminology highlights that cinema shapes meanings of social practices such as historical crimes. Critical criminology offers a critical theory framework to interpret Latin American cinema. This analysis reveals historical conditions deeply associated with power relationships, policy, and inequality issues. As indicated by this theory, violence is characterized as a structural process based on social asymmetries. These social asymmetries are crossed by social scopes, including institutional and personal dimensions. Thus, institutions of the states are depicted through personal stories of characters involved with human conflicts. Intimacy and social background are linked in the personages who simultaneously perform roles such as soldiers, policemen, professionals or inmates and they are at the same time depict as human beings with family, gender, racial, ideological or generational issues. Social representations of violence related to past legacy are a portrait of historical crimes perpetrated against Latin American citizens. Thereby, they have contributed to political positions, social behaviors, and public opinion. The legacy of these historical crimes suggests a path that should never be taken again. It means past legacy is a reminder, a warning, and a historic lesson for Latin American people. Social representations of violence are permeated by historical memory as denunciation under a critical approach.

Keywords: Latin American cinema, historical memory, social representation, violence

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50 Hindi Cinema in a Post-Colonial India: A Study on Guru Dutt's Self-Expression in 'Pyasa'

Authors: Mrunmayee Das

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the film 'Pyasa' directed by actor-director Guru Dutt, filmed during the 1950’s golden age of Hindi cinema. 'Pyasa' was filmed after a decade of India being a new nation and narrates the world-view of a poet dressed in western ideals, tasting modernity, uprooted from his familial and social moorings causing friction of being between survival and self- expression. The research is based on literature review to study the attitudes, particularly the post-colonial, informing the film. In terms of the structure, the relational study of the film and the historical background of that time came first. Further explorations deal with the use of image making, dialogue, and poetry in the form of songs facilitating the central theme of the human plight of poverty, not of material but of thought. The literature review establishes Dutt’s style of expressing melodic melodrama through a dance between light and shadow majorly in the form of song sequences signifying the greys of the society. It was found in this research that melodrama is created by the changing contrasts and use of close-ups. The song sequences convey the tensions of being a contemporary liberal educated youth and having to deal with the societal-ills of this world, which highlights the theme of compulsion towards self-destruction. It is concluded that Dutt’s 'Pyasa' is a autobiographical commentary on the state of a nation doing away with a borrowed identity and refashioning its own.

Keywords: cinema, Guru Dutt, post-colonial India, self-expression

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