Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: smokers

53 Association of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

Authors: Kriti Upadhyay, Ashraf Ali, Puja Sohal, Randeep Guleria


Background: In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary diseases (COPD) pathogenesis oxidative stress plays an important role. Hypoxia-Inducible factor (HIF-1α) is a dimeric protein complex which Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxiaand is a risk factor that increases when oxidative stress triggers. The role ofHIF-1αin COPD due to smoking is lacking. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the role of HIF-1α in smoker COPD patients comparing its association with diseases severity. Method: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 87 subjects, 57 were smokers with COPD,15 were smokers without COPD and other 15 were non-smoker healthy controls. The mean age was 54.6± 9.32 (cases 57.08±8.15; controls 50.0± 9.8). There were 62%smokers, 25% non-smokers,7% tobacco chewers and 6% ex-smokers. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analyzing serum samples wherein HIF-1α was analyzed by Sandwich-ELISA. Results: In smoker COPD patients, a significantly higher HIF-1α level showed positive association with hypoxia, smoking status and severity of disease (p=0.03). The mean value of HIF-1α was not significantly different in smokers without COPD and healthy controls. Conclusion: It is found that HIF-1α level was increased in smoker COPD, but not in smokers without COPD. This suggests that development of COPD drive the HIF-1α pathway and it correlates with the severity of diseases.

Keywords: COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, smokers, nonsmokers, hypoxia

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52 Effect of Smoking on Tear Break-Up Time and Basal Tear Secretion

Authors: Kalsoom Rani


Tobacco contains nicotine, which causes addiction to many toxic chemicals. In the world, people consume it in the form of smoke, chew, and sniffing, smoke of it is composed of almost 7000 active chemicals, which are very harmful to human health as well as for eye health, inhalation of tobacco smoke and fumes can accelerate and cause many blinding eye diseases. Dry eye and smoking have not been covered extensively in researches; more studies are required to unveil the relationship between smoking and dry eye. This study was conducted to determine the quantity and quality of tears in smokers. 60 subjects participated in the study, which was divided into two groups on the basis of consumption of cigarettes per day with age matched non smokers of 15-50 years. All participants have gone through a study based questioner, eye examination, and diagnostic 'Dry Eye Tests' for evaporative tears evaluation and measurement of basal tear secretion. Subjects were included in the criteria of 10 cigarettes per day with a minimum duration of 1 year; passive smokers for control groups were excluded. The study was carried out in a Medina Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan, ophthalmology department for the duration of 8 months. Mean values for tear break up time (TBUT), was reported 10sec with SD of +3.74 in controlled group, 5sec with SD + 2.32 in smokers and 4sec SD +3.77 heavy smokers in right eye (RE) and left eye (LE) 10.35sec with SD of +3.88 in controlled 5sec with SD + 2.3 in smokers and much reduced TBUT in heavy smokers was 3.85sec SD+2.20. Smoking has a very strong association with TRUT with a significance of P=.00 both eyes. Mean Schirmer-I value of the subjects was reported 12.6mm with SD + 8.37 in RE and 12.59mm with SD + 8.96 LE. The mean Schirmer-II test value was reported in the right, and left eye with a mean value for control was 20.23mm with SD + 8.93, 20.75mm with SD + 8.84 respectively, and in Smokers 9.90mm with SD + 5.74, and 10.07mm with SD + 6.98, and in heavy smokers 7.7mm, SD + 3.22 and 6.9, SD + 3.50 mm, association with smoking showed p=.001 in RE and .003 in LE. Smoking has deteriorated effect on both evaporative tear and aqueous tear secretion and causing symptoms of dry eye burning, itching, redness, and watering with epithelial cell damage.

Keywords: tear break-up time, basal tear secretion, smokers, dry eye

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51 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian


Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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50 Mindfulness and Motivational Based Intervention for Pregnant Women with Tobacco Dependency: Pilot Study

Authors: Ilona Krone


Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of perinatal/postnatal negative health outcomes; however, only 1 in 5 pregnant smokers quit smoking. That is a clinical and public health problem. Pregnant smokers have negative paternal support, and higher levels of perceived stress than non-smokers and quitters return to smoking in a stressful situation. A crisis like the COVID-19 outbreak causes significant uncertainty and stress. For pregnant women, additional stress may increase due to concerns for their fetus. Strategies targeting maternal stress and isolation may be particularly useful to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses. Within the post-doctoral study, cooperating with leading specialists, an innovative program for pregnant smokers will be developed. Feasibility for reducing craving, distress intolerance, Covid 19 related stress, and fear in pregnant women in Latvia will be assessed.

Keywords: COVID 19, mindfulness, motivation, pregnancy, smoking cessation

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49 Assessment of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Percentage Oxygen Saturation in Young Habitual Shisha Smokers in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: B. I. Waziri, M. A. Yahaya


Background: Practice of shisha smoking involves the use of a multi-stemmed instrument to smoke tobacco or non-tobacco herbal mixture where the smoke is designed to pass through water or other liquid before reaching the smoker. The presence of tobacco content and the use of charcoal when burning the ingredients in this popular practice necessitate for investigation of many physiological parameters of habitual shisha smokers in our environment. Methods: 103 young shisha smokers, regular in the practice for more than three years living in Nasarawa, Kano state, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The controls were 100 university students (nonsmokers) match for age (18 - 30 years), sex and BMI (20 - 24) with the smokers. Participants with known history of cigarette smoking, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Kano Nigeria. Hear rate, blood pressure and percentage oxygen saturation (SPO₂) were measured using stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and pulse oximeter respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 and mean values of the measured parameters were compared between the smokers and controls using independent sample t-test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean Heart rate was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the shisha smokers (91.32 ± 0.84) compared to controls (79.19 ± 1.18). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also higher (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (128.75 ± 1.11 and 85.85 ± 0.78 respectively) compared to controls with the systolic and diastolic pressure of 116.64 ± 0.82 and 80.39 ± 0.83 respectively. SPO₂ was significantly lower (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (91.98% ± 0.42%) compared to the controls (97.98 ± 0.18). Conclusion: Habitual Shisha Smoking caused a significant increase in Heart rate, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in SPO2 among youth in Kano State, Nigeria.

