Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: radon

40 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis for Radon Dispersion Study and Mitigation

Authors: A. K. Visnuprasad, P. J. Jojo, Reshma Bhaskaran


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the distribution of indoor radon concentration in a living room with elevated levels of radon concentration which varies from 22 Bqm-3 to 1533 Bqm-3 in 24 hours. Finite volume method (FVM) was used for the simulation. The simulation results were experimentally validated at 16 points in two horizontal planes (y=1.4m & y=2.0m) using pin-hole dosimeters and at 3 points using scintillation radon monitor (SRM). Passive measurement using pin-hole dosimeters were performed in all seasons. Another simulation was done to find a suitable position for a passive ventilation system for the effective mitigation of radon.

Keywords: indoor radon, computational fluid dynamics, radon flux, ventilation rate, pin-hole dosimeter

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39 Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia

Authors: F. Loffredo, M. Quarto, M. Pugliese, A. Mazzella, F. De Cicco, V. Roca


The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.

Keywords: E-Perm, LR 115 detectors, radon remediation, school

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38 Indoor Radon Concentrations in the High Levels of Uranium Deposit of Phanom and Ko Pha-Ngan Districts, Surat Thani Province, Thailand

Authors: Kanokkan Titipornpun, Somphorn Sriarpanon, Apinun Titipornpun, Jan Gimsa, Tripob Bhongsuwan, Noodchanath Kongchouy


The Phanom and Ko Pha-ngan districts of Surat Thani province are known for their high atmospheric radon concentrations from different sources. While Phanom district is located in an active fault zone, the main radon source in Ko Pha-ngan district is the high amounts of equivalent uranium in the ground surface. Survey measurements of the indoor radon concentrations have been carried out in 105 dwellings and 93 workplaces, using CR-39 detectors that were exposed to indoor radon for forty days. Alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching and counted manually under an optical microscope. The indoor radon concentrations in the two districts were found to vary between 9 and 63 Bq m-3 (Phanom) and 12 and 645 Bq m-3 (Ko Pha-ngan). The geometric mean radon concentration in Ko Pha-ngan district (51±2 Bq m-3) was significantly higher than in the Phanom district (26±1 Bq m-3) at a significance level of p<0.05 (t-test for independent samples). Nevertheless, only in two dwellings (1%), located in Ko Pha-ngan district, radon concentrations (177 and 645 Bq m-3) were found to exceed the limit recommended by the US EPA of 148 Bq m-3. The two houses are probably located near to radon sources which, in combination with low air convection, led to increased indoor levels of radon. Our study also shows that the geometric mean radon concentration was higher in workplaces than in dwellings (0.05 significance level) in both districts.

Keywords: indoor radon, CR-39 detector, active fault zone, equivalent uranium

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37 Design Criteria for Achieving Acceptable Indoor Radon Concentration

Authors: T. Valdbjørn Rasmussen


Design criteria for achieving an acceptable indoor radon concentration are presented in this paper. The paper suggests three design criteria. These criteria have to be considered at the early stage of the building design phase to meet the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization in most countries. The three design criteria are; first, establishing a radon barrier facing the ground; second, lowering the air pressure in the lower zone of the slab on ground facing downwards; third, diluting the indoor air with outdoor air. The first two criteria can prevent radon from infiltrating from the ground, and the third criteria can dilute the indoor air. By combining these three criteria, the indoor radon concentration can be lowered achieving an acceptable level. In addition, a cheap and reliable method for measuring the radon concentration in the indoor air is described. The provision on radon in the Danish Building Regulations complies with the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for when it is not harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in buildings. Airtightness is an important factor when dealing with buildings. It is important to avoid air leakages in the building envelope both facing the atmosphere, e.g. in compliance with energy requirements, but also facing the ground, to meet the requirements to ensure and control the indoor environment. Infiltration of air from the ground underneath a building is the main providing source of radon to the indoor air.

Keywords: radon, natural radiation, barrier, pressure lowering, ventilation

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36 Assessment of the Tectonic Effects on Soil Radon Activity along the Margin of the Arabian Plate Boundary in Northwestern Syria

Authors: Mohamed Al-Hilal


The main purpose of the present study is to assess the role of active tectonics in influencing the emanation level of soil radon across two tectonically active structures of the Northern Dead Sea Fault (NDSF) in northwestern Syria: namely, the Qastoon and Al-Harif fault segments. The radon measurements were basically directed by the results drawn from earlier studies of archaeoseismic and paleoseismic investigation in Al-Harif, besides integrated geophysical and morphotectonic survey at the Qastoon site. In view of that, a total of 80 soil gas radon points were measured in this work with a sampling depth of 75 cm, using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000Pro radon detector. The background range of normal radon emission from local soil was determined in area located away from the influence of the tectonic disturbances. The obtained radon data were statistically analyzed, and the mean values have been standardized in terms of probability of magnitude, which enhances the comparison process and so facilitating the separation of normal radon variations from other anomalous or geotectonic related values. The overall results revealed remarkable occurrences of fault-associated radon anomalies with maximum peak values of ~6 to 7 times above the background, trending in accordance with the predicted traces of the fault ruptures at the Qastoon and Al-Harif, respectively.

