Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Bhanu Duggal

9 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian


Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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8 Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers

Authors: Pawan Kumar Pant, Bhanu Gupta, S. R. Kale, S. V. Veeravalli


In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.

Keywords: air flow, moving bus, open windows, vortex, wind tunnel

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7 Meiobenthic Diversity off Pudimadaka, Bay of Bengal, East Coast of India with Special Reference to Free-Living Marine Nematodes

Authors: C. Annapurna, Rao M. Srinivasa, Bhanu C. H. Vijaya, M. Sivalakshmi, Rao P. V. Surya


A study on the community structure of meiobenthic fauna was undertaken during three cruises (June 2008, October 2008 and March 2009). Ten stations at depth between 10 and 40 m off Pudimadaka in Visakhapatnam (Lat.17º29′12″N and Long. 83º00′09″), East coast of India were investigated. Ninety species representing 3 major (meiofaunal) taxa namely foraminifera (2), copepoda (9), nematoda (58) and polychaeta (21) were encountered. Overall, meiofaunal (mean) abundance ranged from 2 individuals to 63 ind. 10cm-² with an average of 24.3 ind.10cm-2. The meiobenthic biomass varied between 0.135 to 0.48 mg.10cm-2 with an average 0.27 ± 0.12. On the whole, nematodes constituted 73.62% of the meiofauna in terms of numerical abundance. Shannon –Wiener index values were 2.053 ± 0.64 (June, 2008), 2.477 ± 0.177 (October 2008) and 2.2815±0.24 (March 2009). Multivariate analyses were used to define the most important taxon in nematode assemblages. Three nematode associations could be recognized off Pudimadaka coast, namely Laimella longicaudata, Euchromodora vulgaris and Sabatieria elongata assemblage (June, 2008); Catanema sp. and Leptosomatum sp. assemblage (October 2008) assemblage; Sabatieria sp. and Setosabatieria sp. assemblage (March 2009). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, organic matter, silt and mean particle diameter were important in controlling nematode community structure.

Keywords: meiofauna, marine nematode, biodiversity, community structure, India

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6 Measurements of Scattering Cross Sections for 5.895 keV Photons in Various Polymers

Authors: H. Duggal, G. Singh, G. Singh, A. Bhalla, S. Kumar, J. S. Shahi, D. Mehta


The total differential cross section for scattering of the 5.895 keV photons by various polymers has been measured at scattering angle of 135o. The experimental measurements were carried out using the energy dispersive setup involving annular source of the 55Fe radioisotope and a low energy germanium (LEGe) detector. The cross section values are measured for 20 polymer targets namely, Paraffin Wax, Polytetrafluoro ethylene (PTFE), Cellulose, Silicone oil, Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyvinyl purrolidone (PVP), Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Kapton, Mylar, Chitosan, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Bakelite, Carbopol, Chlorobutyl rubber (CBR), Polyetylene glycol (PEG), Polysorbate-20, Nylon-6, Cetyl alcohol, Carboxyl methyl sodium cellulose and Sodium starch glucolate. The measurements were performed in vacuum so as to avoid scattering contribution due to air and strong absorption of low energy photons in the air column. In the present investigations, the geometrical factor and efficiency of the detector were determined by measuring the K x-rays emitted from the 22Ti and 23V targets excited by the Mn K x-rays in the same experimental set up. The measured scattering cross sections have been compared with the sum of theoretically calculated elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections. The theoretical elastic (Rayleigh) scattering cross sections based on the various form factor approximations, namely, non-relativistic form factor (NF), relativistic form factor (RF), modified form factor (MF), and MF with anomalous scattering factor (ASF) as well as the second order S-matrix formalisms, and the inelastic scattering differential cross sections based on the Klein-Nishina formula after including the inelastic scattering function (KN+ISF) have been calculated. The experimental results show fairly good agreement with theoretical cross sections.

Keywords: photon, polymers, elastic and inelastic, scattering cross sections

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5 Electromagnetic Interface Shielding of Graphene Oxide–Carbon Nanotube Hybrid ABS Composites

Authors: Jeevan Jyoti, Bhanu Pratap Singh, S. R. Dhakate


In the present study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and Improved Hummer’s method, respectively and their composite with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were prepared by twin screw co rotating extrusion technique. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of graphene oxide carbon nanotube (GCNTs) hybrid composites was investigated and the results were compared with EMI shielding of carbon nanotube (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). The experimental results indicate that the EMI shielding effectiveness of these composites is achieved up to –21 dB for 10 wt. % loading of GCNT loading. The mechanism of improvement in EMI shielding effectiveness is discussed by resolving their contribution in absorption and reflection loss. The main reason for such a high improved shielding effectiveness has been attributed to the significant improvement in the electrical conductivity of the composites. The electrical conductivity of these GCNT/ABS composites was increased from 10-13 S/cm to 10-7 S/cm showing the improvement of the 6 order of the magnitude. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies showed that the GCNTs were uniformly dispersed in the ABS polymer matrix. GCNTs form a network throughout the polymer matrix and promote the reinforcement.