Keywords: blood pressure, heart rate, shisha, youth

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48 Preoperative Smoking Cessation Audit: A Single Centre Experience from Metropolitan Melbourne

Authors: Ya-Chu May Tsai, Ibrahim Yacoub, Eoin Casey


The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) advises that smoking should not be permitted within 12 hours of surgery. There is little information in the medical literature regarding patients awareness of perioperative smoking cessation recommendations nor their appreciation of how smoking might negatively impact their perioperative course. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of current smokers presenting to Werribee Mercy Hospital (WMH) and to evaluate if pre-operative provision of both written and verbal pre-operative advice was, 1: Effective in improving patient awareness of the benefits of pre-operative smoking cessation, 2: Associated with an increase in the number of elective surgical patients who stop smoking at least 12 hours pre-operatively. Methods: The initial survey included all patients who presented to WMH for elective surgical procedures from 19 – 30 September 2016 using a standardized questionnaire focused on patients’ smoking history and their awareness of smoking cessation preoperatively. The intervention consisted of a standard pre-operative phone call to all patients advising them of the increased perioperative risks associated with smoking, and advised patients to cease 12 hours prior. In addition, written information on smoking cessation strategies were sent out in mail at least 1 week prior to planned procedure date to all patients. Questionnaire-based study after the intervention was conducted on day of elective procedure from 10 – 21 October 2016 inclusive. Primary outcomes measured were patient’s awareness of smoking cessation and proportion of smokers who quit >12 hours, considered a clinically meaning duration to reduce anaesthetics complications. Comparison of pre and post intervention results were made using SPSS 21.0. Results: In the pre-intervention group (n=156), 36 (22.4%) patients were current smokers, 46 were ex-smokers (29.5%) and 74 were non-smokers (48.1%). Of the smokers, 12 (33%) reported having been informed of smoking cessation prior to operation and 8 (22%) were aware of increased intra- and perioperative adverse events associated with smoking. In the post-intervention group n= 177, 38 (21.5%) patients were current smokers, 39 were ex-smokers (22.0%) and 100 were non-smokers (56.5%). Of the smokers, 32 (88.9%) reported having been informed of smoking cessation prior to operation and 35 (97.2%) reported being aware of increased intra- and perioperative adverse events associated with smoking. The median time since last smoke in the pre-intervention group was 5.5 hours (Q1-Q3 = 2-14) compared with 13 hours (Q1-Q3 = 5-24) in post intervention group. Amongst the smokers, smoking cessation at least 12 hours prior to surgery significantly increased from 27.8% pre-intervention to 52.6% post intervention (P=0.03). Conclusion: A standard preoperative phone call and written instruction on smoking cessation guidelines at time of waitlist placement increase preoperative smoking cessation rates by almost 2-fold.

Keywords: anaesthesia, audit, perioperative medicine, smoking cessation

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47 Effect of Oxidative Stress from Smoking on Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Externalization

Authors: Ratchaneewan Maneemaroj, Paveena Noisuwan, Chonlada Lakhonphon


The smoking is one of the major risk factors in Non-Communicable Disease. Free radicals from cigarette smoke can cause oxidative stress. The oxidative insults can lead to red blood cell (RBC) senescence and are involved in the clearance of red blood cells. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between smoke, oxidative stress evaluated with serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (biomarker of RBC senescence) evaluated with annexin V binding. A total of sixty-four male volunteers aged 25-60 years old were recruited in this study. MDA was measured by colorimetric method. Annexin V binding was detected by flow cytometry. Our results show that there was a significant increase in MDA levels in cigarette smokers as compared to non-smokers (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant different between annexin V binding (% gate) in cigarette smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.978). These results provide evidence of free radical from smoking is associated with oxidative damage to erythrocytes. However, our results suggest that PS externalization is unlikely to have a role in RBC senescence pathway of stressed erythrocytes from cigarette smoke. The other biomarker of RBC senescence should be determined on cigarette smoker erythrocytes.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, phosphatidylserine, RBC senescence, annexin V

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46 The Effect of Aerobic Training Program on Some Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine in Smokers

Authors: Laleh Behboudi Tabrizi, Melika Naserzare


Accumulating experimental and epidemiologic data smoker individuals are more prone to systemic inflammation than non-smokers. In this study we aimed to determine serum TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) as pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to 3 months aerobic training in smoker men. A total 30 middle-aged healthy smokers selected for participate in this study and were divided into either control or exercise groups. The subjects in exercise group were completed a 3 months aerobic training program for 3 sessions per week at 60 – 80 % of maximal heart rate. Those in control group did nit participated in exercise training. Pre and post-training of CRP and TNF-α were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were signigcant within-group changes in the outcomes. P value of <0.05 was accepted as significant. No significant differences were found in anthropometrical and biochemical markers between two groups at baseline. Aerobic training program resulted in a significant decrease in anthropometrical markers and serum TNF-α but not in serum CRP in exercise group. All variables remained without changes in control groups. Based on these finding, it is concluded that aerobic training can be improve inflammatory cytokine with emphasis on TNF-α in smokers.

Keywords: cigarette, cytokine, chronic training, inflammation

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45 Hematological Changes in Oral Cancer Patients with Smokable and Chewable Tobacco

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch


Objective: To analyze hematological changes in patients of oral cancer with history of smokable and chewable tobacco use, and to compare them with healthy controls. Study Design: Descriptive type of study survey. Setting: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LUMHS, Jamshoro. Study Period: One year July, 2013 to July, 2014. Subject and Methods: Histopathologically confirmed hundred cases of oral cancer with the history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco were selected to analyze the hematological variation. Inclusion Criteria: Histopathologically diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma, with history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco. Exclusion Criteria: Patient with any systemic medically compromising problem, terminally ill patients, radio or chemotherapeutically treated patients, patients with metastasis to lungs or any distant metastasis, patients with the history of more than one well-defined etiological factor involved. Results: There were 73% patients of oral cancer reported with anemic. Significantly lower values of Hb, platelet, and higher mean values of ESR, TLC, and were observed in both groups of oral cancer patients; tobacco smokers and tobacco chewers as compared to non-smokers healthy controls. There was more decline in the level of haemoglobin and incline in the level of ESR observed in tobacco chewer oral cancer patients as compared to tobacco smokers patients, while TLC was more observed in smokers. Conclusion: Oral cancer patients with a history of chewable/smokable tobacco have likely worse hematological profile, which increases the anesthetic and surgical challenges for maxillofacial surgeons, which have a significant impact on treatment planning as well.

