Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2776

Search results for: early childhood

2776 Exploring 'Attachment Theory' in the Context of Early Childhood Education

Authors: Wendy Lee

Abstract:

From the mid-twentieth century onward, the notion of ‘attachment’ has been used to define the optimum relationship between young children and their carers; first applied to parents and young children and more recently with early childhood educators and children in their care. However, it is seldom, if ever, asked whether the notion of ‘attachment’ and more especially so-called Attachment Theory, as propounded by John Bowlby and others, provides a sound basis for conceptualising child-adult relationships in early years. Even if appropriate in the context of family, the use of the term raises a number of questions when used in early childhood education. Research has shown that our youngest children (infants) in early childhood centre based care settings, are given the utmost priority to build 'attachments' with their educators. But exactly when, how and why does this priority diminish - and should it (for preschoolers)? This presentation will elaborate on such issues and will argue that there is a need to reconceptualise and redefine how 'quality relationships' should be measured and implemented in the daily practices and pedagogical methods adopted by early childhood educators. Moreover, this presentation will include data collected from the empirical study conducted, that observed various early childhood educators and children in Australian early childhood centres. Lastly, the thoughts, feelings and desires of parents of children in early childhood centre-based care, regarding the term 'attachment' and 'quality relationships' will be shared in the hope that we can take one step closer in bridging the needs of families, children, early childhood centres, educators, and the wider community.

Keywords: attachment, early childhood education, pedagogy, relationships

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2775 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
2774 Character Education Model for Early Childhood Based Javanese Culture

Authors: Rafika Bayu Kusumandari, Istyarini, Ispen Safrel

Abstract:

Character education will be more meaningful if carried out since early childhood. This is because early childhood education is the foundation of the formation of character. This study intends to find a model of character education in early childhood based on Javanese culture. In keeping with the focus of the study, long-term goals to be achieved through this research is to find once described the development of a model of character education in early childhood Javanese culture based in Semarang are then applied across early childhood education institutions in Semarang City. The specific objective of the study is: Describe the character models and management education in early childhood Java-based culture in Semarang City. The benefits of this research are; Provide an overview of the model and describe the management of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in Semarang City. Referring to the objectives of the research program was designed with a "Research and Development", meaning that a program of research followed by development programs for improvement or refinement. To produce a prototype model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city, taken systematic measures in the form of the action, reflection, evaluation and innovation by applying qualitative research methods, descriptive, development, experimentation, and evaluation. This study aims to gain in-depth description of the model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city of Semarang. The reason for the use of the use of qualitative methods researcher's knowledge, no study results and empirical research specifically about the model of character education in early childhood Java-based culture in the city of Semarang. On the implementation of character education early childhood adapted to the characteristics of each school and the emphasis of each agency arrangements for early childhood education, culture-based Java. Javanese culture should be introduced early in order not to erode the cultural lost outside the entrance as the era of globalization. In addition, Java is promoting a culture of courtesy and manners are very appropriate for the character formation of children of early age.

Keywords: education character, Javanese culture, childhood, character

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2773 Emerging Issues in Early Childhood Care and Development in Nigeria

Authors: Evelyn Fabian

Abstract:

The focus of this discussion centres on the emerging issues in Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Early childhood care is the bedrock of Nigeria’s educational system. However, there are critical issues that had not been addressed and it is frustrating the entire educational process. Thus, this paper will show the inter-connectedness between these issues such as poor funding, trained skillful teachers that would supervise the learning process of the kids, unconducive learning environment and lack of relevant facilities. For a clear grasp of these issues, the researcher visited 36 early childhood centres distributed across the 36 spates of Nigeria. The findings which were expressed in simple percentages revealed a near total absence or government neglect of these critical areas. The findings equally showed a misplaced priority in the government allocation of funds to early child care education and development. The study concludes that this mismatch in the training of these categories of pupils, government should expedite action in addressing these emerging issues in early childhood care and development in Nigeria.

Keywords: early childhood, ECCE, education, emerging issues

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2772 The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Early Childhood Education as Perceived by Early Childhood Teachers

Authors: Rabia Khalil

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to find out the perception of early childhood education teacher‘s about the role and implementation of information communication technology in early childhood education. The main purpose of the study is to investigate the role of information and communication technology in early childhood education as perceived by early childhood education teachers. The objectives of the study were to identify the roles of ICT in today’s early years and the impacts of Information communication technology in early childhood education. This study is to find out the role of ICT at ECE level & how it will be useful for teachers to implement this technique for the development of student skills. This is a quantitative research in which a survey study was conducted. The Population of the study was the primary teachers of the public and private primary schools of Lahore. By using random sampling technique the sample consists of 300 teachers but only 260 respond from 52 primary schools of Lahore. In this research, questionnaire was developed for primary school teachers. The questionnaires were based on liker type scale which comprises of section of strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The data was arranged and then entered in computer, having the software package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15. The importance of this study is to find out the role of ICT at ECE level & how it will be useful for teachers to implement this technique for the development of student skills.