Keywords: soil gas radon, active tectonic structure, northern dead sea fault, western Syria

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35 Assessment of Air Pollution in Kindergartens due to Indoor Radon Concentrations

Authors: Jana Djounova


The World Health Organization proposes an average annual reference level of 100 Bq/m³ to minimize health risks due to radon exposure in buildings. However, if this cannot be achieved under the country's specific conditions, the chosen reference level should not exceed 300 Bq/m³. The World Health Organization recognized the relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. Radon in buildings is one of the most important indoor air pollutants, with harmful effects on the health of the population and especially children. This study presents the assessment of indoor radon concentration as air pollution and analyzes the exposure to radon of children and workers. Assessment of air pollution and exposure to indoor radon concentrations under the National Science Fund of Bulgaria, in the framework of grant No КП-06-Н23/1/07.12.2018 in kindergartens in two districts of Bulgaria (Razgrad and Silistra). Kindergartens were considered for the following reasons: 1these buildings are generally at the ground and/or the first floor, where radon concentration is generally higher than at upper floors; 2these buildings are attended by children, a population generally considered more sensitive to ionizing radiation, although little data is available for radon exposure. The measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed with passive methods (CR-39 track detectors) for the period from February to May 2015. One hundred fifty-six state kindergartens on the territories of two districts in Bulgaria have been studied. The variations of radon in the children's premises vary from 9 to 1087 Bq/m³. The established arithmetic mean value of radon levels in the kindergartens in Silistra is 139 Bq/m³ and in Razgrad 152 Bq/m³, respectively. The percentage of kindergarteners, where the radon in premises exceeds the Bulgarian reference level of 300 Bq/m³, was 19%. The exposure of children and workers in those kindergartens is high, so remediation measures of air pollution had been recommended. The difference in radon concentration in kindergartens in two districts was statistically analyzed to assess the influence of geography and geology and the difference

Keywords: air pollution, radon, kindergartens, detectors

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34 A Comparative Study of Indoor Radon Concentrations between Dwellings and Workplaces in the Ko Samui District, Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand

Authors: Kanokkan Titipornpun, Tripob Bhongsuwan, Jan Gimsa


The Ko Samui district of Surat Thani province is located in the high amounts of equivalent uranium in the ground surface that is the source of radon. Our research in the Ko Samui district aimed at comparing the indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces. Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 46 dwellings and 127 workplaces, using CR-39 alpha-track detectors in closed-cup. A total of 173 detectors were distributed in 7 sub-districts. The detectors were placed in bedrooms of dwellings and workrooms of workplaces. All detectors were exposed to airborne radon for 90 days. After exposure, the alpha tracks were made visible by chemical etching before they were manually counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were assumed to be correlated with the radon concentration levels. We found that the radon concentrations could be well described by a log-normal distribution. Most concentrations (37%) were found in the range between 16 and 30 Bq.m-3. The radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces varied from a minimum of 11 Bq.m-3 to a maximum of 305 Bq.m-3. The minimum (11 Bq.m-3) and maximum (305 Bq.m-3) values of indoor radon concentrations were found in a workplace and a dwelling, respectively. Only for four samples (3%), the indoor radon concentrations were found to be higher than the reference level recommended by the WHO (100 Bq.m-3). The overall geometric mean in the surveyed area was 32.6±1.65 Bq.m-3, which was lower than the worldwide average (39 Bq.m-3). The statistic comparison of the geometric mean indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and workplaces showed that the geometric mean in dwellings (46.0±1.55 Bq.m-3) was significantly higher than in workplaces (28.8±1.58 Bq.m-3) at the 0.05 level. Moreover, our study found that the majority of the bedrooms in dwellings had a closed atmosphere, resulting in poorer ventilation than in most of the workplaces that had access to air flow through open doors and windows at daytime. We consider this to be the main reason for the higher geometric mean indoor radon concentration in dwellings compared to workplaces.

Keywords: CR-39 detector, indoor radon, radon in dwelling, radon in workplace

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33 A Fast Version of the Generalized Multi-Directional Radon Transform

Authors: Ines Elouedi, Atef Hammouda


This paper presents a new fast version of the generalized Multi-Directional Radon Transform method. The new method uses the inverse Fast Fourier Transform to lead to a faster Generalized Radon projections. We prove in this paper that the fast algorithm leads to almost the same results of the eldest one but with a considerable lower time computation cost. The projection end result of the fast method is a parameterized Radon space where a high valued pixel allows the detection of a curve from the original image. The proposed fast inversion algorithm leads to an exact reconstruction of the initial image from the Radon space. We show examples of the impact of this algorithm on the pattern recognition domain.