Keywords: ABS, EMI shielding, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide, graphene, oxide-carbon nanotube (GCNTs), twin screw extruder, multiwall carbon nanotube, electrical conductivity

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4 Nanoprecipitation with Ultrasonication for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability of Fursemide: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Study in Rat Model

Authors: Malay K. Das, Bhanu P. Sahu


Furosemide is a weakly acidic diuretic indicated for treatment of edema and hypertension. It has very poor solubility but high permeability through stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to its limited solubility it has poor and variable oral bioavailability of 10-90%. The aim of this study was to enhance the oral bioavailability of furosemide by preparation of nanosuspensions. The nanosuspensions were prepared by nanoprecipitation with sonication using DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) as a solvent and water as an antisolvent (NA). The prepared nanosuspensions were sterically stabilized with polyvinyl acetate (PVA).These were characterized for particle size, ζ potential, polydispersity index, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and release behavior. The effect of nanoprecipitation on oral bioavailability of furosemide nanosuspension was studied by in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption study in rats and compared to pure drug. The stable nanosuspension was obtained with average size range of the precipitated nanoparticles between 150-300 nm and was found to be homogenous showing a narrow polydispersity index of 0.3±0.1. DSC and XRD studies indicated that the crystalline furosemide drug was converted to amorphous form upon precipitation into nanoparticles. The release profiles of nanosuspension formulation showed up to 81.2% release in 4 h. The in vivo studies on rats revealed a significant increase in the oral absorption of furosemide in the nanosuspension compared to pure drug. The AUC0→24 and Cmax values of nanosuspension were approximately 1.38 and 1.68-fold greater than that of pure drug, respectively. Furosemide nanosuspension showed 20.06±0.02 % decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to 13.37±0.02 % in plain furosemide suspension, respectively. The improved oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamics effect of furosemide may be due to the improved dissolution of furosemide in simulated gastric fluid which results in enhanced oral systemic absorption of furosemide from stomach region where it has better permeability.

Keywords: furosemide, nanosuspension, bioavailability enhancement, nanoprecipitation, oral drug delivery

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3 Data Confidentiality in Public Cloud: A Method for Inclusion of ID-PKC Schemes in OpenStack Cloud

Authors: N. Nalini, Bhanu Prakash Gopularam


The term data security refers to the degree of resistance or protection given to information from unintended or unauthorized access. The core principles of information security are the confidentiality, integrity and availability, also referred as CIA triad. Cloud computing services are classified as SaaS, IaaS and PaaS services. With cloud adoption the confidential enterprise data are moved from organization premises to untrusted public network and due to this the attack surface has increased manifold. Several cloud computing platforms like OpenStack, Eucalyptus, Amazon EC2 offer users to build and configure public, hybrid and private clouds. While the traditional encryption based on PKI infrastructure still works in cloud scenario, the management of public-private keys and trust certificates is difficult. The Identity based Public Key Cryptography (also referred as ID-PKC) overcomes this problem by using publicly identifiable information for generating the keys and works well with decentralized systems. The users can exchange information securely without having to manage any trust information. Another advantage is that access control (role based access control policy) information can be embedded into data unlike in PKI where it is handled by separate component or system. In OpenStack cloud platform the keystone service acts as identity service for authentication and authorization and has support for public key infrastructure for auto services. In this paper, we explain OpenStack security architecture and evaluate the PKI infrastructure piece for data confidentiality. We provide method to integrate ID-PKC schemes for securing data while in transit and stored and explain the key measures for safe guarding data against security attacks. The proposed approach uses JPBC crypto library for key-pair generation based on IEEE P1636.3 standard and secure communication to other cloud services.