Keywords: ECE, ICT, PC, C AI

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2771 The Application of Local Wisdom in Health Care of Early Childhood at Ban Nam Chieo Community, Laem Ngop, Trat Province

Authors: Supalak Fakkhum, Wannita Pochanakul

Abstract:

This research is qualitative research that aims to study the application of local wisdom in health care of early childhood at Ban Nam Chieo Community, Laem Ngop, Trat Province. The target is one folk medicine healer and 45 parents who have children or grandchildren aged between 0-5 years. The folk medicine healer was interviewed and observed during early childhood health care practice. Parents were interviewed. The results showed that local wisdom in health care of early childhood are as follows: 1. Local wisdom about early childhood diseases: It is believed that the disease was determined while the child was still in the womb, in the third month of pregnancy. When a child is born, they will have La, La-ong and Saang diseases, which are URI (upper respiratory infection) and DI (diarrhea) diseases. Supernatural aspect is also considered. 2. The treatment is chosen to match the symptoms of the disease. Caring for early childhood includes psychological therapy by rituals and spells. 3. For local wisdom concerning prevention and health promotion, parents normally bring their child to folk medicine healers for “throat paint” as an act of protection and health promotion. Folk healers often prescribe food according to belief and local wisdom.

Keywords: local wisdom, early childhood, folk medicine, healer

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2770 Exploring Ways Early Childhood Teachers Integrate Information and Communication Technologies into Children's Play: Two Case Studies from the Australian Context

Authors: Caroline Labib

Abstract:

This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring the approaches teachers used to integrate computers or smart tablets into their program planning. Their aim was to integrate ICT into children’s play, thereby supporting children’s learning and development. Data was collected in preschool settings in Melbourne in 2016. Interviews with teachers, observations of teacher interactions with children and copies of teachers’ planning and observation documents informed the study. The paper looks closely at findings from two early childhood settings and focuses on exploring the differing approaches two EC teachers have adopted when integrating iPad or computers into their settings. Data analysis revealed three key approaches which have been labelled: free digital play, guided digital play and teacher-led digital use. Importantly, teacher decisions were influenced by the interplay between the opportunities that the ICT tools offered, the teachers’ prior knowledge and experience about ICT and children’s learning needs and contexts. This paper is a snapshot of two early childhood settings, and further research will encompass data from six more early childhood settings in Victoria with the aim of exploring a wide range of motivating factors for early childhood teachers trying to integrate ICT into their programs.

Keywords: early childhood education (ECE), digital play, information and communication technologies (ICT), play, and teachers' interaction approaches

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2769 Exploring Thai Early Childhood Teachers’ Experience and Concerns regarding Teaching Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

Authors: Sunanta Klibthong

Abstract:

In view of the Thailand government policy creating increasing awareness of opportunity for children with special needs, the number of children with disabilities enrolled in kindergartens in Thailand has increased. This study explores early childhood teachers’ experiences and concerns of teaching children with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. The population of the study was private early childhood teachers who teach in inclusive classrooms in Thailand. Quantitative data obtained through a questionnaire were supplemented by early childhood teachers’ interviews to identify key experiences and concerns of the teachers when teaching children with and without disabilities in the same classrooms. The results of this study indicated that many teachers face challenges including lack of professional development opportunities, difficulty identifying the needs of all children and how to use effective strategies to support inclusive practices in their classrooms. Teachers also expressed concern about parents’ lack of willingness to accept children without disabilities studying together with those with disabilities in the same classrooms. Findings from this study can inform program support for parents and professional support needs of teachers in the provision of high-quality inclusive programs for all students.

Keywords: the concern, early childhood, experience, inclusive education, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2768 The Influence of Guided and Independent Training Toward Teachers’ Competence to Plan Early Childhood Education Learning Program

Authors: Sofia Hartati

Abstract:

This research is aimed at describing training in early childhood education program empirically, describing teachers ability to plan lessons empirically, and acquiring empirical data as well as analyzing the influence of guided and independent training toward teachers competence in planning early childhood learning program. The method used is an experiment. It collected data with a population of 76 early childhood educators in Tunjung Teja Sub District area through random sampling technique and grouped into two namely 38 people in an experiment class and 38 people in a controlled class. The technique used for data collections is a test. The result of the research shows that there is a significant influence between training for guided educators toward Teachers Ability toward Planning Early Childhood Learning Program. Guided training has been proven to improve the ability to comprehend planning a learning program. The ability to comprehend planning a learning program owned by teachers of early childhood program comprises of 1) determining the characteristics and competence of students prior to learning; 2) formulating the objective of the learning; 3) selecting materials and its sequences; 4) selecting teaching methods; 5) determining the means or learning media; 6) selecting evaluation strategy as a part of teachers pedagogic competence. The result of this research describes a difference in the competence level of teachers who have joined guided training which is relatively higher than the teachers who joined the independent training. Guided training is one of an effective way to improve the knowledge and competence of early childhood educators.