Keywords: fast generalized multi-directional Radon transform, curve, exact reconstruction, pattern recognition

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32 Time Integrated Measurements of Radon and Thoron Progeny Concentration in Various Dwellings of Bathinda District of Punjab Using Deposition Based Progeny Sensors

Authors: Kirandeep Kaur, Rohit Mehra, Pargin Bangotra


Radon and thoron are pervasive radioactive gases and so are their progenies. The progenies of radon and thoron are present in the indoor atmosphere as attached/unattached fractions. In the present work, seasonal variation of concentration of attached and total (attached + unattached) nanosized decay products of indoor radon and thoron has been studied in the dwellings of Bathinda District of Punjab using Deposition based progeny sensors over long integrated times, which are independent of air turbulence. The preliminary results of these measurements are reported particularly regarding DTPS (Direct Thoron Progeny Sensor) and DRPS (Direct Radon Progeny Sensor) for the first time in Bathinda. It has been observed that there is a strong linear relationship in total EERC (Equilibrium Equivalent Radon Concentration) and EETC (Equilibrium Equivalent Thoron Concentration) in rainy season (R2 = 0.83). Further a strong linear relation between total indoor radon concentration and attached fraction has also been observed for the same rainy season (R2= 0.91). The concentration of attached progeny of radon (EERCatt) is 76.3 % of the total Equilibrium Equivalent Radon Concentration (EERC).

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny, DTPS/DRPS, EERC, EETC, seasonal variation

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31 A Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration Levels and Inhalation Dose in Dwellings of Different Districts of Punjab State, India

Authors: Komal Saini, B. K. Sahoo, B.S. Bajwa


In the present study, indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been estimated using newly developed twin cup based pin hole dosimeter with single entry face in some areas of Punjab state, India. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon and thoron has also been estimated directly by using progeny sensors, fabricated by BARC, India. Observed radon and thoron concentrations varied from 38.7±5.79 to 98.7±13.11 Bq/m3 and 25.38±6.56 to 126.56±14.23 Bq/m3 with an average value of 61.59±8.11 & 70.89±9.52 Bq/m3 respectively. Average equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and thoron was 27.98±4.66 & 2.24±0.61 Bq/m3. Calculated equilibrium factor for radon and thoron was 0.467 and 0.034 in the present study. Annual inhalation dose calculated from the present observed concentrations, varied from 1.80 to 3.60 mSv/year with an average value of 2.52 mSv/year, which is well within reference level. It has been observed from the present study that thoron is a significant contributor to the inhalation dose which is about 25% of the total inhalation dose.

Keywords: radon, thoron, pin hole cup dosimeter, DTPS/DRPS, annual inhalation dose

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30 Seasonal Variation of the Unattached Fraction and Equilibrium Factor of ²²²Rn, ²²⁰Rn

Authors: Rajan Jakhu, Rohit Mehra


Radon (²²²Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure to general population. The activity concentrations of radon, thoron gasses, and their unattached and attached short-lived progeny in indoor environment of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan had been calculated via passive measurements using the Pinhole cup dosimeter, deposition based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) and wire mesh capped (DRPS/DTPS) progeny sensors. The results of this study revealed that radon and thoron concentrations (CRn, CTn) are highest in the winter season. The variation of the radon and its decay products are observed to vary seasonally, but these environmental parameters seem not to be affecting the thoron and its decay product concentrations in a regular manner. The average values of the radon and its decay products are maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The equilibrium factor for radon is observed to be 0.50, 0.47 and 0.49 in winter, rainy and summer seasons. The annual average value of the unattached fraction of the radon progeny comes out to be 0.34. On the other hand, the average value of thoron (²²⁰Rn) concentration and its equilibrium factor in the studied area comes to be 74, 39, 45 Bq m⁻³ and 0.07, 0.11, 0.07 respectively for the winter, rainy and summer seasons with the annual average value of the unattached fraction of about 0.18. The annual average radiological dose from exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny comes out to be 0.88 and 0.78 mSv.

Keywords: equilibrium factor, radon, seasonal variation, thoron, unattached fraction

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29 Meteosat Second Generation Image Compression Based on the Radon Transform and Linear Predictive Coding: Comparison and Performance

Authors: Cherifi Mehdi, Lahdir Mourad, Ameur Soltane


Image compression is used to reduce the number of bits required to represent an image. The Meteosat Second Generation satellite (MSG) allows the acquisition of 12 image files every 15 minutes. Which results a large databases sizes. The transform selected in the images compression should contribute to reduce the data representing the images. The Radon transform retrieves the Radon points that represent the sum of the pixels in a given angle for each direction. Linear predictive coding (LPC) with filtering provides a good decorrelation of Radon points using a Predictor constitute by the Symmetric Nearest Neighbor filter (SNN) coefficients, which result losses during decompression. Finally, Run Length Coding (RLC) gives us a high and fixed compression ratio regardless of the input image. In this paper, a novel image compression method based on the Radon transform and linear predictive coding (LPC) for MSG images is proposed. MSG image compression based on the Radon transform and the LPC provides a good compromise between compression and quality of reconstruction. A comparison of our method with other whose two based on DCT and one on DWT bi-orthogonal filtering is evaluated to show the power of the Radon transform in its resistibility against the quantization noise and to evaluate the performance of our method. Evaluation criteria like PSNR and the compression ratio allows showing the efficiency of our method of compression.