Keywords: data confidentiality, identity based cryptography, secure communication, open stack key stone, token scoping

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2 Sources of Precipitation and Hydrograph Components of the Sutri Dhaka Glacier, Western Himalaya

Authors: Ajit Singh, Waliur Rahaman, Parmanand Sharma, Laluraj C. M., Lavkush Patel, Bhanu Pratap, Vinay Kumar Gaddam, Meloth Thamban


The Himalayan glaciers are the potential source of perennial water supply to Asia’s major river systems like the Ganga, Brahmaputra and the Indus. In order to improve our understanding about the source of precipitation and hydrograph components in the interior Himalayan glaciers, it is important to decipher the sources of moisture and their contribution to the glaciers in this river system. In doing so, we conducted an extensive pilot study in a Sutri Dhaka glacier, western Himalaya during 2014-15. To determine the moisture sources, rain, surface snow, ice, and stream meltwater samples were collected and analyzed for stable oxygen (δ¹⁸O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes. A two-component hydrograph separation was performed for the glacier stream using these isotopes assuming the contribution of rain, groundwater and spring water contribution is negligible based on field studies and available literature. To validate the results obtained from hydrograph separation using above method, snow and ice melt ablation were measured using a network of bamboo stakes and snow pits. The δ¹⁸O and δD in rain samples range from -5.3% to -20.8% and -31.7% to -148.4% respectively. It is noteworthy to observe that the rain samples showed enriched values in the early season (July-August) and progressively get depleted at the end of the season (September). This could be due to the ‘amount effect’. Similarly, old snow samples have shown enriched isotopic values compared to fresh snow. This could because of the sublimation processes operating over the old surface snow. The δ¹⁸O and δD values in glacier ice samples range from -11.6% to -15.7% and -31.7% to -148.4%, whereas in a Sutri Dhaka meltwater stream, it ranges from -12.7% to -16.2% and -82.9% to -112.7% respectively. The mean deuterium excess (d-excess) value in all collected samples exceeds more than 16% which suggests the predominant moisture source of precipitation is from the Western Disturbances. Our detailed estimates of the hydrograph separation of Sutri Dhaka meltwater using isotope hydrograph separation and glaciological field methods agree within their uncertainty; stream meltwater budget is dominated by glaciers ice melt over snowmelt. The present study provides insights into the sources of moisture, controlling mechanism of the isotopic characteristics of Sutri Dhaka glacier water and helps in understanding the snow and ice melt components in Chandra basin, Western Himalaya.

Keywords: D-excess, hydrograph separation, Sutri Dhaka, stable water isotope, western Himalaya

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1 WhatsApp as a Public Health Management Tool in India

Authors: Drishti Sharma, Mona Duggal


Background: WhatsApp can serve as a cost-effective, scalable, convenient, and popular medium for public health management related communication in the developing world where the existing system of communication is top-down and slow. The product supports sending and receiving a variety of media: text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice/video calls. With growing number of users of smartphones and improving access and penetration of internet, the scope of information technology remains immense in resolving the hurdles faced by traditional public health system. Poor infrastructure, gap in digital literacy, faulty documentation, strict organizational hierarchy and slow movement of information across desks and offices- all these, make WhatsApp an efficient prospect to complement the existing system for communication, feedback and leadership for public health system in India. Objective: This study investigates the benefits, challenges and limitations associated with WhatsApp usage as a public health management tool. Methods: The study was conducted within the Chandigarh Union Territory. We used a qualitative approach and conducted individual semi-structured interviews and group interviews (n = 10). Participants included medical officers (n 20), Program managers (n = 4), academicians (n=2) and administrators (n=2). Thematic and content qualitative analyses were conducted. Message log of the WhatsApp group of one of the health program was assessed. Results: Medical Officers said that WhatsApp helped them remain in touch with the program officer. They could easily give feedback and highlight those challenges which needed immediate intervention from the program managers, hence they felt supported. Also, the application helped them share pictures of their activities (meetings and field activities) with the group which they thought inspired others and gave themselves immense satisfaction. Also, it helped build stronger relationships and better coordination among themselves, the same being important in team events. For program managers, it had become a portal for coordinating large scale campaigns. Its reach and the fact that the feedback is real-time make WhatsApp ideal for district level events. Though the easy informal connectivity made them answerable to their staff but it also provided them with flexibility in operations. It turned out to be an important portal for sharing outcome and goals related feedback (both positive and negative) to the team. To be sure, using WhatsApp for the purpose of public health program presents considerable challenges, including technological barriers, organizational challenges, gender issues, confidentiality concerns and unplanned aftereffects. Nevertheless, its advantages in a low-cost setting make it an efficient alternative. Conclusion: WhatsApp has become an integral part of our lives. Use of this app for public health program management within closed groups looks promising and useful. At the same time, addressing the challenges involved would make its usage safer.

Keywords: communication, mobile technology, public health management, WhatsApp

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