Keywords: competence, planning, teachers, training

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2767 Research Trends in Early Childhood Education Graduate Theses: A Content Analysis

Authors: Seden Demirtaş, Feyza Tantekin Erden

Abstract:

The importance of research in early childhood education is growing all around the world. This study aims to investigate research trends in graduate theses written in Turkey in the area of early childhood education. Descriptive, contextual and methodological aspects of graduate theses were analyzed to investigate the trends. A sample of the study consisted of 1000 graduate theses (n= 1000) including both MS theses and Ph.D. dissertations. Theses and dissertations were obtained from the thesis database of Council of Higher Education (CoHE). An investigation form was developed by the researcher to analyze graduate theses. The investigation forms validated by expert opinion from early childhood education department. To enhance the reliability of the investigation form, inter-coder agreement was measured by Cohen’s Kappa value (.86). Data were gathered via using the investigation form, and content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results of the analysis were presented by descriptive statistics and frequency tables. Analysis of the study is on-going and preliminary results of the study show that master theses related to early childhood education have started to be written in 1986, and the number of the theses has increased gradually. In most of the studies, sample group consisted of children especially in between 5-6 age group. Child development, activities (applied in daily curriculum of preschools) and teaching methods are the mostly examined concepts in graduate theses. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were referred equally by researchers in these theses.

Keywords: content analysis, early childhood education, graduate thesis, research trends

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2766 Saudi Teachers’ Perceptions of Rough and Tumble Play in Early Learning

Authors: Rana Alghamdi

Abstract:

This study explored teachers’ perceptions of rough-and-tumble (R&T) play in early childhood education in Saudi Arabia. The literature on rough-and-tumble play in Saudi Arabia is limited in scope, and more research is needed to explore teachers’ perceptions on this type of play for early learners. The pertinent literature reveals that R&T play, which includes running, jumping, fighting, wrestling, chasing, pulling, pushing, and climbing, among other rough playful activities, can positively impact learning and development across psychosocial, emotional, and cognitive domains. Teachers’ understanding of R & T play is key, and the attitudes of Saudi early childhood teachers who are responsible for implementing curriculum-based play have not been fully researched. Four early childhood teachers from an urban Saudi preschool participated in the study. The data collected in this study were interpreted through a sociocultural lens. Data sources included in-depth interviews, photo-elicitation interviews, and participant-generated drawings. Three overarching themes emerged: teachers’ concerns about rough-and-tumble play, teachers’ perceptions about the benefits of rough-and-tumble play, and teachers’ expression of gender roles in R & T play as contextualized within Saudi culture. Saudi teachers’ perceptions are discussed in detail, and implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are put forth.

Keywords: rough and tumble play, gender, culture, early childhood, Saudi Arabia

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2765 A Model for a Continuous Professional Development Program for Early Childhood Teachers in Villages: Insights from the Coaching Pilot in Indonesia

Authors: Ellen Patricia, Marilou Hyson

Abstract:

Coaching has been showing great potential to strengthen the impact of brief group trainings and help early childhood teachers solve specific problems at work with the goal of raising the quality of early childhood services. However, there have been some doubts about the benefits that village teachers can receive from coaching. It is perceived that village teachers may struggle with the thinking skills needed to make coaching beneficial. Furthermore, there are reservations about whether principals and supervisors in villages are open to coaching’s facilitative approach, as opposed to the directive approach they have been using. As such, the use of coaching to develop the professionalism of early childhood teachers in the villages needs to be examined. The Coaching Pilot for early childhood teachers in Indonesia villages provides insights for the above issues. The Coaching Pilot is part of the ECED Frontline Pilot, which is a collaboration project between the Government of Indonesia and the World Bank with the support from the Australian Government (DFAT). The Pilot started with coordinated efforts with the local government in two districts to select principals and supervisors who have been equipped with basic knowledge about early childhood education to take part in 2-days coaching training. Afterwards, the participants were asked to collect 25 hours of coaching early childhood teachers who have participated in the Enhanced Basic Training for village teachers. The participants who completed this requirement were then invited to come for an assessment of their coaching skills. Following that, a qualitative evaluation was conducted using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion techniques. The evaluation focuses on the impact of the coaching pilot in helping the village teachers to develop in their professionalism, as well as on the sustainability of the intervention. Results from the evaluation indicated that although their low education may limit their thinking skills, village teachers benefited from the coaching that they received. Moreover, the evaluation results also suggested that with enough training and support, principals and supervisors in the villages were able to provide an adequate coaching service for the teachers. On top of that, beyond this small start, interest is growing, both within the pilot districts and even beyond, due to word of mouth of the benefits that the Coaching Pilot has created. The districts where coaching was piloted have planned to continue the coaching program, since a number of early childhood teachers have requested to be coached, and a number of principals and supervisors have also requested to be trained as a coach. Furthermore, the Association for Early Childhood Educators in Indonesia has started to adopt coaching into their program. Although further research is needed, the Coaching Pilot suggests that coaching can positively impact early childhood teachers in villages, and village principals and supervisors can become a promising source of future coaches. As such, coaching has a significant potential to become a sustainable model for a continuous professional development program for early childhood teachers in villages.

