Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Shabnam Dadparvar

20 Western Culture Differences and the Contradictions in the Islamic World

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod

Abstract:

Regarding the issues that are currently happening in the world, more than any other time the differences between West and Islam is under discussion. The cultural relations between Islam and the West took a drastically new turn when Europe arose as the dominant and unchallenged force of the modern era. The author, by using descriptive- analytical method, tries to analyse one of the most controversial questions facing analysts of relations between the Islamic world and the West: What are the roots of the conflict? This paper addresses the history of the intellectual tradition of the West and the attitude of Muslim world regarding the rise of western modernity. Also, the differences between two groups on philosophical foundations such as religion, power, science and humanism will be explained. The author believes that the real difference between the West and Islam is epistemological.

Keywords: civilization, culture, Islam, West

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19 Terrorism: Definition, History and Different Approaches in the Analysis of Terrorism Phenomenon

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod

Abstract:

Nowadays, the political phenomenon of terrorism is considered as an effective factor on political, social, and economic changes. It has replaced the recognized political phenomena such as revolutions, wars (total war among two or more political units with distinct identities in the form of national states), coups d’état, insurgencies and etc. and has challenged political life in all its levels (sub national, national, and international political groups). In this paper by using descriptive-analytical method, the authors try to explain the spread of this political phenomenon across the world, its definition and types, also analyze different approaches to understand it. The authors believe that the Logical-Rational approach is the best way to explain and understand this phenomenon.

Keywords: logical approach, psychological- social approach, religious approach, terrorism

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18 Ties of China and the United States Regarding to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the Basis of Soft Power Theory

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

After a period of conflict between Russia and the West, new signs of confrontation between the United States and China are observed. China, as the most populous country in the world with a high rate of economic growth, neither stands the hegemonic power of the United States nor has the intention of direct confrontation with it. By raising the costs of the United States’ leadership at the international level, China seeks to find a better status without direct confrontation with the US. Meanwhile, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), as a soft balancing strategy against the hegemony of the United States is used as a tool to reach this goal. The authors by using a descriptive-analytical method try to explain the policies of China and the United States on Shanghai Cooperation Organization as well as confrontation between these two countries within the framework of 'balance of soft power theory'.

Keywords: balance of soft power, Central Asia, Shanghai cooperation organization, terrorism

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17 A General Overview on Izadis Children's Right Situation in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, children are one of the biggest assets of any society and it is the duty of all officials to have a systematic plan to educate the next generation and make a better life for children so that they can progress and be effective for their communities. In an effort, Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has adopted standards to improve the condition for Izadis children; however, there are challenges that remain; such as: Izadis child abuse, Izadis child labor, Izadis children right’s law, orphans, Izadis street children and etc. In this paper, by a descriptive-analytical method the authors try to discuss the general situation of Izadis children in today s Iraqi Kurdistan and the issues such as drug abuse, Izadis child labor, orphans and Izadis street children. The questions are: How is the situation of Izadis children in Iraqi Kurdistan and what are their challenges? Also, what is the KRG’s strategy and through which ways, they can make a better life for minority children and change their current status? The authors believe that nowadays, the KRG is trying to crack down on problems against Izadis children; however, their effort is not adequate and some other activities should be performed; one of which is passing the Izadis children s law against violence.

Keywords: children right, Iraqi Kurdistan, Izadis children, Kurdistan Regional Government

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16 China's Middle East Policy and the Competition with the United States

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on China’s policy in the Middle East and the rivalry with the U.S. The question is that what are the main factors on China’s Middle East policy and its competition with the U.S? The hypothesis regards to three effective factors: 'China’s energy dependency' on the Middle East, 'economy' and support for 'stability' in the Middle East. What is important in China’s competition with the U.S regarding to its Middle East policy is the substantial difference in ways of treating the countries of the region; China is committed to Westphalia model based on non-interference in internal affairs of the countries and respect the sovereignty of the governments. However, after 9/11, the U.S is seeking a balance between stability and change through intervention in the international affairs and in some cases is looking for a regime change. From the other hand, China, due to its dependency on the region’s energy welcomes America’s military presence in the region for providing stability. The authors by using a descriptive analytical method try to explain the situation of rivalry between China and the United States in Middle East. China is an 'emerging power' with high economic growth and in demand of more energy supply. The problem is that a rising power in the region is often a source of concern for hegemony.