Keywords: image compression, radon transform, linear predictive coding (LPC), run lengthcoding (RLC), meteosat second generation (MSG)

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28 A Follow up Study on Indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and Their Decay Product Concentrations in a Mineralized Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: B. S. Bajwa, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, Surinder Singh, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra


A follow up study was taken up in a mineralized zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India to investigate high values of radon concentration reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed Radon-Thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) respectively. The measurements have been carried out in seventy five dwellings of fourteen different villages. Houses were selected taking into consideration of the past data as well as the type of houses such as mud, concrete, brick etc. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly because of thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12-157±73 Bq m-3 and 44±11-240±125 Bq m-3 respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10-63 Bq m-3 and 1-5 Bq m-3 respectively.

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, dosimeter

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27 Radon and Thoron Determination in Natural Ancient Mine Using Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Dose Assessment

Authors: L. Oufni, M. Amrane, R. Rabi


Radon (and thoron) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, having variable distribution in the geological environment. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Radon, thoron and their short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. The aim of this study is to determine alpha-and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn) and their progenies in the air of ancient mine of Aouli in which there is no working activity is situated at approximately 25 km north of the city of Midelt (Morocco), by using LR-115 type II and CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Equilibrium factors between radon and its daughters and between thoron and its progeny were evaluated in the studied atmospheres. The committed equivalent doses due to the 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the visitors of the considered ancient mine. The visitors in these mines spent a good amount of time. It was essential to let the staff know about these values and take the needed steps to prevent any health complications.

Keywords: radon, thoron, concentration, exposure dose, SSNTD, mine

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26 Radon-222 Concentration and Potential Risk to Workers of Al-Jalamid Phosphate Mines, North Province, Saudi Arabia

Authors: El-Said. I. Shabana, Mohammad S. Tayeb, Maher M. T. Qutub, Abdulraheem A. Kinsara


Usually, phosphate deposits contain 238U and 232Th in addition to their decay products. Due to their different pathways in the environment, the 238U/232Th activity concentration ratio usually found to be greater than unity in phosphate sediments. The presence of these radionuclides creates a potential need to control exposure of workers in the mining and processing activities of the phosphate minerals in accordance with IAEA safety standards. The greatest dose to workers comes from exposure to radon, especially 222Rn from the uranium series, and has to be controlled. In this regard, radon (222Rn) was measured in the atmosphere (indoor and outdoor) of Al-Jalamid phosphate-mines working area using a portable radon-measurement instrument RAD7, in a purpose of radiation protection. Radon was measured in 61 sites inside the open phosphate mines, the phosphate upgrading facility (offices and rooms of the workers, and in some open-air sites) and in the dwellings of the workers residence-village that lies at about 3 km from the mines working area. The obtained results indicated that the average indoor radon concentration was about 48.4 Bq/m3. Inside the upgrading facility, the average outdoor concentrations were 10.8 and 9.7 Bq/m3 in the concentrate piles and crushing areas, respectively. It was 12.3 Bq/m3 in the atmosphere of the open mines. These values are comparable with the global average values. Based on the average values, the annual effective dose due to radon inhalation was calculated and risk estimates have been done. The average annual effective dose to workers due to the radon inhalation was estimated by 1.32 mSv. The potential excess risk of lung cancer mortality that could be attributed to radon, when considering the lifetime exposure, was estimated by 53.0x10-4. The results have been discussed in detail.

Keywords: dosimetry, environmental monitoring, phosphate deposits, radiation protection, radon

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25 Exposure to Radon on Air in Tourist Caves in Bulgaria

Authors: Bistra Kunovska, Kremena Ivanova, Jana Djounova, Desislava Djunakova, Zdenka Stojanovska


The carcinogenic effects of radon as a radioactive noble gas have been studied and show a strong correlation between radon exposure and lung cancer occurrence, even in the case of low radon levels. The major part of the natural radiation dose in humans is received by inhaling radon and its progenies, which originates from the decay chain of U-238. Indoor radon poses a substantial threat to human health when build-up occurs in confined spaces such as homes, mines and caves and the risk increases with the duration of radon exposure and is proportional to both the radon concentration and the time of exposure. Tourist caves are a case of special environmental conditions that may be affected by high radon concentration. Tourist caves are a recognized danger in terms of radon exposure to cave workers (guides, employees working in shops built above the cave entrances, etc.), but due to the sensitive nature of the cave environment, high concentrations cannot be easily removed. Forced ventilation of the air in the caves is considered unthinkable due to the possible harmful effects on the microclimate, flora and fauna. The risks to human health posed by exposure to elevated radon levels in caves are not well documented. Various studies around the world often detail very high concentrations of radon in caves and exposure of employees but without a follow-up assessment of the overall impact on human health. This study was developed in the implementation of a national project to assess the potential health effects caused by exposure to elevated levels of radon in buildings with public access under the National Science Fund of Bulgaria, in the framework of grant No КП-06-Н23/1/07.12.2018. The purpose of the work is to assess the radon level in Bulgarian caves and the exposure of the visitors and workers. The number of caves (sampling size) was calculated for simple random selection from total available caves 65 (sampling population) are 13 caves with confidence level 95 % and confidence interval (margin of error) approximately 25 %. A measurement of the radon concentration in air at specific locations in caves was done by using CR-39 type nuclear track-etch detectors that were placed by the participants in the research team. Despite the fact that all of the caves were formed in karst rocks, the radon levels were rather different from each other (97–7575 Bq/m3). An assessment of the influence of the orientation of the caves in the earth's surface (horizontal, inclined, vertical) on the radon concentration was performed. Evaluation of health hazards and radon risk exposure causing by inhaling the radon and its daughter products in each surveyed caves was done. Reducing the time spent in the cave has been recommended in order to decrease the exposure of workers.