Keywords: coaching, coaching pilot, early childhood teachers, principals and supervisors, village teachers

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2764 Early Childhood Care and Education in the North-West of Nigeria: Trends and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Adamu Kwankwaso

Abstract:

Early childhood is a critical period of rapid physical, cognitive and psycho-social development of a child. The quality of care and Education which a child receives at this crucial age will determine to a great extent the level of his/her physical and cognitive development in the future. In Nigeria, Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is a fundamental aspect or form of Education for children between the age of 3-6. It was started after independence as pre-primary Education or early child development as contained in the 1977 National Policy on Education. The trends towards ECCE in Nigeria and the northwestern part of the country in particular keep up changing as in the case of other part of the world. The current trends are now towards expansions, inclusiveness, redefinition, early literacy, increased government participation and the unprecedented societal response and awareness towards the Education of the younger children. While all hands are on deck to ensure successful implementation of the ECCE programme, it is unfortunate that, ECCE is facing some challenges. This paper therefore, examines the trends in Early Childhood Care and Education and the major challenges in the north west of Nigeria. Some of the major challenges include, inadequate trained ECCE teachers, lack of unified curriculum, teacher pupil’s ratio, and the medium of instructions and inadequate infrastructural and teaching facilities respectively. To improve the situation the paper offered the following recommendations; establishment of more ECCE classes, enforcement for the use of mothers’ tongue or the languages of the immediate community as a medium of instructions, and adequate provision of infrastructural facilities and the unified curriculum across the northwestern States of Nigeria.

Keywords: early childhood care, education, trends, challenges

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2763 Evaluating and Examining Pictures of Children of Five Years Old

Authors: Emine Yılmaz Bolat

Abstract:

Early childhood is a very important period in terms of identifying and developing early skills and abilities. It is likely that the child's development will be in the same direction in the future. This study was conducted with 26 children for the purpose of examining pictures of children of five years old. In the survey, children were asked to draw a picture with pastel dyes. The drawings were collected and evaluated by the researcher. At the end of the research, it was found that the children used the yellow color (N = 17, 16,34%) and the least gray color (N = 1, 0,96%). When the features of children's pictures are examined, the children's paintings have been found to have hierarchy, transparency, completion, the use of vivid colors, and the presence of vertical and horizontal painting lines.

Keywords: early childhood, kindergarten, pictures of children, features of pictures

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2762 An Electronic and Performance Test for the Applicants to Faculty of Education for Early Childhood in Egypt for Measuring the Skills of Teacher Students

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Gehan Azam

Abstract:

The current study presents an electronic test to measure teaching skills. This test is a part of the admission system of the Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University. The test has been prepared to evaluate university students who apply for admission the Faculty. It measures some social and physiological skills which are important for successful teachers, such as emotional adjustment and problem solving; moreover, the extent of their love for children and their capability to interact with them. The test has been approved by 13 experts. Finally, it has been introduced to 1,100 students during the admission system of the academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that most of the applicants have an auditory learning style. In addition, 97% of them have the minimum requirement skills for teaching children.

Keywords: electronic test, performance, early childhood, skills, teacher student

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2761 The Development of Speaking Using Folk Tales Based on Performance Activities for Early Childhood Student

Authors: Yaowaluck Ruampol, Suthakorn Wasupokin

Abstract:

The research on the development of speaking using folk tales based on performance activities aimed to (1) study the development of speaking skill for early- childhood students, and (2) evaluate the development of speaking skill before and after speaking activities. Ten students of Kindergarten level 2, who have enrolled in the subject of the research for speaking development of semester 2 in 2013 were purposively selected as the research cohort. The research tools were lesson plans for speaking activities and pre-post test for speaking development that were approved as content validity and reliability (IOC=.66-1.00,α=0.967). The research found that the development of speaking skill of the research samples before using performance activities on folk tales in developing speaking skill was in the normal high level. Additionally, the results appeared that the preschoolers after applying speaking skill on performance activities also imaginatively created their speaking skill.

Keywords: speaking development, folk tales, performance activities, early-childhood students

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2760 Media Literacy Development: A Methodology to Systematically Integrate Post-Contemporary Challenges in Early Childhood Education

Authors: Ana Mouta, Ana Paulino

Abstract:

The following text presents the ik.model, a theoretical framework that guided the pedagogical implementation of meaningful educational technology-based projects in formal education worldwide. In this paper, we will focus on how this framework has enabled the development of media literacy projects for early childhood education during the last three years. The methodology that guided educators through the challenge of systematically merging analogic and digital means in dialogic high-quality opportunities of world exploration is explained throughout these lines. The effects of this methodology on early age media literacy development are considered. Also considered is the relevance of this skill in terms of post-contemporary challenges posed to learning.

Keywords: early learning, ik.model, media literacy, pedagogy

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2759 Applying Art Integration on Teaching Quality Assurance for Early Childhood Art Education

Authors: Shih Meng-Chi, Nai-Chia Chao

Abstract:

The study constructed an arts integrative curriculum for early childhood educators and kindergarten teachers to the exciting possibilities of the use of the art integration method. The art integrative curriculum applied art integration that combines and integrates various elements of music, observation, sound, art, instruments, and creation. The program consists of college courses that combine the use of technology with children’s literature, multimedia, music, dance, and drama presentation. This educational program is being used in kindergartens during the pre-service kindergarten teacher training. The study found that arts integrated curriculum was benefit for connecting across domains, multi-sensory experiences, teaching skills, implementation and creation on children art education. The art Integrating instruction helped to provide students with an understanding of the whole framework and improve the teaching quality.