Keywords: China's foreign policy, energy, hegemony, the Middle East

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15 Capability of Intelligent Techniques for Friction Factor Simulation in Water Channels

Authors: Kiyoumars Roushangar, Shabnam Mirheidarian

Abstract:

This study proposes metamodel approaches as a new intelligent technique for the explicit formulation of friction factors of water conveyance structures. For this purpose, experimental data of a movable bed flume with dune bed form were used. Analyzing the result clears the high capability of metamodel approaches (MNE= 0.05, R= 0.92) as a powerful tool for optimizing and explicit simulation of Manning's roughness coefficients of water conveyance structures compared to other nonlinear approaches.

Keywords: intelligent techniques, explicit simulation, roughness coefficient, water conveyance structure

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14 The Effect of Fe₂O₃ and Sum of Alkalis Elements on Monocotora Tile

Authors: Fatemeh Ansarniya, Fatemeh Mirjalili, Hamid Reza Abedini, Shabnam Salari, M. Horasht

Abstract:

The study of this research is the effect of using Fe₂O₃ and sum of alkalis elements in the floor tile production. At first, raw materials of floor tile with the same formulation of original sample was prepared and sintered for 39 minutes at 1130˚C in roller kiln and finally, physical properties of the sintered bodies based on floor tile standard process was investigated. The results showed that there was the possibility of production of floor tile containing different percentages of Fe₂O₃ and sum of Na₂O+ K₂O. With increasing the Fe₂O₃ and sum of Na₂O+ K₂O elements, the percentages of water absorption and raw, dry and sintered strengths were decreased, but the percentages of shrinkage were increased which caused the decreasing the percentages of expansion.

Keywords: floor tile, physical properties, Na2O+ K2O, Fe2O3

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13 Design Fractional-Order Terminal Sliding Mode Control for Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Uncertainty and External Disturbances

Authors: Shabnam Pashaei, Mohammadali Badamchizadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a new fractional-order terminal sliding mode control for synchronization of two different fractional-order chaotic systems with uncertainty and external disturbances. A fractional-order integral type nonlinear switching surface is presented. Then, using the Lyapunov stability theory and sliding mode theory, a fractional-order control law is designed to synchronize two different fractional-order chaotic systems. Finally, a simulation example is presented to illustrate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. Based on numerical results, the proposed controller ensures that the states of the controlled fractional-order chaotic response system are asymptotically synchronized with the states of the drive system.

Keywords: terminal sliding mode control, fractional-order calculus, chaotic systems, synchronization

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12 Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence

Authors: Shabnam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to see importance of successful intelligence in education which can enhance achievement. There are a number of researches which have tried to apply psychological theories of education and many researches emphasized the role of thinking and intelligence. While going through the various researches, it was found that many students could learn more effectively than they do, if they were taught in a way that better matched their patterns of abilities. Attempts to apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation of the theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program does not succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A set of basic principles for translating a theory into practice can help clarify just what an educational implementation should (and should not) look like. Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence; analytical, creative and practical intelligence provides a way to create such a match. The results suggest that theory of successful intelligence provides successful interventions in classrooms and provides a proven model for gifted education. This article presents principles for translating a triarchic theory of successful intelligence into educational practice.

Keywords: successful intelligence, analytical, creative and practical intelligence, achievement, success, resilience

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11 Workaholism: A Study of Iranian Journalists at Gender, Career, and Educational Diversity

Authors: Minavand Mohammad, Maghsoudi Masoud, Mousavi Mahdis, Vahed Zahra, Hamidi Shabnam

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While workaholism in organizations has received considerable popular attention, our understanding of it on the basis of research proof is limited. This comes from the deficiency of both appropriate definitions and measures of the concept. The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender, career and educational diversity in three workaholism components among Iranian journalists. Data were collected from 243 journalists (110 men and 133 women) using nameless completed questionnaires, with a 48 percent response rate. No gender differences found between male and female respondents, so there seems no consistency with previous findings. Furthermore, the results showed that different levels of jobs and education score correspondingly on the measures of work involvement, feeling driven to work and work enjoyment. All data are gathered using self report questionnaires. It is not evident the extent to which these findings would generalize to men and women in other vocations. This investigation has a contribution to the small but growing literature on flow and optimal experience in media organizations in Iran.