Keywords: oral cancer, hematological variations, tobacco, smokers

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44 Effects of Warning Label on Cigarette Package on Consumer Behavior of Smokers in Batangas City Philippines

Authors: Irene H. Maralit


Warning labels have been found to inform smokers about the health hazards of smoking, encourage smokers to quit, and prevent nonsmokers from starting to smoke. Warning labels on tobacco products are an ideal way of communicating with smokers. Since the intervention is delivered at the time of smoking, nearly all smokers are exposed to warning labels and pack-a-day smokers could be exposed to the warnings more than 7,000 times per year. Given the reach and frequency of exposure, the proponents want to know the effect of warning labels on smoking behavior. Its aims to identify the profile of the smokers associated with its behavioral variables that best describe the users’ perception. The behavioral variables are AVOID, THINK RISK and FORGO. This research study aims to determine if there is significant relationship between the effect of warning labels on cigarette package on Consumer behavior when grouped according to profile variable. The researcher used quota sampling to gather representative data through purposive means to determine the accurate representation of data needed in the study. Furthermore, the data was gathered through the use of a self-constructed questionnaire. The statistical method used were Frequency count, Chi square, multi regression, weighted mean and ANOVA to determine the scale and percentage of the three variables. After the analysis of data, results shows that most of the respondents belongs to age range 22–28 years old with percentage of 25.3%, majority are male with a total number of 134 with percentage of 89.3% and single with total number of 79 and percentage of 52.7%, mostly are high school graduates with total number of 59 and percentage of 39.3, with regards to occupation, skilled workers have the highest frequency of 37 with 24.7%, Majority of the income of the respondents falls under the range of Php 5,001-Php10,000 with 50.7%. And also with regards to the number of sticks consumed per day falls under 6–10 got the highest frequency with 33.3%. The respondents THINK RISK factor got the highest composite mean which is 2.79 with verbal interpretation of agree. It is followed by FORGO with 2.78 composite mean and a verbal interpretation of agree and AVOID variable with composite mean of 2.77 with agree as its verbal interpretation. In terms of significant relationship on the effects of cigarette label to consumer behavior when grouped according to profile variable, sex and occupation found to be significant.

Keywords: consumer behavior, smokers, warning labels, think risk avoid forgo

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43 The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on the Production of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in Human Platelet

Authors: Yazun Jarrar


Smoking has effect on platelet aggregation and the activity of anti-platelet drugs. The chemical 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cardiotoxic arachidonic acid metabolite which increases platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the influence of cigarette smoking on 20-HETE levels and protein expression of 20-HETE producing enzyme CYP4A11 in isolated platelets from smoker and non-smoker volunteers. The protein expression and 20-HETE levels were analyzed using immunoblot and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (HPL-MS) assays. The results showed that 20-HETE level was higher significantly among smokers than non-smokers (t-test, p-value<0.05). The protein expression of CYP4A11 was significantly higher (t-test, p-value<0.05) among the platelets of smokers. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased the level of platelet activator 20-HETE through increasing the protein expression of CYP4A11. These findings may increase the understanding of smoking-drug interaction during antiplatelets therapy.

Keywords: smoking, 20-HETE, CYP4A11, platelet

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42 Tobacco Taxation and the Heterogeneity of Smokers' Responses to Price Increases

Authors: Simone Tedeschi, Francesco Crespi, Paolo Liberati, Massimo Paradiso, Antonio Sciala


This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of smokers’ responses to cigarette prices increases with a focus on heterogeneity, both across individuals and price levels. To do this, a stated preference quasi-experimental design grounded in a random utility framework is proposed to evaluate the effect on smokers’ utility of the price level and variation, along with social conditioning and health impact perception. The analysis is based on individual-level data drawn from a unique survey gathering very detailed information on Italian smokers’ habits. In particular, qualitative information on the individual reactions triggered by changes in prices of different magnitude and composition are exploited. The main findings stemming from the analysis are the following; the average price elasticity of cigarette consumption is comparable with previous estimates for advanced economies (-.32). However, the decomposition of this result across five latent-classes of smokers, reveals extreme heterogeneity in terms of price responsiveness, implying a potential price elasticity that ranges between 0.05 to almost 1. Such heterogeneity is in part explained by observable characteristics such as age, income, gender, education as well as (current and lagged) smoking intensity. Moreover, price responsiveness is far from being independent from the size of the prospected price increase. Finally, by comparing even and uneven price variations, it is shown that uniform across-brand price increases are able to limit the scope of product substitutions and downgrade. Estimated price-response heterogeneity has significant implications for tax policy. Among them, first, it provides evidence and a rationale for why the aggregate price elasticity is likely to follow a strictly increasing pattern as a function of the experienced price variation. This information is crucial for forecasting the effect of a given tax-driven price change on tax revenue. Second, it provides some guidance on how to design excise tax reforms to balance public health and revenue goals.

Keywords: smoking behaviour, preference heterogeneity, price responsiveness, cigarette taxation, random utility models

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41 The Role of Androgens in Prediction of Success in Smoking Cessation in Women

Authors: Michaela Dušková, Kateřina Šimůnková, Martin Hill, Hana Hruškovičová, Hana Pospíšilová, Eva Králíková, Luboslav Stárka


Smoking represents the most widespread substance dependence in the world. Several studies show the nicotine's ability to alter women hormonal homeostasis. Women smokers have higher testosterone and lower estradiol levels throughout life compared to non-smoker women. We monitored the effect of smoking discontinuation on steroid spectrum with 40 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal women smokers. These women had been examined before they discontinued smoking and also after 6, 12, 24, and 48 weeks of abstinence. At each examination, blood was collected to determine steroid spectrum (measured by GC-MS), LH, FSH, and SHBG (measured by IRMA). Repeated measures ANOVA model was used for evaluation of the data. The study has been approved by the local Ethics Committee. Given the small number of premenopausal women who endured not to smoke, only the first 6 week period data could be analyzed. A slight increase in androgens after the smoking discontinuation occurred. In postmenopausal women, an increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and other androgens occurred, too. Nicotine replacement therapy, weight changes, and age does not play any role in the androgen level increase. The higher androgens levels correlated with failure in smoking cessation. Women smokers have higher androgen levels, which might play a role in smoking dependence development. Women successful in smoking cessation, compared to the non-successful ones, have lower androgen levels initially and also after smoking discontinuation. The question is what androgen levels women have before they start smoking.