Keywords: art integration, teaching quality assurance, early childhood education, arts integrated curriculum

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2758 Effect of Pregnancy Intention, Postnatal Depressive Symptoms and Social Support on Early Childhood Stunting: Findings from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

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Background: According to United Nation Children’s Fund, it has been estimated that worldwide about 165 million children were stunted in 2012 and India alone accounts for 38% of global burden of stunting. In terms of incidence, India is home of more than 60 million stunted children worldwide. Our study aims to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. We hypothesized that effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were mediated by social support. Methods: We used data from first wave of Young Lives Study India. Out of 2011 children recruited in original cohort, 1833 children had complete information on pregnancy intention, maternal depression and other variables. A series of multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting. Results: Bivariate result indicates that a higher percent of children born after unintended pregnancy (40%) were stunted than children of intended pregnancy (26%). Likewise, proportion of stunted children was also higher among women of high postnatal depressive symptoms (35%) than low level of depression (24%). Results of multivariate logistic regression model indicate that children born after unintended pregnancy were significantly more likely to be stunted than children born after intended pregnancy (Coefficient: 1.70, CI: 1.17, 2.48). Likewise, early childhood stunting was also associated with maternal postnatal depressive symptoms among women (Coefficient: 1.48, CI: 1.16, 1.88). The effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting remains unchanged after controlling for social support and other variables. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide conclusive evidence regarding consequences of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. Therefore, there is need to identify the women with unintended pregnancy and incorporate the promotion of mental health into their national reproductive and child health programme.

Keywords: pregnancy intention, postnatal depressive symptoms, social support, childhood stunting, young lives study, India

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2757 Play Based Practices in Early Childhood Curriculum: The Contribution of High Scope, Modern School Movement and Pedagogy of Participation

Authors: Dalila Lino

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The power of play for learning and development in early childhood education is beyond question. The main goal of this study is to analyse how three contemporary early childhood pedagogical approaches, the High Scope, the Modern School Movement (MEM) and the Pedagogy of Participation integrate play in their curriculum development. From this main goal the following objectives emerged: (i) to characterize how play is integrated in the daily routine of the pedagogical approaches under study; (ii) to analyse the teachers’ role during children’s playing situations; (iii) to identify the types of play that children are more often involved. The methodology used is the qualitative approach and is situated under the interpretative paradigm. Data is collected through semi-structured interviews to 30 preschool teachers and through observations of typical daily routines. The participants are 30 Portuguese preschool classrooms attending children from 3 to 6 years and working with the High Scope curriculum (10 classrooms), the MEM (10 classrooms) and the Pedagogy of Participation (10 classrooms). The qualitative method of content analysis was used to analyse the data. To ensure confidentiality, no information is disclosed without participants' consent, and the interviews were transcribed and sent to the participants for a final revision. The results show that there are differences how play is integrated and promoted in the three pedagogical approaches. The teachers’ role when children are at play varies according the pedagogical approach adopted, and also according to the teachers’ understanding about the meaning of play. The study highlights the key role that early childhood curriculum models have to promote opportunities for children to play, and therefore to be involved in meaningful learning.

Keywords: curriculum models, early childhood education, pedagogy, play

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2756 The Most Effective Interventions to Prevent Childhood Obesity

Authors: Sarah-Anne Schumann, Chintan Shah, Sandeep Ponniah, Syeachia Dennis

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Effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity include limiting sugar-sweetened beverage intake (SOR: B, longitudinal study), school and home based strategies to reduce total screen time and increase physical activity, behavioral and dietary counseling, and support for parents and families (SOR: A, meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials). Risk factors for childhood obesity include maternal pre-pregnancy weight, high infant birth weight, early infant rapid weight gain and maternal smoking during pregnancy which may provide opportunities to intervene and prevent childhood obesity (SOR: B, meta-analysis of observational studies).

Keywords: childhood, obesity, prevent obesity, interventions to prevent obesity

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2755 Impact of Early Father Involvement on Middle Childhood Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