Keywords: gender, career, education, workaholism, Iranian journalists, work involvement, work enjoyment, feeling driven to work

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10 International Student Recruitment in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of the Countries in the Middle East

Authors: Ali Arabkheradmand, Enayat A. Shabani, Shabnam Ranjbar Nikkhoo

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Historical and ancestral bonds of the countries in the Middle East have led to similarities in culture and context of their societies. In addition, economic resources, such as the oil industry, have generally been an integrative point in the region. Higher education of a country is influenced by different national and international factors and regarding the mentioned bonds, it is inviting to study the development of the countries of the Middle East in higher education and draw some practical implications which can be used in the educational policy-making of the region. This review includes a data analysis on the population of international students in the countries of the Middle East. As its second objective, a review study on the successful countries, that is those which host the highest number of international students and the strategies they have developed to reach this state among the countries of the region has been conducted. Suggestions are made as to the strategies in higher education systems of these countries which could prove useful and practical in the development of internationalization of higher education in the region, specifically with regard to the recruitment of international students.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, international student recruitment, Middle East countries, educational policy making

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9 5-[Aryloxypyridyl (or Nitrophenyl)]-4H-1,2,4-Triazoles as Flexible Benzodiazepine Analogs: Synthesis, Receptor Binding Affinity and the Lipophilicity-Dependent Anti-Seizure Onset of Action

Authors: Latifeh Navidpour, Shabnam Shabani, Alireza Heidari, Manouchehr Bashiri, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi, Soraya Shahhosseini, Hamed Shafaroodi, Sayyed Abbas Tabatabai, Mahsa Toolabi

Abstract:

A new series of 5-(2-aryloxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazoles and 5-(2-aryloxy-3-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazoles, possessing C-3 thio or alkylthio substituents, was synthesized and evaluated for their benzodiazepine receptor affinity and anti-seizure activity. These analogues revealed similar to significantly superior affinity to GABAA/ benzodiazepine receptor complex (IC50 values of 0.04–4.1 nM), relative to diazepam as the reference drug (IC50 value of 2.4 nM). To determine the onset of anti-seizure activity, the time-dependent effectiveness of i.p. administration of compounds on pentylenetetrazole induced seizure threshold was studied and a very good relationship was observed between the lipophilicity (cLogP) and onset of action of studied analogues (r2 = 0.964). The minimum effective dose of the compounds, determined at the time the analogues showed their highest activity, was demonstrated to be 0.025–0.1 mg/kg, relative to diazepam (0.025 mg/kg).

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazole, flexible benzodiazepines, GABAA/bezodiazepine receptor complex, onset of action, PTZ induced seizure threshold

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8 The Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Loaded with Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on in vitro Rooting of Apple Microcuttings

Authors: Shabnam Alizadeh, Hatice Dumanoglu

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture is a substantial plant propagation technique for mass clonal production throughout the year, regardless of time in fruit species. However, the rooting achievement must be enhanced in the difficult-to-root genotypes. Classical auxin applications in clonal propagation of these genotypes are inadequate to solve the rooting problem. Nanoparticles having different physical and chemical properties from bulk material could enhance the rooting success of controlled release of these substances when loaded with auxin due to their ability to reach the active substance up to the target cells as a carrier system.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA-nZnO) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA-nZnO) on in vitro rooting of microcuttings in a difficult-to-root apple genotype (Malus domestica Borkh.). Rooting treatments consisted of IBA or IAA at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/L; nZnO, IAA-nZnO and IBA-nZnO at doses of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 mg/L were used. All components were added to the Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium at strength ½ with 2% sucrose and 0.7% agar before autoclaving. In the study, no rooting occurred in control and nZnO applications. Especially, 1.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L IBA-nZnO nanoparticle applications (containing 0.5 mg/L and 0.9 mg/L IBA), respectively with rooting rates of 40.3% and 70.4%, rooting levels of 2.0±0.4 and 2.3±0.4, 2.6±0.7 and 2.5±0.6 average root numbers and 20.4±1.6 mm and 20.2±3.4 mm average root lengths put forward as effective applications.

Keywords: Auxin, Malus, nanotechnology, zinc oxide nanoparticles

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7 Cascade Screening for Beta-Thalassemia in Pakistan: Relatives’ Experiences of a Decision Support Intervention in Routine Practice

Authors: Shenaz Ahmed, Hussain Jafri, Muhammed Faran, Wajeeha Naseer Ahmed, Yasmin Rashid, Yasmin Ehsan, Shabnam Bashir, Mushtaq Ahmed

Abstract:

Low uptake of cascade screening for βeta-Thalassaemia Major (β-TM) in the ‘Punjab Thalassaemia Prevention Project’ (PTPP) in Pakistan led to the development of a ‘decision support intervention for relatives’ (DeSIRe). This paper presents the experiences of relatives of children with β-TM of the DeSIRe following its use by PTPP field officers in routine clinical practice. Fifty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted (April to June 2021) with relatives in seven cities in the Punjab province (Lahore, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahab, Kasur, Gujranwala, Multan, and Faisalabad). Thematic analysis shows that participants were satisfied with the content of the DeSIRe and its delivery by the field officers in a family meeting. They understood the main purpose of the DeSIRe was to improve their knowledge of β-TM and its inheritance, to enable them to make decisions about thalassemia carrier testing, particularly before marriage. While participants raised concerns about the stigma of testing positive, they believed the DeSIRe was an appropriate intervention, which supported relatives to make informed decisions. Our findings show the DeSIRe is appropriate for use by healthcare professionals in routine practice in a low-middle income country and has the potential to facilitate shared decision-making about cascade screening for thalassemia. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of the DeSIRe.

Keywords: thalassemia, Pakistan, cascade screening, decision support

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6 A Review of Protocols and Guidelines Addressing the Exposure of Occupants to Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Radiation in Buildings

Authors: Shabnam Monadizadeh, Charles Kibert, Jiaxuan Li, Janghoon Woo, Ashish Asutosh, Samira Roostaei, Maryam Kouhirostami

Abstract:

A significant share of the technology that has emerged over the past several decades produces electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation. Communications devices, household appliances, industrial equipment, and medical devices all produce EMF radiation with a variety of frequencies, strengths, and ranges. Some EMF radiation, such as Extremely Low Frequency (ELF), Radio Frequency (RF), and the ionizing range have been shown to have harmful effects on human health. Depending on the frequency and strength of the radiation, EMF radiation can have health effects at the cellular level as well as at brain, nervous, and cardiovascular levels. Health authorities have enacted regulations locally and globally to set critical values to limit the adverse effects of EMF radiation. By introducing a more comprehensive field of EMF radiation study and practice, architects and designers can design for a safer electromagnetic (EM) indoor environment, and, as building and construction specialists, will be able to monitor and reduce EM radiation. This paper identifies the nature of EMF radiation in the built environment, the various EMF radiation sources, and its human health effects. It addresses European and US regulations for EMF radiation in buildings and provides a preliminary action plan. The challenges of developing measurement protocols for the various EMF radiation frequency ranges and determining the effects of EMF radiation on building occupants are discussed. This paper argues that a mature method for measuring EMF radiation in building environments and linking these measurements to human health impacts occupant health should be developed to provide adequate safeguards for human occupants of buildings for future research.

Keywords: biological affection, electromagnetic field, building regulation, human health, healthy building, clean construction

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5 CFD Analysis of the Blood Flow in Left Coronary Bifurcation with Variable Angulation

Authors: Midiya Khademi, Ali Nikoo, Shabnam Rahimnezhad Baghche Jooghi

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death globally. Most CVDs can be prevented by avoiding habitual risk factors. Separate from the habitual risk factors, there are some inherent factors in each individual that can increase the risk potential of CVDs. Vessel shapes and geometry are influential factors, having great impact on the blood flow and the hemodynamic behavior of the vessels. In the present study, the influence of bifurcation angle on blood flow characteristics is studied. In order to approach this topic, by simplifying the details of the bifurcation, three models with angles 30°, 45°, and 60° were created, then by using CFD analysis, the response of these models for stable flow and pulsatile flow was studied. In the conducted simulation in order to eliminate the influence of other geometrical factors, only the angle of the bifurcation was changed and other parameters remained constant during the research. Simulations are conducted under dynamic and stable condition. In the stable flow simulation, a steady velocity of 0.17 m/s at the inlet plug was maintained and in dynamic simulations, a typical LAD flow waveform is implemented. The results show that the bifurcation angle has an influence on the maximum speed of the flow. In the stable flow condition, increasing the angle lead to decrease the maximum flow velocity. In the dynamic flow simulations, increasing the bifurcation angle lead to an increase in the maximum velocity. Since blood flow has pulsatile characteristics, using a uniform velocity during the simulations can lead to a discrepancy between the actual results and the calculated results.