Keywords: tourist caves, radon concentration, exposure, Bulgaria

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24 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh Hamideen


In this investigation, the activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of the different countries of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30⁻¹ (Sample from Jordan) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²²⁶Ra, 31⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²³²Th, and 129⁻¹ (Sample from Spain) to 679⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) for ⁴⁰K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

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23 Evaluation of Indoor Radon as Air Pollutant in Schools and Control of Exposure of the Children

Authors: Kremena Ivanona, Bistra Kunovska, Jana Djunova, Desislava Djunakova, Zdenka Stojanovska


In recent decades, the general public has become increasingly interested in the impact of air pollutions on their health. Currently, numerous studies are aimed at identifying pollutants in the indoor environment where they carry out daily activities. Internal pollutants can be of both natural and artificial origin. With regard to natural pollutants, special attention is paid to natural radioactivity. In recent years, radon has been one of the most studied indoor pollutants because it has the greatest contribution to human exposure to natural radionuclides. It is a known fact that lung cancer can be caused by radon radiation and it is the second risk factor after smoking for the onset of the disease. The main objective of the study under the National Science Fund of Bulgaria, in the framework of grant No КП-06-Н23/1/07.12.2018 is to evaluate the indoor radon as an important air pollutant in school buildings in order to reduce the exposure to children. The measurements were performed in 48 schools located in 55 buildings in one Bulgarian administrative district (Kardjaly). The nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used for measurements. The arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations are AM = 140 Bq/m3, and GM = 117 Bq/m3 respectively. In 51 school rooms, the radon levels were greater than 200 Bq/m3, and in 28 rooms, located in 17 school buildings, it exceeded the national reference level of 300 Bq/m3, defined in the Bulgarian ordinance on radiation protection (or 30% of the investigated buildings). The statistically significant difference in the values of radon concentration by municipalities (KW, р < 0.001) obtained showed that the most likely reason for the differences between the groups is the geographical location of the buildings and the possible influence of the geological composition. The combined effect of the year of construction (technical condition of the buildings) and the energy efficiency measures was considered. The values of the radon concentration in the buildings where energy efficiency measures have been implemented are higher than those in buildings where they have not been performed. This result confirms the need for investigation of radon levels before conducting the energy efficiency measures in buildings. Corrective measures for reducing the radon levels have been recommended in school buildings with high radon levels in order to decrease the children's exposure.

Keywords: air pollution, indoor radon, children exposure, schools

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22 Estimation of Emanation Properties of Kimberlites and Host Rocks of Lomonosov Diamond Deposit in Russia

Authors: E. Yu. Yakovlev, A. V. Puchkov


The study is devoted to experimental work on the assessment of emanation properties of kimberlites and host rocks of the Lomonosov diamond deposit of the Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province. The aim of the study is estimation the factors influencing on formation of the radon field over kimberlite pipes. For various types of rocks composing the kimberlite pipe and near-pipe space, the following parameters were measured: porosity, density, radium-226 activity, activity of free radon and emanation coefficient. The research results showed that the largest amount of free radon is produced by rocks of near-pipe space, which are the Vendian host deposits and are characterized by high values of the emanation coefficient, radium activity and porosity. The lowest values of these parameters are characteristic of vent-facies kimberlites, which limit the formation of activity of free radon in body of the pipe. The results of experimental work confirm the prospects of using emanation methods for prospecting of kimberlite pipes.

Keywords: emanation coefficient, kimberlites, porosity, radon volumetric activity

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21 Geochemistry of Natural Radionuclides Associated with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in a Coal Mining Area in Southern Brazil