Authors: Jamel Slaughter

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Father involvement across the development of a child has been linked to children’s psychological adjustment, fewer behavioral problems, and higher educational attainment. Conversely, there is much less research that highlights father involvement in relation to childhood development during early childhood period prior to preschool age (ages 1-3 years). Most research on fathers and child outcomes have been limited by its focus on the stages of adolescence, middle childhood, and infancy. This study examined the influence of father involvement, during the toddler stage, on 5th grade cognitive development, rule-breaking, and behavior outcomes measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores. Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation (EHSRE) Study, 1996-2010: United States, a total of 3,001 children and families were identified in 17 sites (cities), representing a diverse demographic sample. An independent samples t-test was run to compare cognitive development, aggressive, and rule-breaking behavior mean scores among children who had early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months to children who did not have early continuous father involvement for the first 14 – 36 months. Multiple linear regression was conducted to determine if continuous, or non-continuous father involvement (14 month-36 months), can be used to predict outcome scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and cognitive development, at 5th grade. A statistically significant mean difference in cognitive development scores were found for children who had continuous father involvement (M=1.92, SD=2.41, t (1009) =2.81, p =.005, 95% CI=.146 to .828) compared to those who did not (M=2.60, SD=3.06, t (1009) =-2.38, p=.017, 95% CI= -1.08 to -.105). There was also a statistically significant mean difference in rule-breaking behavior scores between children who had early continuous father involvement (M=1.95, SD=2.33, t (1009) = 3.69, p <.001, 95% CI= .287 to .940), compared to those that did not (M=2.87, SD=2.93, t (1009) = -3.49, p =.001, 95% CI= -1.30 to -.364). No statistically significant difference was found in aggressive behavior scores. Multiple linear regression was performed using continuous father involvement to determine which has the largest relationship to rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development based on CBCL scores. Rule-breaking behavior was found to be significant (F (2, 1008) = 8.353, p<.001), with an R2 of .016. Cognitive development was also significant (F (2, 1008) = 4.44, p=.012), with an R2 of .009. Early continuous father involvement was a significant predictor of rule-breaking behavior and cognitive development at middle childhood. Findings suggest early continuous father involvement during the first 14 – 36 months of their children’s life, may lead to lower levels of rule-breaking behaviors and thought problems at 5th grade.

Keywords: cognitive development, early continuous father involvement, middle childhood, rule-breaking behavior

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2754 Conceptualization and Assessment of Key Competencies for Children in Preschools: A Case Study in Southwest China

Authors: Yumei Han, Naiqing Song, Xiaoping Yang, Yuping Han

Abstract:

This study explores the conceptualization of key competencies that children are expected to develop in three year preschools (age 3-6) and the assessment practices of such key competencies in China. Assessment of children development has been put into the central place of early childhood education quality evaluation system in China. In the context of students key competencies development centered education reform in China, defining and selecting key competencies of children in preschools are of great significance in that they would lay a solid foundation for children’s lifelong learning path, and they would lead to curriculum and instruction reform, teacher development reform as well as quality evaluation reform in the early childhood education area. Based on sense making theory and framework, this study adopted multiple stakeholders’ (early childhood educators, parents, evaluation administrators, scholars in the early childhood education field) perspectives and grass root voices to conceptualize and operationalize key competencies for children in preschools in Southwest China. On the ground of children development theories, Chinese and international literature related to children development and key competencies, and key competencies frameworks by UNESCO, OECD and other nations, the authors designed a two-phase sequential mixed method study to address three main questions: (a) How is early childhood key competency defined or labeled from literature and from different stakeholders’ views? (b) Based on the definitions explicated in the literature and the surveys on different stakeholders, what domains and components are regarded to constitute the key competency framework of children in three-year preschools in China? (c) How have early childhood key competencies been assessed and measured, and how such assessment and measurement contribute to enhancing early childhood development quality? On the first phase, a series of focus group surveys were conducted among different types of stakeholders around the research questions. Moreover, on the second phase, based on the coding of the participants’ answers, together with literature synthesis findings, a questionnaire survey was designed and conducted to select most commonly expected components of preschool children’s key competencies. Semi-structured open questions were also included in the questionnaire for the participants to add on competencies beyond the checklist. Rudimentary findings show agreeable concerns on the significance and necessity of conceptualization and assessment of key competencies for children in preschools, and a key competencies framework composed of 7 domains and 25 indicators was constructed. Meanwhile, the findings also show issues in the current assessment practices of children’s competencies, such as lack of effective assessment tools, lack of teacher capacity in applying the tools to evaluating children and advancing children development accordingly. Finally, the authors put forth suggestions and implications for China and international communities in terms of restructuring early childhood key competencies framework, and promoting child development centered reform in early childhood education quality evaluation and development.

Keywords: assessment, conceptualization, early childhood education quality in China, key competencies

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2753 Restructuring Cameroon's Educational System: The Value of Inclusive Education for Children with Visual Impairment

Authors: Samanta Tiague, Igor Michel Gachig

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The practice of inclusive education within general education classrooms is becoming more prevalent in Cameroon. In this context, quality Education is an important driver of the development agenda in this era of global sustainable development. This requires that the Cameroon’s educational system be strategically restructured to provide every citizen with the needed quality education for sustainable development. This study thus examined the need for the restructuring of the Cameroon educational system towards inclusive education as a target of the Sustainable Development Goal #4 (Ensure Quality Education), from a critical disability theory perspective. Special focus was on the education of children with visual impairment in the early childhood classroom. This study is suggesting a model design of responsive and contextual inclusive education policies, and the provision of quality human, material and financial educational resources to support the improvement of curriculums and inclusive instructional strategies. This paper is therefore designed as a basic starting point for early childhood educators with limited to no experience in working with students having visual impairments. Ultimately, this work represents a contribution to early childhood educators toward understanding visual impairment challenges and innovative practices to approach accessibility in a meaningful way to students in Cameroon. This is important to achieve quality education due to the peculiar nature of the educational needs of children with visual impairment, toward attainment of the global sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: early childhood educators, inclusive education, sustainable development, visual impairment

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2752 Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Self-Control and Social Disadvantage in the United Kingdom

Authors: Michael Daly

Abstract:

Background/Aims: The interplay of childhood self-control and early life social background in predicting adult health is currently unclear. We drew on rich data from two large nationally representative cohort studies to test whether individual differences in childhood self-control may: (i) buffer the health impact of social disadvantage, (ii) act as a mediating pathway underlying the emergence of health disparities, or (iii) compensate for the health consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage across the lifespan. Methods: We examined data from over 25,000 participants from the British Cohort Study (BCS) and the National Child Development Study (NCDS). Child self-control was teacher-rated at age 10 in the BCS and ages 7/11 in the NCDS. The Early life social disadvantage was indexed using measures of parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e. housing tenure, home crowding). A range of health outcomes was examined: the presence of chronic conditions, whether illnesses were limiting, physiological dysregulation (gauged by clinical indicators), mortality, and perceptions of pain, psychological distress, and general health. Results: Childhood self-control and social disadvantage predicted each measure of adult health, with similar strength on average. An examination of mediating factors showed that adult smoking, obesity, and socioeconomic status explained the majority of these linkages. There was no systematic evidence that self-control moderated the health consequences of early social disadvantage and limited evidence that self-control acted as a key pathway from disadvantage to later health. Conclusions: Childhood self-control predicts adult health and may compensate for early life social disadvantage by shaping adult health behaviour and social status.

Keywords: personality and health, social disadvantage, health psychology, life-course development

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2751 Trajectories of Conduct Problems and Cumulative Risk from Early Childhood to Adolescence

Authors: Leslie M. Gutman

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Conduct problems (CP) represent a major dilemma, with wide-ranging and long-lasting individual and societal impacts. Children experience heterogeneous patterns of conduct problems; based on the age of onset, developmental course and related risk factors from around age 3. Early childhood represents a potential window for intervention efforts aimed at changing the trajectory of early starting conduct problems. Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,206 children), this study (a) identifies trajectories of conduct problems from ages 3 to 14 years and (b) assesses the cumulative and interactive effects of individual, family and socioeconomic risk factors from ages 9 months to 14 years. The same factors according to three domains were assessed, including child (i.e., low verbal ability, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problems, emotional problems), family (i.e., single families, parental poor physical and mental health, large family size) and socioeconomic (i.e., low family income, low parental education, unemployment, social housing). A cumulative risk score for the child, family, and socioeconomic domains at each age was calculated. It was then examined how the cumulative risk scores explain variation in the trajectories of conduct problems. Lastly, interactive effects among the different domains of cumulative risk were tested. Using group-based trajectory modeling, four distinct trajectories were found including a ‘low’ problem group and three groups showing childhood-onset conduct problems: ‘school-age onset’; ‘early-onset, desisting’; and ‘early-onset, persisting’. The ‘low’ group (57% of the sample) showed a low probability of conducts problems, close to zero, from 3 to 14 years. The ‘early-onset, desisting’ group (23% of the sample) demonstrated a moderate probability of CP in early childhood, with a decline from 3 to 5 years and a low probability thereafter. The ‘early-onset, persistent’ group (8%) followed a high probability of conduct problems, which declined from 11 years but was close to 70% at 14 years. In the ‘school-age onset’ group, 12% of the sample showed a moderate probability of conduct problems from 3 and 5 years, with a sharp increase by 7 years, increasing to 50% at 14 years. In terms of individual risk, all factors increased the likelihood of being in the childhood-onset groups compared to the ‘low’ group. For cumulative risk, the socioeconomic domain at 9 months and 3 years, the family domain at all ages except 14 years and child domain at all ages were found to differentiate childhood-onset groups from the ‘low’ group. Cumulative risk at 9 months and 3 years did not differentiate between the ‘school-onset’ group and ‘low’ group. Significant interactions were found between the domains for the ‘early-onset, desisting group’ suggesting that low levels of risk in one domain may buffer the effects of high risk in another domain. The implications of these findings for preventive interventions will be highlighted.

Keywords: conduct problems, cumulative risk, developmental trajectories, early childhood, adolescence

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2750 Early Intervention for Preschool Children of Parents with Mental Illness: The Evaluation of a Resource for Service Providers

Authors: Stella Laletas, Andrea Reupert, Melinda Goodyear, Bradley Morgan

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Background: Many people with a mental illness have young children. Research has shown that early childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for children whose parents have a mental illness. Moreover, repeated research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multiagency approach to family focused practice for improving parental functioning and preventing adverse outcomes in children whose parents have a mental illness, particularly in the early years of a child’s life. However, there is a paucity of professional development resources for professionals who work with families where a parent has a mental illness and has young children. Significance of the study: This study will make a contribution to addressing knowledge gaps around resource development and workforce needs for early childhood and mental health professionals working with young children where a parent has a mental illness. Objective: This presentation describes a newly developed resource, 'Pathways of Care', specifically designed for early childhood educators and mental health workers, alongside pilot evaluation data regarding its effectiveness. ‘Pathways of Care’ aims to promote collaborative practice and present early identification and referral processes for workers in this sector. The resource was developed by the Children of Parents with a Mental Illness (COPMI) National Initiative which is funded by the Australian Government. Method: Using a mixed method design, the effectiveness of the training resource is also presented. Fifteen workers completed the Family Focus Mental Health Practice Questionnaire pre and post using the resource, to measure confidence and practice change; semi-structured interviews were also conducted with eight of these same workers to further explore the utility of the resource. Findings: The findings indicated the resource was effective in increasing knowledge and confidence, particularly for new and/or inexperienced staff. Examples of how the resource was used in practice by various professions emerged from the interview data. Conclusions: Collaborative practice, early identification and intervention in early childhood can potentially play a key role in altering the life trajectory of children who are at risk. This information has important implications for workforce development and staff training in both the early childhood and mental health sectors. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