Keywords: addiction, smoking, cessation, androgens

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40 Evaluation of Occupational Exposure to Chromium for Welders of Stainless Steel

Authors: L. Musak, J. Valachova, T. Vasicko, O. Osina


Stainless steel is resistant to electrochemical corrosion by passivation. Welders are greatly exposed to welding fumes of toxic metals, which added to this steel. The content of chromium (Cr) is above 11.5%, Ni and Mo from 2 to 6.5%. The aim of the study was the evaluation of occupational exposure to Cr, chromosome analysis and valuation of individual susceptibility polymorphism of gene CCND1 c.870 G>A. The exposed group was consisted from 117 welders of stainless steels. The average age was 38.43 years and average exposure time 7.14 years. Smokers represented 40.17%. The control group consisted of 123 non-exposed workers with an average age of 39.74 years and time employment 16.67 years. Smokers accounted for 22.76%. Analysis of Cr in blood and urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS Varian SpectraAA 30P) with electrothermal decomposition of the sample in the graphite furnace. For the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was used. Gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP reaction using appropriate primers and restriction enzymes. For statistic analysis the Mann-Whitney U-test was used. The mean Cr level in blood of exposed group was 0.095 µmol/l (0.019 min - max 0.504). No value exceeds the average normal value. The mean value Cr in urine was 7.9 µmol/mol creatinine (min 0.026 to max 19.26). The total number of CA was 1.86% in compared to 1.70% controls. (CTA-type 0.90% vs. 0.80% and CSA-type 0.96% vs. 0.90%). In the number of total CA statistical difference was observed between smokers and non-smokers of exposed group (S-1.57% vs. NS-2.04%, P<0.05). In CCND1 gene polymorphisms was observed the increasing of the total CA with wild-type allele (WT) via heterozygous to the VAR genotype (1.44% <1.82% <2.13%). A statistically higher incidence of CTA-type aberrations in variant genotypes between exposed and control groups was observed (1.22% vs. 0.59%, P <0.05). The work place is usually higher source of exposure to harmful factors. Workers need consistent and frequent health control. In assessing the risk of adverse effects of metals it is important to consider their persistence, behavior and bioavailability. Prolonged exposure to carcinogens may not manifest symptoms of poisoning, but delayed effects may occur, which resulted in a higher incidence of malignant tumors.

Keywords: CCND1, genotoxicity, polymorphism, stainless steel, welders

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39 The Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Chrome in Welders of Stainless Steels

Authors: L. Musak, J. Valachova, T. Vasicko, O. Osina


Introduction: Stainless steel is resistant to electrochemical corrosion by passivation. Welders are greatly exposed to welding fumes of toxic metals, which added to this steel. The content of chromium (Cr) in steel was above 11.5%, Ni and Mo from 2 to 6.5%. The aim of the study was the evaluation of occupational exposure to Cr, chromosome analysis and valuation of individual susceptibility polymorphism of gene CCND1 c.870 G>A. Materials and Methods: The exposed group was consisted from 117 welders of stainless steels. The average age was 38.43 years and average exposure time 7.14 years. Smokers represented 40.17%. The control group consisted of 123 non-exposed workers with an average age of 39.74 years and time employment 16.67 years. Smokers accounted for 22.76%. Analysis of Cr in blood and urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS Varian SpectraAA 30P) with electrothermal decomposition of the sample in the graphite furnace. For the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was used cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes, gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP reaction using appropriate primers and restriction enzymes. For statistical analysis was used the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The mean Cr level in exposed group was 0.095 mmol/l (0.019 min-max 0.504). No value does exceed the average normal value. The average value Cr in urine was 7.9 mmol/mol creatinine (min 0.026 to max 19.26). The total number of CA was 1.86% in compared to 1.70% controls. (CTA-type 0.90% vs 0.80% and CSA-type 0.96% vs 0.90%). In the number of total CA was observed statistical difference between smokers and non-smokers of exposed group (S-1.57% vs. NS-2.04%, P<0.05). In CCND1 gene polymorphisms was observed the increasing of the total CA with wild-type allele (WT) via heterozygous to the VAR genotype (1.44%<1.82%<2.13%). There was observed a statistically higher incidence of CTA-type aberrations in variant genotypes between exposed and control groups (1.22% vs. 0.59%, P<0.05). Discussion and conclusions: The work place is usually higher source of exposure to harmful factors. Workers need consistently and checked frequently health control. In assessing the risk of adverse effects of metals is important to consider their persistence, behavior and bioavailability. Prolonged exposure to carcinogens may not manifest symptoms of poisoning, but delayed effects may occur, which resulted in a higher incidence of malignant tumors.

Keywords: genotoxicity, chromium, stainless steels, welders

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38 An Intercontinental Comparison of Delay Discounting for Real and Hypothetical Money and Cigarettes among Cigarette Smokers

Authors: Steven R. Lawyer, Tereza Prihodova, Katerina Prihodova


Delay discounting (DD) is one of the most frequently used behavioral-economic measures of impulsive choice, but there are few cross-cultural comparisons of discounting, and to the best of our knowledge, none compare patterns of DD across different commodities or compare real and hypothetical rewards across cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of DD for both real and hypothetical money and cigarettes among participants in the USA and the Czech Republic. Adult smokers from the United States and the Czech Republic completed standard measures of DD for hypothetical and real money (~$10USD) and cigarettes (1 pack, or 20 cigarettes). Contrary to data from the USA sample, Czech Republic participants discounted the value of real money steeper than hypothetical money, though this could be related to the relatively poor fit of the hyperbolic decay function to DD for hypothetical money in the Czech sample. These findings suggest that there might be cultural differences in delay discounting that warrant further attention.