Authors: Juliana A. Galhardi, Daniel M. Bonotto


Coal is an important non-renewable energy source of and can be associated with radioactive elements. In Figueira city, Paraná state, Brazil, it was recorded high uranium activity near the coal mine that supplies a local thermoelectric power plant. In this context, the radon activity (Rn-222, produced by the Ra-226 decay in the U-238 natural series) was evaluated in groundwater, river water and effluents produced from the acid mine drainage in the coal reject dumps. The samples were collected in August 2013 and in February 2014 and analyzed at LABIDRO (Laboratory of Isotope and Hydrochemistry), UNESP, Rio Claro city, Brazil, using an alpha spectrometer (AlphaGuard) adjusted to evaluate the mean radon activity concentration in five cycles of 10 minutes. No radon activity concentration above 100 Bq.L-1, which was a previous critic value established by the World Health Organization. The average radon activity concentration in groundwater was higher than in surface water and in effluent samples, possibly due to the accumulation of uranium and radium in the aquifer layers that favors the radon trapping. The lower value in the river waters can indicate dilution and the intermediate value in the effluents may indicate radon absorption in the coal particles of the reject dumps. The results also indicate that the radon activities in the effluents increase with the sample acidification, possibly due to the higher radium leaching and the subsequent radon transport to the drainage flow. The water samples of Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream, which, respectively, supply Figueira city and receive the mining effluent, exhibited higher pH values upstream the mine, reflecting the acid mine drainage discharge. The radionuclides transport indicates the importance of monitoring their activity concentration in natural waters due to the risks that the radioactivity can represent to human health.

Keywords: radon, radium, acid mine drainage, coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
20 Applications of Probabilistic Interpolation via Orthogonal Matrices

Authors: Dariusz Jacek Jakóbczak


Mathematics and computer science are interested in methods of 2D curve interpolation and extrapolation using the set of key points (knots). A proposed method of Hurwitz- Radon Matrices (MHR) is such a method. This novel method is based on the family of Hurwitz-Radon (HR) matrices which possess columns composed of orthogonal vectors. Two-dimensional curve is interpolated via different functions as probability distribution functions: polynomial, sinus, cosine, tangent, cotangent, logarithm, exponent, arcsin, arccos, arctan, arcctg or power function, also inverse functions. It is shown how to build the orthogonal matrix operator and how to use it in a process of curve reconstruction.

Keywords: 2D data interpolation, hurwitz-radon matrices, MHR method, probabilistic modeling, curve extrapolation

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19 Status of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation

Authors: G. Cinelli, T. Tollefsen, P. Bossew, V. Gruber, R. Braga, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, M. De Cort


In 2006, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission started the project of the 'European Atlas of Natural Radiation'. The Atlas aims at preparing a collection of maps of Europe displaying the levels of natural radioactivity caused by different sources (indoor and outdoor radon, cosmic radiation, terrestrial radionuclides, terrestrial gamma radiation, etc). The overall goal of the project is to estimate, in geographical resolution, the annual dose that the public may receive from natural radioactivity, combining all the information from the different radiation components. The first map which has been developed is the European map of indoor radon (Rn) since in most cases Rn is the most important contribution to exposure. New versions of the map are realised when new countries join the project or when already participating countries send new data. We show the latest status of this map which currently includes 25 European countries. Second, the JRC has undertaken to map a variable which measures 'what earth delivers' in terms of Rn. The corresponding quantity is called geogenic radon potential (RP). Due to the heterogeneity of data sources across the Europe there is need to develop a harmonized quantity which at the one hand adequately measures or classifies the RP, and on the other hand is suited to accommodate the variety of input data used to estimate this target quantity. Candidates for input quantities which may serve as predictors of the RP, and for which data are available across Europe, to different extent, are Uranium (U) concentration in rocks and soils, soil gas radon and soil permeability, terrestrial gamma dose rate, geological information and indoor data from ground floor. The European Geogenic Radon Map gives the possibility to characterize areas, on European geographical scale, for radon hazard where indoor radon measurements are not available. Parallel to ongoing work on the European Indoor Radon, Geogenic Radon and Cosmic Radiation Maps, we made progress in the development of maps of terrestrial gamma radiation and U, Th and K concentrations in soil and bedrock. We show the first, preliminary map of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, estimated using the data of ambient dose equivalent rate available from the EURDEP system (about 5000 fixed monitoring stations across Europe). Also, the first maps of U, Th, and K concentrations in soil and bedrock are shown in the present work.

Keywords: Europe, natural radiation, mapping, indoor radon

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18 Thermal and Radon-222 Appraisal in Geothermal Aquifer System, Southeastern Tunisia

Authors: Agoubi Belgacem, Adel Kharroubi


Geothermal groundwater is the main water source to supply various sectors in El Hamma city, southeastern Tunisia. This region was long the destination of thousands of people from Tunisia and neighboring countries for care and bathing. The main objective of this study is to understand the groundwater mineralization origins and factors that control. The second goal is the appraisal of radon in geothermal groundwater in the study area. For this aim, geothermal groundwater was sampled and collected from different locations (thermal baths and deep wells). Physical parameters were measured and major ions were analyzed. Results reveal three water types. The water first type has Na-Mg-Ca-SO4-Cl facies and T>55°C. The second water type dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 facies with a temperature < 45 °C. However the third water type is dominated by Ca-SO4-Na-Cl-Mg. The three water types may be controlled by depth and geology. The first represent groundwater from deep aquifer (lower cretaceous), the second type was the shallow aquifer and the first is mixed water from deep and shallow water with a temperature ranging from 45 to 55°C. Measured Radon shows that shallow aquifer has a higher 222Rn concentration (677 to 2903 Bq.m-3) than deep water (203 to 1100 Bq.m-3). R-222 in El Hamma thermal aquifer was controlled by structures, porosity and permeability of aquifers. Geostatistical analyses of hydrogeological data and radon activities confirm the vertical flow and communication between deep and shallow aquifers through vertical faults system.