Keywords: parents with mental ilnesses, early intervention, evaluation, preschool children

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2749 Medical Radiation Exposure in a Cohort of Children Diagnosed with Solid Tumors: Single Institution Study 1985-2015

Authors: Robin L. Rohrer

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Introduction: Pre-natal or early childhood exposure to the medical radiation used in diagnosis or treatment is an identified risk for childhood cancers but can be difficult to document. The author developed a family questionnaire/interview form to identify possible exposures. Aims: This retrospective study examines pre-natal and early childhood medical radiation exposure in a cohort of children diagnosed with a solid tumor including brain tumors from 1985-2015 at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (CHP). The hospital is a tri-state regional referral center which treats about 150-180 new cases of cancer in children per year. About 70% are diagnosed with a solid tumor. Methods: Each consented family so far (approximately 50% of the cohort) has been interviewed in person or by the phone call. Medical staff and psycho- social staff referred patient families for the interview with the author. Results: Among the families interviewed to date at least one medical radiation exposure has been identified (pre-conception, pre-natal or early childhood) in over 70% of diagnosed children. These exposures have included pre-conception sinus or chest CT or X-ray in either parent, sinus CT or X-ray in the mother or diagnostic radiation of chest or abdomen in children. Conclusions: Exposures to medical radiation for a child later diagnosed with cancer may occur at several critical junctures. These exposures may well contribute to a ‘perfect storm’ in the still elusive causes of childhood cancer. The author plans to expand the study from 1975 to present to hopefully further document these junctures.

Keywords: pediatric, solid tumors, medical radiation, cancer

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2748 A Diagnostic Challenge of Drug Resistant Childhood Tuberculosis in Developing World

Authors: Warda Fatima, Hasnain Javed

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The emerging trend of Drug resistance in childhood Tuberculosis is increasing worldwide and now becoming a priority challenge for National TB Control Programs of the world. Childhood TB accounts for 10-15% of total TB burden across the globe and same proportion is quantified in case of drug resistant TB. One third population suffering from MDR TB dies annually because of non-diagnosis and unavailability of appropriate treatment. However, true Childhood MDR TB cannot be estimated due to non-confirmation. Diagnosis of Pediatric TB by sputum Smear Microscopy and Culture inoculation are limited due to paucibacillary nature and difficulties in obtaining adequate sputum specimens. Diagnosis becomes more difficult when it comes to HIV infected child. New molecular advancements for early case detection of TB and MDR TB in adults have not been endorsed in children. Multi centered trials are needed to design better diagnostic approaches and efficient and safer treatments for DR TB in high burden countries. The aim of the present study is to sketch out the current situation of the childhood Drug resistant TB especially in the developing world and to highlight the classic and novel methods that are to be implemented in high-burden resource-limited locations.

Keywords: drug resistant TB, childhood, diagnosis, novel methods

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2747 Instrument Development and Validation for Quality Early Childhood Curriculum in the Malaysian Context

Authors: Sadiah Baharom, Che Nidzam Che Ahmad, Saipol Barin Ramli, Asmayati Yahaya, Sopia Md Yassin

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The early childhood care and education (ECCE) in Malaysia aspire to develop children who are intellectually, emotionally, physically and spiritually balanced. This aspiration can only materialise if the early childhood program developed comprehensive and is of high quality comparable to international standards. As such, there is a pressing need to assess the quality of the program in an all-encompassing manner. The overall research project aims at developing a comprehensive and integrated model of high-quality Malaysian ECCE. One of the major objectives of this project is to assess and evaluate the scope and quality of the existing ECCE programs in Malaysia. To this end, a specific aspect of this objective is to develop and validate an instrument to assess and evaluate the ECCE curriculum of the country. Thus this paper describes the development and validation of an instrument to explore the quality of early childhood care and education curriculum currently implemented in the country’s ECCE centres. The generation of the constructs and items were based on a set of criteria mapped against existing ECCE practice, document analyses, expert interviews and panel discussions. The items went through expert validation and were field tested on 597 ECCE teachers. The data obtained went through an exploratory factor analysis to validate the constructs of the instrument followed by reliability studies on internal consistency based on the Cronbach Alpha values. The final set of items for the ECCE curriculum instrument, earmarked for the main study, consists of four constructs namely philosophy and core values, curriculum content, curriculum review and unique features. Each construct consists of between 21 to 3 items with a total of 36 items in all. The reliability coefficients for each construct range from 0.65 to 0.961. These values are within the acceptable limits for a reliable instrument to be used in the main study.

Keywords: early childhood and care education, instrument development, reliability studies, validity studies

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