Keywords: delay discounting, temporal discounting, cigarette smoking, real rewards, hypothetical rewards

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37 The Potential of Role Models in Enhancing Smokers' Readiness to Change (Decision to Quit Smoking): A Case Study of Saudi National Anti-Smoking Campaign

Authors: Ghada M. AlSwayied, Anas N. AlHumaid


Smoking has been linked to thousands of deaths worldwide. Around three million adults continue to use tobacco each day in Saudi Arabia; a sign that smoking is prevalent among Saudi population and obviously considered as a public health threat. Although the awareness against smoking is continuously running, it can be observed that smoking behavior increases noticeably as common practice especially among young adults across the world. Therefore, it was an essential step to guess what does motivate smokers to think about quit smoking. Can a graphic and emotional ad that is focusing on health consequences do really make a difference? A case study has been conducted on the Annual Anti-Smoking National Campaign, which was provided by Saudi Ministry of Health in the period of May 2017. To assess campaign’s effects on the number of calls, the number of visits and online access to health messages during and after the campaign period from May to August compared with the previous campaign in 2016. The educational video was selected as a primary tool to deliver the smoking health message. The Minister of Health who is acting as a role model for young adults was used to deliver a direct message to smokers with an avoidance of smoking cues usage. Due to serious consequences of smoking, the Minister of Health delivered the news of canceling the media campaign and directing the budget to smoking cessation clinics. It was shown that the positive responses and interactions on the campaign were obviously remarkable; achieving a high rate of recall and recognition. During the campaign, the number of calls to book for a visit reached 45880 phone calls, and the total online views ran to 1,253,879. Whereas, clinic visit raised up to 213 cumulative percent. Interestingly, a total number of 15,192 patients visited the clinics along three months compared with the last year campaign’s period, which was merely 4850 patients. Furthermore, around half of patients who visited the clinics were in the age from 26 to 40-year-old. There was a great progress in enhancing public awareness on: 'where to go' to assist smokers in making a quit attempt. With regard to the stages of change theory, it was predicted that by following direct-message technique; the proportion of patients in the contemplation and preparation stages would be increased. There was no process evaluation obtained to assess implementation of the campaigns’ activities.

Keywords: smoking, health promotion, role model, educational material, intervention, community health

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36 Recognising the Importance of Smoking Cessation Support in Substance Misuse Patients

Authors: Shaine Mehta, Neelam Parmar, Patrick White, Mark Ashworth


Patients with a history of substance have a high prevalence of comorbidities, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mortality rates are higher than that of the general population and the link to respiratory disease is reported. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) support opioid substitution therapy as an effective means for harm reduction. However, whilst a high proportion of patients receiving opioid substitution therapy are smokers, to the author’s best knowledge there have been no studies of respiratory disease and smoking intensity in these patients. A cross sectional prevalence study was conducted using an anonymised patient-level database in primary care, Lambeth DataNet (LDN). We included patients aged 18 years and over who had records of ever having been prescribed methadone in primary care. Patients under 18 years old or prescribed buprenorphine (because of uncertainty about the prescribing indication) were excluded. Demographic, smoking, alcohol and asthma and COPD coding data were extracted. Differences between methadone and non-methadone users were explored with multivariable analysis. LDN contained data on 321, 395 patients ≥ 18 years; 676 (0.16%) had a record of methadone prescription. Patients prescribed methadone were more likely to be male (70.7% vs. 50.4%), older (48.9yrs vs. 41.5yrs) and less likely to be from an ethnic minority group (South Asian 2.1% vs. 7.8%; Black African 8.9% vs. 21.4%). Almost all those prescribed methadone were smokers or ex-smokers (97.3% vs. 40.9%); more were non-alcohol drinkers (41.3% vs. 24.3%). We found a high prevalence of COPD (12.4% vs 1.4%) and asthma (14.2% vs 4.4%). Smoking intensity data shows a high prevalence of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (21.5% vs. 13.1%). Risk of COPD, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and deprivation, was raised in smokers: odds ratio 14.81 (95%CI 11.26, 19.47), and in the methadone group: OR 7.51 (95%CI: 5.78, 9.77). Furthermore, after adjustment for smoking intensity (number of cigarettes/day), the risk was raised in methadone group: OR 4.77 (95%CI: 3.13, 7.28). High burden of respiratory disease compounded by the high rates of smoking is a public health concern. This supports an integrated approach to health in patients treated for opiate dependence, with access to smoking cessation support. Further work may evaluate the current structure and commissioning of substance misuse services, including smoking cessation. Regression modelling highlights that methadone as a ‘risk factor’ was independently associated with COPD prevalence, even after adjustment for smoking intensity. This merits further exploration, as the association may be related to unexplored aspects of smoking (such as the number of years smoked) or may be related to other related exposures, such as smoking heroin or crack cocaine.

Keywords: methadone, respiratory disease, smoking cessation, substance misuse

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35 Impact of Adolescent Smoking on the Behaviour, Academic and Health Aspects in Qatar

Authors: Abdelsalam Gomaa, Mahjabeen Ramzan, Tooba Ali Akbar, Huma Nadeem


The use of tobacco and the health risks linked to it are well known in this day and age due to the presence of easily available information through the internet. The media is a powerful platform that is used by many anti-smoking awareness campaigns to reach their target audience; yet, it has been found that adolescents are taking up smoking every passing day. Half of this smoking population of youngsters resides in Asia alone, which includes Qatar, the focus country of this study. As smoking happens to be one of the largest avoidable causes of serious diseases like cancers and heart problems, children are taking up smoking at an alarming rate everywhere including Qatar. Importance of the health of the citizens of Qatar is one of the pillars of the Qatar vision 2030, which is to ensure a healthy population, both physically and mentally. Since the youth makes up a significant percentage of the population and in order to achieve the health objectives of the Qatar vision 2030, it is essential to ensure the health and well-being of this part of the population of the country as they are the future of Qatar. Children, especially boys who tend to be more aggressive by nature, are highly likely to develop behavioral and health issues due to smoking at an early age. Research conducted around the world has also emphasized on this association between the smokers developing a bad behaviour as well as poor social communication skills. However, due to lack of research into this association, very little is known about the extent to which smoking impacts the children’s academics, health and behaviour. Moreover, a study of this nature has not yet been conducted in Qatar previously as most of the studies focus on adult smokers and ways to minimize the number of smoking habits in universities and workplaces. This study solely focuses on identifying a relationship between smoking and its impacts on the adolescents by conducting a research on different schools across Qatar.