Keywords: Radon-222, geothermal, water, environment, Tunisia

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17 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar


Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn

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16 Radionuclide Contents and Exhalation Studies in Soil Samples from Sub-Mountainous Region of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Manpreet Kaur


The effect of external and internal exposure in outdoor and indoor environment can be significantly gauged by natural radionuclides. Therefore, it is a consequential to approximate the level of radionuclide contents in soil samples of any area and the risks associated with it. Rate of radon emerging from soil is also one of the prominent parameters for the assessment of radon levels in environmental. In present study, natural radionuclide contents viz. ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K and radon/thoron exhalation rates were evaluated operating thallium doped sodium iodide gamma radiation detector and advanced Smart Rn Duo technique in the soil samples from 30 villages of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Radon flux rate was also measured by using surface chamber technique. Results obtained with two different methods were compared to investigate the cause of emanation factor in the soil profile. The radon mass exhalation rate in the soil samples has been found varying from 15 ± 0.4 to 38 ± 0.8 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ while thoron surface exhalation rate has been found varying from 90 ± 22 to 4880 ± 280 Bq m⁻² h⁻¹. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (99 ± 27 Bq kg⁻¹) was appeared to be well within the admissible limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹ suggested by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) report. The values of various parameters related to radiological hazards were also calculated and all parameters have been found to be well below the safe limits given by various organizations. The outcomes pointed out that region was protected from danger as per health risks effects associated with these radionuclide contents is concerned.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate, exhalation rate, human health, radionuclide

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15 Survey of Indoor Radon/Thoron Concentrations in High Lung Cancer Incidence Area in India

Authors: Zoliana Bawitlung, P. C. Rohmingliana, L. Z. Chhangte, Remlal Siama, Hming Chungnunga, Vanram Lawma, L. Hnamte, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra, J. Malsawma


Mizoram state has the highest lung cancer incidence rate in India due to its high-level consumption of tobacco and its products which is supplemented by the food habits. While smoking is mainly responsible for this incidence, the effect of inhalation of indoor radon gas cannot be discarded as the hazardous nature of this radioactive gas and its progenies on human population have been well-established worldwide where the radiation damage to bronchial cells eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. It is also known that the effect of radiation, however, small may be the concentration, cannot be neglected as they can bring about the risk of cancer incidence. Hence, estimation of indoor radon concentration is important to give a useful reference against radiation effects as well as establishing its safety measures and to create a baseline for further case-control studies. The indoor radon/thoron concentrations in Mizoram had been measured in 41 dwellings selected on the basis of spot gamma background radiation and construction type of the houses during 2015-2016. The dwellings were monitored for one year, in 4 months cycles to indicate seasonal variations, for the indoor concentration of radon gas and its progenies, outdoor gamma dose, and indoor gamma dose respectively. A time-integrated method using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) based single entry pin-hole dosimeters were used for measurement of indoor Radon/Thoron concentration. Gamma dose measurements for indoor as well as outdoor were carried out using Geiger Muller survey meters. Seasonal variation of indoor radon/ thoron concentration was monitored. The results show that the annual average radon concentrations varied from 54.07 – 144.72 Bq/m³ with an average of 90.20 Bq/m³ and the annual average thoron concentration varied from 17.39 – 54.19 Bq/m³ with an average of 35.91 Bq/m³ which are below the permissible limit. The spot survey of gamma background radiation level varies between 9 to 24 µR/h inside and outside the dwellings throughout Mizoram which are all within acceptable limits. From the above results, there is no direct indication that radon/thoron is responsible for the high lung cancer incidence in the area. In order to find epidemiological evidence of natural radiations to high cancer incidence in the area, one may need to conduct a case-control study which is beyond this scope. However, the derived data of measurement will provide baseline data for further studies.

Keywords: background gamma radiation, indoor radon/thoron, lung cancer, seasonal variation

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14 Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rate, Natural Radioactivity, and Radiation Hazard Assessment in Soil Samples from the Surrounding Area of Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant Kasimpur (U. P.), India