Keywords: coronary artery, cardiovascular disease, bifurcation, atherosclerosis, CFD, artery wall shear stress

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4 Flood Mapping Using Height above the Nearest Drainage Model: A Case Study in Fredericton, NB, Canada

Authors: Morteza Esfandiari, Shabnam Jabari, Heather MacGrath, David Coleman

Abstract:

Flood is a severe issue in different places in the world as well as the city of Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. The downtown area of Fredericton is close to the Saint John River, which is susceptible to flood around May every year. Recently, the frequency of flooding seems to be increased, especially after the fact that the downtown area and surrounding urban/agricultural lands got flooded in two consecutive years in 2018 and 2019. In order to have an explicit vision of flood span and damage to affected areas, it is necessary to use either flood inundation modelling or satellite data. Due to contingent availability and weather dependency of optical satellites, and limited existing data for the high cost of hydrodynamic models, it is not always feasible to rely on these sources of data to generate quality flood maps after or during the catastrophe. Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), a state-of-the-art topo-hydrological index, normalizes the height of a basin based on the relative elevation along with the stream network and specifies the gravitational or the relative drainage potential of an area. HAND is a relative height difference between the stream network and each cell on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The stream layer is provided through a multi-step, time-consuming process which does not always result in an optimal representation of the river centerline depending on the topographic complexity of that region. HAND is used in numerous case studies with quite acceptable and sometimes unexpected results because of natural and human-made features on the surface of the earth. Some of these features might cause a disturbance in the generated model, and consequently, the model might not be able to predict the flow simulation accurately. We propose to include a previously existing stream layer generated by the province of New Brunswick and benefit from culvert maps to improve the water flow simulation and accordingly the accuracy of HAND model. By considering these parameters in our processing, we were able to increase the accuracy of the model from nearly 74% to almost 92%. The improved model can be used for generating highly accurate flood maps, which is necessary for future urban planning and flood damage estimation without any need for satellite imagery or hydrodynamic computations.

Keywords: HAND, DTM, rapid floodplain, simplified conceptual models

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3 Coupling Random Demand and Route Selection in the Transportation Network Design Problem

Authors: Shabnam Najafi, Metin Turkay

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Network design problem (NDP) is used to determine the set of optimal values for certain pre-specified decision variables such as capacity expansion of nodes and links by optimizing various system performance measures including safety, congestion, and accessibility. The designed transportation network should improve objective functions defined for the system by considering the route choice behaviors of network users at the same time. The NDP studies mostly investigated the random demand and route selection constraints separately due to computational challenges. In this work, we consider both random demand and route selection constraints simultaneously. This work presents a nonlinear stochastic model for land use and road network design problem to address the development of different functional zones in urban areas by considering both cost function and air pollution. This model minimizes cost function and air pollution simultaneously with random demand and stochastic route selection constraint that aims to optimize network performance via road capacity expansion. The Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) link impedance function is used to determine the travel time function in each link. We consider a city with origin and destination nodes which can be residential or employment or both. There are set of existing paths between origin-destination (O-D) pairs. Case of increasing employed population is analyzed to determine amount of roads and origin zones simultaneously. Minimizing travel and expansion cost of routes and origin zones in one side and minimizing CO emission in the other side is considered in this analysis at the same time. In this work demand between O-D pairs is random and also the network flow pattern is subject to stochastic user equilibrium, specifically logit route choice model. Considering both demand and route choice, random is more applicable to design urban network programs. Epsilon-constraint is one of the methods to solve both linear and nonlinear multi-objective problems. In this work epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. The problem was solved by keeping first objective (cost function) as the objective function of the problem and second objective as a constraint that should be less than an epsilon, where epsilon is an upper bound of the emission function. The value of epsilon should change from the worst to the best value of the emission function to generate the family of solutions representing Pareto set. A numerical example with 2 origin zones and 2 destination zones and 7 links is solved by GAMS and the set of Pareto points is obtained. There are 15 efficient solutions. According to these solutions as cost function value increases, emission function value decreases and vice versa.

Keywords: epsilon-constraint, multi-objective, network design, stochastic

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2 Ex-vivo Bio-distribution Studies of a Potential Lung Perfusion Agent

Authors: Shabnam Sarwar, Franck Lacoeuille, Nadia Withofs, Roland Hustinx

Abstract:

After the development of a potential surrogate of MAA, and its successful application for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in artificially embolized rats’ lungs, this microparticulate system were radiolabelled with gallium-68 to synthesize 68Ga-SBMP with high radiochemical purity >99%. As a prerequisite step of clinical trials, 68Ga- labelled starch based microparticles (SBMP) were analysed for their in-vivo behavior in small animals. The purpose of the presented work includes the ex-vivo biodistribution studies of 68Ga-SBMP in order to assess the activity uptake in target organs with respect to time, excretion pathways of the radiopharmaceutical, %ID/g in major organs, T/NT ratios, in-vivo stability of the radiotracer and subsequently the microparticles in the target organs. Radiolabelling of starch based microparticles was performed by incubating it with 68Ga generator eluate (430±26 MBq) at room temperature and pressure without using any harsh reaction condition. For Ex-vivo biodistribution studies healthy White Wistar rats weighing between 345-460 g were injected intravenously 68Ga-SBMP 20±8 MBq, containing about 2,00,000-6,00,000 SBMP particles in a volume of 700µL. The rats were euthanized at predefined time intervals (5min, 30min, 60min and 120min) and their organ parts were cut, washed, and put in the pre-weighed tubes and measured for radioactivity counts through automatic Gamma counter. The 68Ga-SBMP produced >99% RCP just after 10-20 min incubation through a simple and robust procedure. Biodistribution of 68Ga-SBMP showed that initially just after 5 min post injection major uptake was observed in the lungs following by blood, heart, liver, kidneys, bladder, urine, spleen, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin and skeleton, thymus and at last the smallest activity was found in brain. Radioactivity counts stayed stable in lungs with gradual decrease with the passage of time, and after 2h post injection, almost half of the activity were seen in lungs. This is a sufficient time to perform PET/CT lungs scanning in humans while activity in the liver, spleen, gut and urinary system decreased with time. The results showed that urinary system is the excretion pathways instead of hepatobiliary excretion. There was a high value of T/NT ratios which suggest fine tune images for PET/CT lung perfusion studies henceforth further pre-clinical studies and then clinical trials should be planned in order to utilize this potential lung perfusion agent.

Keywords: starch based microparticles, gallium-68, biodistribution, target organs, excretion pathways

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1 Clinical Course and Prognosis of Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Reported Cases

Authors: Hilary Modir, Kyle Dutton, Michelle Swab, Shabnam Asghari

Abstract:

Since its emergence, the cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 have been documented in the literature. However, the majority are case reports with significant limitations in appraisal quality, thus leaving the role of dermatological manifestations of COVID-19 erroneously underexplored. The primary aim of this review was to systematically examine clinical patterns of dermatological manifestations as reported in the literature. This study was designed as a systematic review of case reports. The inclusion criteria consisted of all published reports and articles regarding COVID-19 in English, from September 1st, 2019, until June 22nd, 2020. The population consisted of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with associated cutaneous signs and symptoms. Exclusion criteria included research in planning stages, protocols, book reviews, news articles, review studies, and policy analyses. With the collaboration of a librarian, a search strategy was created consisting of a mixture of keyword terms and controlled vocabulary. Electronic databases searched were MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, PsycINFO, WHO Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, Prospero, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, U.S. Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register, AAD Registry, OSF preprints, SSRN, MedRxiV and BioRxiV. The study selection featured an initial pre-screening of titles and abstracts by one independent reviewer. Results were verified by re-examining a random sample of 1% of excluded articles. Eligible studies progressed for full-text review by two calibrated independent reviewers. Covidence was used to store and extract data, such as citation information and findings pertaining to COVID-19 and cutaneous signs and symptoms. Data analysis and summarization methodology reflect the framework proposed by PRISMA and recommendations set out by Cochrane and Joanna Brigg’s Institute for conducting systematic reviews. The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine’s level of evidence was used to appraise the quality of individual studies. The literature search revealed a total of 1221 articles. After the abstract and full-text screening, only 95 studies met the eligibility criteria, proceeding to data extraction. Studies were divided into 58% case reports and 42% series. A total of 833 manifestations were reported in 723 confirmed COVID-19 cases. The most frequent lesions were 23% maculopapular, 15% urticarial and 13% pseudo-chilblains, with 46% of lesions reporting pruritus, 16% erythema, 14% pain, 12% burning sensation, and 4% edema. The most common lesion locations were 20% trunk, 19.5% lower limbs, and 17.7% upper limbs. The time to resolution of lesions was between one and twenty-one days. In conclusion, over half of the reported cutaneous presentations in COVID-19 positive patients were maculopapular, urticarial and pseudo-chilblains, with the majority of lesions distributed to the extremities and trunk. As this review’s sample size only contained COVID-19 confirmed cases with skin presentations, it becomes difficult to deduce the direct relationship between skin findings and COVID-19. However, it can be correlated that acute onset of skin lesions, such as chilblains-like, may be associated with or may warrant consideration of COVID-19 as part of the differential diagnosis.

Keywords: COVID-19, cutaneous manifestations, cutaneous signs, general dermatology, medical dermatology, Sars-Cov-2, skin and infectious disease, skin findings, skin manifestations

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