Keywords: adolescents, modelling techniques, Qatar, smoking

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34 Assessment of Cellular Metabolites and Impedance for Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer among Habitual Smokers

Authors: Ripon Sarkar, Kabita Chaterjee, Ananya Barui


Smoking is one of the leading causes of oral cancer. Cigarette smoke affects various cellular parameters and alters molecular metabolism of cells. Epithelial cells losses their cytoskeleton structure, membrane integrity, cellular polarity that subsequently initiates the process of epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition due to long exposure of cigarette smoking. It changes the normal cellular metabolic activity which induces oxidative stress and enhances the reactive oxygen spices (ROS) formation. Excessive ROS and associated oxidative stress are considered to be a driving force in alteration in cellular phenotypes, polarity distribution and mitochondrial metabolism. Noninvasive assessment of such parameters plays essential role in development of routine screening system for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is one of such method applied for detection of cellular membrane impedance which can be correlated to cell membrane integrity. Present study intends to explore the alteration in cellular impedance along with the expression of cellular polarity molecules and cytoskeleton distributions in oral epithelial cells of habitual smokers and to correlate the outcome to that of clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Total 80 subjects were categorized into four study groups: nonsmoker (NS), cigarette smoker (CS), oral leukoplakia (OLPK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cytoskeleton distribution was analyzed by staining of actin filament and generation of ROS was measured using assay kit using standard protocol. Cell impedance was measured through ECIS method at different frequencies. Expression of E-cadherin and protease-activated receptor (PAR) proteins were observed through immune-fluorescence method. Distribution of actin filament is well organized in NS group however; distribution pattern was grossly varied in CS, OLPK and OSCC. Generation of ROS was low in NS which subsequently increased towards OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin and change in cellular electrical impedance in different study groups indicated the hallmark of cancer progression from NS to OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin, PAR protein, and cell impedance were decreased from NS to CS and farther OSCC. Generally, the oral epithelial cells exhibit apico-basal polarity however with cancer progression these cells lose their characteristic polarity distribution. In this study expression of polarity molecule and ECIS observation indicates such altered pattern of polarity among smoker group. Overall the present study monitored the alterations in intracellular ROS generation and cell metabolic function, membrane integrity in oral epithelial cells in cigarette smokers. Present study thus has clinical significance, and it may help in developing a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer amongst susceptible individuals.

Keywords: cigarette smoking, early oral cancer detection, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, noninvasive screening

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33 A Comparative Psychological Interventional Study of Nicotine Dependence in Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: S. Madhusudhan, G. V. Vaniprabha


Worldwide statistics have shown that smoking contributes significantly to mortality, with nicotine, being more addictive. Smoking causes more than 7,00,000 deaths/year in India. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of smoking is found to be much higher among people with psychotic disorders and, more so in schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients who smoke tend to have higher frequency of heavy smoking, with rates ranging from 60% to as high as 80%. Hence, smokers with psychiatric disorders suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality secondary to smoking related illnesses.

Keywords: brief intervention, nicotine dependence, schizophrenia

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32 Influence of Smoking on Fine And Ultrafine Air Pollution Pm in Their Pulmonary Genetic and Epigenetic Toxicity

Authors: Y. Landkocz, C. Lepers, P.J. Martin, B. Fougère, F. Roy Saint-Georges. A. Verdin, F. Cazier, F. Ledoux, D. Courcot, F. Sichel, P. Gosset, P. Shirali, S. Billet


In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and fine particles as carcinogenic to humans. Causal relationships exist between elevated ambient levels of airborne particles and increase of mortality and morbidity including pulmonary diseases, like lung cancer. However, due to a double complexity of both physicochemical Particulate Matter (PM) properties and tumor mechanistic processes, mechanisms of action remain not fully elucidated. Furthermore, because of several common properties between air pollution PM and tobacco smoke, like the same route of exposure and chemical composition, potential mechanisms of synergy could exist. Therefore, smoking could be an aggravating factor of the particles toxicity. In order to identify some mechanisms of action of particles according to their size, two samples of PM were collected: PM0.03 2.5 and PM0.33 2.5 in the urban-industrial area of Dunkerque. The overall cytotoxicity of the fine particles was determined on human bronchial cells (BEAS-2B). Toxicological study focused then on the metabolic activation of the organic compounds coated onto PM and some genetic and epigenetic changes induced on a co-culture model of BEAS-2B and alveolar macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages performed in smokers and non-smokers. The results showed (i) the contribution of the ultrafine fraction of atmospheric particles to genotoxic (eg. DNA double-strand breaks) and epigenetic mechanisms (eg. promoter methylation) involved in tumor processes, and (ii) the influence of smoking on the cellular response. Three main conclusions can be discussed. First, our results showed the ability of the particles to induce deleterious effects potentially involved in the stages of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. The second conclusion is that smoking affects the nature of the induced genotoxic effects. Finally, the in vitro developed cell model, using bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages can take into account quite realistically, some of the existing cell interactions existing in the lung.

Keywords: air pollution, fine and ultrafine particles, genotoxic and epigenetic alterations, smoking

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31 Regional Anesthesia in Carotid Surgery: A Single Center Experience