Authors: Anil Sharma, Ajay Kumar Mahur, R. G. Sonkawade, A. C. Sharma, R. Prasad


In coal fired thermal power stations, large amount of fly ash is produced after burning of coal. Fly ash is spread and distributed in the surrounding area by air and may be deposited on the soil of the region surrounding the power plant. Coal contains increased levels of these radionuclides and fly ash may increase the radioactivity in the soil around the power plant. Radon atoms entering into the pore space from the mineral grain are transported by diffusion and advection through this space until they in turn decay or are released into the atmosphere. In the present study, Soil samples were collected from the region around a Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant, Kasimpur, Aligarh (U.P.). Radon activity, radon surface exhalation and mass exhalation rates were measured using “sealed can technique” using LR 115-type II nuclear track detectors. Radon activities vary from 92.9 to 556.8 Bq m-3 with mean value of 279.8 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates (EX) in these samples are found to vary from 33.4 to 200.2 mBq m-2 h-1 with an average value of 100.5 mBq m-2 h-1 whereas, Mass exhalation rates (EM) vary from 1.2 to 7.7 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 3.8 mBq kg-1 h-1. Activity concentrations of radionuclides were measured in these samples by using a low level NaI (Tl) based gamma ray spectrometer. Activity concentrations of 226Ra 232Th and 40K vary from 12 to 49 Bq kg-1, 24 to 49 Bq kg-1 and 135 to 546 Bq kg-1 with overall mean values of 30.3 Bq kg-1, 38.5 Bq kg-1 and 317.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. Radium equivalent activity has been found to vary from 80.0 to 143.7 Bq kg-1 with an average value of 109.7 Bq kg-1. Absorbed dose rate varies from 36.1 to 66.4 nGy h-1 with an average value of 50.4 nGy h-1 and corresponding outdoor annual effective dose varies from 0.044 to 0.081 mSv with an average value of 0.061 mSv. Values of external and internal hazard index Hex, Hin in this study vary from 0.21 to 0.38 and 0.27 to 0.50 with an average value of 0.29 and 0.37, Respectively. The results will be discussed in light of various factors.

Keywords: natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, gamma ray spectroscopy

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13 Measure-Valued Solutions to a Class of Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Degenerate Coercivity and Singular Initial Data

Authors: Flavia Smarrazzo


Initial-boundary value problems for nonlinear parabolic equations having a Radon measure as initial data have been widely investigated, looking for solutions which for positive times take values in some function space. On the other hand, if the diffusivity degenerates too fast at infinity, it is well known that function-valued solutions may not exist, singularities may persist, and it looks very natural to consider solutions which, roughly speaking, for positive times describe an orbit in the space of the finite Radon measures. In this general framework, our purpose is to introduce a concept of measure-valued solution which is consistent with respect to regularizing and smoothing approximations, in order to develop an existence theory which does not depend neither on the level of degeneracy of diffusivity at infinity nor on the choice of the initial measures. In more detail, we prove existence of suitably defined measure-valued solutions to the homogeneous Dirichlet initial-boundary value problem for a class of nonlinear parabolic equations without strong coerciveness. Moreover, we also discuss some qualitative properties of the constructed solutions concerning the evolution of their singular part, including conditions (depending both on the initial data and on the strength of degeneracy) under which the constructed solutions are in fact unction-valued or not.

Keywords: degenerate parabolic equations, measure-valued solutions, Radon measures, young measures

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12 Modeling of Alpha-Particles’ Epigenetic Effects in Short-Term Test on Drosophila melanogaster

Authors: Z. M. Biyasheva, M. Zh. Tleubergenova, Y. A. Zaripova, A. L. Shakirov, V. V. Dyachkov


In recent years, interest in ecogenetic and biomedical problems related to the effects on the population of radon and its daughter decay products has increased significantly. Of particular interest is the assessment of the consequence of irradiation at hazardous radon areas, which includes the Almaty region due to the large number of tectonic faults that enhance radon emanation. In connection with the foregoing, the purpose of this work was to study the genetic effects of exposure to supernormal radon doses on the alpha-radiation model. Irradiation does not affect the growth of the cell, but rather its ability to differentiate. In addition, irradiation can lead to somatic mutations, morphoses and modifications. These damages most likely occur from changes in the composition of the substances of the cell. Such changes are epigenetic since they affect the regulatory processes of ontogenesis. Variability in the expression of regulatory genes refers to conditional mutations that modify the formation of signs of intraspecific similarity. Characteristic features of these conditional mutations are the dominant type of their manifestation, phenotypic asymmetry and their instability in the generations. Currently, the terms “morphosis” and “modification” are used to describe epigenetic variability, which are maintained in Drosophila melanogaster cultures using linkaged X- chromosomes, and the mutant X-chromosome is transmitted along the paternal line. In this paper, we investigated the epigenetic effects of alpha particles, whose source in nature is mainly radon and its daughter decay products. In the experiment, an isotope of plutonium-238 (Pu238), generating radiation with an energy of about 5500 eV, was used as a source of alpha particles. In an experiment in the first generation (F1), deformities or morphoses were found, which can be called "radiation syndromes" or mutations, the manifestation of which is similar to the pleiotropic action of genes. The proportion of morphoses in the experiment was 1.8%, and in control 0.4%. In this experiment, the morphoses in the flies of the first and second generation looked like black spots, or melanomas on different parts of the imago body; "generalized" melanomas; curled, curved wings; shortened wing; bubble on one wing; absence of one wing, deformation of thorax, interruption and violation of tergite patterns, disruption of distribution of ocular facets and bristles; absence of pigmentation of the second and third legs. Statistical analysis by the Chi-square method showed the reliability of the difference in experiment and control at P ≤ 0.01. On the basis of this, it can be considered that alpha particles, which in the environment are mainly generated by radon and its isotopes, have a mutagenic effect that manifests itself, mainly in the formation of morphoses or deformities.

Keywords: alpha-radiation, genotoxicity, morphoses, radioecology, radon

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11 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan


Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 80