Authors: Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


Patients with carotid stenosis, which may be asymptomatic or symptomatic in the form of transient ischaemic attack (TIA), amaurosis fugax, or stroke, often require an endarterectomy to reduce stroke risk. Risks of this procedure include stroke, death, myocardial infarction, and cranial nerve damage. Carotid endarterectomy is most commonly performed under general anaesthetic, however, it can also be undertaken with a regional anaesthetic approach. Our tertiary centre generally performs carotid endarterectomy under regional anaesthetic. Our major tertiary hospital mostly utilises regional anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy. We completed a cross-sectional analysis of all cases of carotid endarterectomy performed under regional anaesthesia across a 10-year period between January 2010 to March 2020 at our institution. 350 patients were included in this descriptive analysis, and demographic details for patients, indications for surgery, procedural details, length of surgery, and complications were collected. Data was cross tabulated and presented in frequency tables to describe these categorical variables. 263 of the 350 patients in the analysis were male, with a mean age of 71 ± 9. 172 patients had a history of ischaemic heart disease, 104 had diabetes mellitus, 318 had hypertension, and 17 patients had chronic kidney disease greater than Stage 3. 13.1% (46 patients) were current smokers, and the majority (63%) were ex-smokers. Most commonly, carotid endarterectomy was performed conventionally with patch arterioplasty 96% of the time (337 patients). The most common indication was TIA and stroke in 64% of patients, 18.9% were classified as asymptomatic, and 13.7% had amaurosis fugax. There were few general complications, with 9 wound complications/infections, 7 postoperative haematomas requiring return to theatre, 3 myocardial infarctions, 3 arrhythmias, 1 exacerbation of congestive heart failure, 1 chest infection, and 1 urinary tract infection. Specific complications to carotid endarterectomy included 3 strokes, 1 postoperative TIA, and 1 cerebral bleed. There were no deaths in our cohort. This analysis of a large cohort of patients from a major tertiary centre who underwent carotid endarterectomy under regional anaesthesia indicates the safety of such an approach for these patients. Regional anaesthesia holds the promise of less general respiratory and cardiac events compared to general anaesthesia, and in this vulnerable patient group, calls for comparative research between local and general anaesthesia in carotid surgery.

Keywords: anaesthesia, carotid endarterectomy, stroke, carotid stenosis

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30 Oncoplastic Augmentation Mastopexy: Aesthetic Revisional Surgery in Breast Conserving Therapy

Authors: Bar Y. Ainuz, Harry M. Salinas, Aleeza Ali, Eli B. Levitt, Austin J. Pourmoussa, Antoun Bouz, Miguel A. Medina


Introduction: Breast conservation therapy remains the mainstay surgical treatment for early breast cancer. Oncoplastic techniques, in conjunction with lumpectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, have been demonstrated to achieve good aesthetic results without adversely affecting cancer outcomes in the treatment of patients with macromastia or significant ptosis. In our patient population, many women present for breast conservation with pre-existing cosmetic implants or with breast volumes too small for soft tissue, only oncoplastic techniques. Our study evaluated a consecutive series of patients presenting for breast conservation undergoing concomitant oncoplastic-augmentation-mastopexy (OAM) with a contralateral augmentation-mastopexy for symmetry. Methods: OAM surgical technique involves simultaneous lumpectomy with exchange or placement of implants, oncoplastic mastopexy, and concomitant contralateral augmentation mastopexy for symmetry. Patients undergoing lumpectomy for breast conservation as outpatients were identified via retrospective chart review at a high volume private academic affiliated community-based cancer center. Patients with ptosis and either pre-existing breast implants or insufficient breast volume undergoing oncoplastic implant placement (or exchange) and mastopexy were included in the study. Operative details, aesthetic outcomes, and complications were assessed. Results: Over a continuous three-year period, with a two-surgeon cohort, 30 consecutive patients (56 breasts, 4 unilateral procedures) were identified. Patients had an average age of 52.5 years and an average BMI of 27.5, with 40% smokers or former smokers. The average operative time was 2.5 hours, the average implant size removed was 352 cc, and the average implant size placed was 300 cc. All new implants were smooth silicone, with the majority (92%) placed in a retropectoral fashion. 40% of patients received chemotherapy, and 80% of patients received whole breast adjuvant photon radiotherapy with a total radiation dose of either 42.56 or 52.56 Gy. The average and median length of follow-up were both 8.2 months. Of the 24 patients that received radiotherapy, 21% had asymmetry due to capsular contracture. A total of 7 patients (29.2%) underwent revisions for either positive margins (12.5%), capsular contracture (8.3%), implant loss (4.2%), or cosmetic concerns (4.2%). One patient developed a pulmonary embolism in the acute postoperative period and was treated with anticoagulant therapy. Conclusion: Oncoplastic augmentation mastopexy is a safe technique with good aesthetic outcomes and acceptable complication rates for ptotic patients with breast cancer and a paucity of breast volume or pre-existing implants who wish to pursue breast-conserving therapy. The revision rates compare favorably with single-stage cosmetic augmentation procedures as well as other oncoplastic techniques described in the literature. The short-term capsular contracture rates seem lower than the rates in patients undergoing radiation after mastectomy and implant-based reconstruction. Long term capsular contractures and revision rates are too early to know in this cohort.

Keywords: breast conserving therapy, oncoplastic augmentation mastopexy, capsular contracture, breast reconstruction

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29 Health Assessment and Disorders of External Respiration Function among Physicians

Authors: A. G. Margaryan


Aims and Objectives: Assessment of health status and detection disorders of external respiration functions (ERF) during preventative medical examination among physicians of Armenia. Subjects and Methods: Overall, fifty-nine physicians (17 men and 42 women) were examined and spirometry was carried out. The average age of the physicians was 50 years old. The studies were conducted on the Micromedical MicroLab 3500 Spirometer. Results: 25.4% among 59 examined physicians are overweight; 22.0% of them suffer from obesity. Two physicians are currently smokers. About half of the examined physicians (50.8%) at the time of examination were diagnosed with some diseases and had different health-related problems (excluding the problems related to vision and hearing). FVC was 2.94±0.1, FEV1 – 2.64±0.1, PEF – 329.7±19.9, and FEV1%/FVC – 89.7±1.3. Pathological changes of ERF are identified in 23 (39.0%) cases. 28.8% of physicians had first degree of restrictive disorders, 3.4% – first degree of combined obstructive/ restrictive disorders, 6.8% – second degree of combined obstructive/ restrictive disorders. Only three physicians with disorders of the ERF were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. There were no statistically significant changes in ERF depending on the severity of obesity (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The study showed the prevalence of ERF among physicians, observing mainly mild and moderate changes in ERF parameters.

Keywords: Armenia, external respiration function, health status, physicians

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28 Measure of Pleasure of Drug Users

Authors: Vano Tsertsvadze, Marina Chavchanidze, Lali Khurtsia


Problem of drug use is often seen as a combination of psychological and social problems, but this problem can be considered as economically rational decision in the process of buying pleasure (looking after children, reading, harvesting fruits in the fall, sex, eating, etc.). Before the adoption of the decisions people face to a trade-off - when someone chooses a delicious meal, she takes a completely rational decision, that the pleasure of eating has a lot more value than the pleasure which she will experience after two months diet on the summer beach showing off her beautiful body. This argument is also true for alcohol, drugs and cigarettes. Smoking has a negative effect on health, but smokers are not afraid of the threat of a lung cancer after 40 years, more valuable moment is a pleasure from smoking. Our hypothesis - unsatisfied pleasure and frustration, probably determines the risk of dependence on drug abuse. The purpose of research: 1- to determine the relative measure unit of pleasure, which will be used to measure and assess the intensity of various human pleasures. 2- to compare the intensity of the pleasure from different kinds of activity, with pleasures received from drug use. 3- Based on the analysis of data, to identify factors affecting the rational decision making. Research method: Respondents will be asked to recall the greatest pleasure of their life, which will be used as a measure of the other pleasures. The study will use focus groups and structured interviews.

Keywords: drug, drug-user, measurement, satisfaction

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27 Participation of Juvenile with Driven of Tobacco Control in Education Institute: Case Study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai


This paper studied the participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in education institute: case study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University is qualitative research has objective to study participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in University, as guidance of development participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in education institute the university is also free-cigarette university. There are qualitative researches on collection data of participation observation, in-depth interview of group conversation and agent of student in each faculty and college and exchange opinion of student. Result of study found that participation in tobacco control has 3 parts; 1) Participation in campaign of tobacco control, 2) Academic training and activity of free-cigarette of university and 3) As model of juvenile in tobacco control. For guidelines on youth involvement in driven tobacco control is universities should promote tobacco control activities. Reduce smoking campaign continues include a specific area for smokers has living room as sign clearly, staying in the faculty / college and developing network of model students who are non-smoking. This is a key role in the coordination of university students driving to the free cigarette university. Including the strengthening of community in the area and outside the area as good social and quality of country.

Keywords: participation, juvenile, tobacco control, institute

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26 The Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Campaign towards Young Adults (A Case Study in Bandar Sunway Institution)

Authors: Intan Abida Abu Bakar


This paper investigates the effectiveness of anti-smoking campaign towards youth in Bandar Sunway institution. Based from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia and the national newspapers in the country reveal that the campaigns were not effective enough to curb smoking in Malaysia. In the past, from the year 2004 to 2014, the Malaysian Health Ministry were determined to curb the smoking issue that were arising in the country especially among the youths. “Tak Nak” smoking campaign was launched and broadcast on all forms of media in Malaysia. The campaigns are to educate and create an awareness to encourage people to quit smoking besides discourage non-smokers from starting to smoke. The main objective of this research is to investigate and study the concept, storyline and appeal of ‘Tak Nak Merokok’ advertisement campaigns from 2004 to 2014. Data from questionnaires and focus group discussions indicate that the advertisement contained fear and emotional appeal with good concept and storyline are more appealing and effective compared to the humour and informational rational appeal. This research could be a guideline for advertisers who want to come up with creative anti-smoking campaigns in Malaysia. In the future, the focus group can be expanded and more feedbacks and reviews could contribute to marketers and advertisers to determine the most suitable advertisements to tackle this smoking issue.

Keywords: effectiveness, anti-smoking campaign, young adults, smoking

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25 Spirometric Reference Values in 236,606 Healthy, Non-Smoking Chinese Aged 4–90 Years

Authors: Jiashu Shen


Objectives: Spirometry is a basic reference for health evaluation which is widely used in clinical. Previous reference of spirometry is not applicable because of drastic changes of social and natural circumstance in China. A new reference values for the spirometry of the Chinese population is extremely needed. Method: Spirometric reference value was established using the statistical modeling method Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). Results: Data from 236,606 healthy non-smokers aged 4–90 years was collected from the MJ Health Check database. Spirometry equations for FEV1, FVC, MMEF, and FEV1/FVC were established, including the predicted values and lower limits of normal (LLNs) by sex. The predictive equations that were developed for the spirometric results elaborated the relationship between spirometry and age, and they eliminated the effects of height as a variable. Most previous predictive equations for Chinese spirometry were significantly overestimated (to be exact, with mean differences of 22.21% in FEV1 and 31.39% in FVC for males, along with differences of 26.93% in FEV1 and 35.76% in FVC for females) or underestimated (with mean differences of -5.81% in MMEF and -14.56% in FEV1/FVC for males, along with a difference of -14.54% in FEV1/FVC for females) the results of lung function measurements as found in this study. Through cross-validation, our equations were established as having good fit, and the means of the measured value and the estimated value were compared, with good results. Conclusions: Our study updates the spirometric reference equations for Chinese people of all ages and provides comprehensive values for both physical examination and clinical diagnosis.

Keywords: Chinese, GAMLSS model, reference values, spirometry

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24 The Proportion of and Factors Associated With Thyroid Dysfunction among Individuals Referred To A Tertiary Care Facility in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Naeem Lakanwall


Background:The thyroid gland, located just below the vocal cord on each side of and anterior to the trachea, is one of the main endocrine glands. Its normal weight is 15 to 20 grams in adults. The thyroid secretes two most important hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, usually called T4 and T3, respectively. These hormones greatly increase the metabolic rate of the body. In addition to T3 and T4, the thyroid gland secrets calcitonin as well which is a significant hormone for calcium metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the proportion of and to identify factors associated with thyroid dysfunction among individuals coming to a tertiary care facility in Kabul, Afghanistan. Material and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study design was conducted from July to Sep 2018. Blood samples were obtained, serum TSH levels were measured, and the patients were divided into three diagnostic categories according to their serum TSH concentrations. 1) Hypothyroidism 2) Hyperthyroidism 3) Normal thyroid Results: A total of 127 individuals were part of the sample for the final analysis. The majority of study participants (77%) were females. A large number of the participants (92%) did not have a family history of thyroid dysfunction and the majority of the female participants, (85%) were not pregnant in the last two years. Furthermore, 98% of participants, were non-smokers. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in individuals coming to FMIC for thyroid functions tests. The findings also indicated that aging and smoking are the factors associated with thyroid dysfunctions. Further studies are needed to find out the prevalence of and factors associated with thyroid dysfunctions.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Kabul, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, triiodothyronine, thyroxine

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