Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Jyothi Subramanian

37 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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36 Extraction of Grapefruit Essential Oil from Grapefruit Peels

Authors: Adithya Subramanian, S. Ananthan, T. Prasanth, S. P. Selvabharathi

Abstract:

This project involves extraction of grapefruit essential oil from grapefruit peels using various oils like castor oil, gingelly oil, olive oil as carrier oils. The main aim of this project is to extract the oil which has numerous medicinal uses. The extraction can be performed by two methods. Project involves extraction of the oil with various carrier oil in a view to reduce the cost of production and the physical properties of the extracted oil are examined.

Keywords: essential oil, carrier oil, medicinal uses, cost of production

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35 The Effect of Increase in Aluminium Content on Fluidity of ZA Alloys Processed by Centrifugal Casting

Authors: P. N. Jyothi, A. Shailesh Rao, M. C. Jagath, K. Channakeshavalu

Abstract:

Uses of ZA alloys as bearing material have been increased due to their superior mechanical properties, wear characteristics and tribological properties. Among ZA alloys, ZA 27 alloy has higher strength, low density with excellent bearing and wear characteristics. From the past research work, it is observed that in continuous casting as Al content increases, the fluidity also increases. In present work, ZA 8, ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys have been processed through centrifugal casting process at 600 rotational speed of the mould. Uniform full cylinder is casted with ZA 8 alloy. For ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys where the Al content is higher, cast tubes were not complete and uniform. The reason is Al may be acting as a refiner and reduce the melt flow in the rotating mould. This is mainly due to macro-segregation of Al, which has occurred due to difference in densities of Al and Zn.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, metal flow, characterization, systems engineering

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34 Exploring the Sources of Innovation in Food Processing SMEs of Kerala

Authors: Bhumika Gupta, Jeayaram Subramanian, Hardik Vachhrajani, Avinash Shivdas

Abstract:

Indian food processing industry is one of the largest in the world in terms of production, consumption, exports and growth opportunities. SMEs play a crucial role within this. Large manufacturing firms largely dominate innovation studies in India. Innovation sources used by SMEs are often different from that of large firms. This paper focuses on exploring various sources of innovation adopted by food processing SMEs in Kerala, South India. Outcome suggests that SMEs use various sources like suppliers, competitors, employees, government/research institutions and customers to get new ideas.

Keywords: food processing, innovation, SMEs, sources of innovation

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33 Review of Modern Gas turbine Blade Cooling Technologies used in Aircraft

Authors: Arun Prasath Subramanian

Abstract:

The turbine Inlet Temperature is an important parameter which determines the efficiency of a gas turbine engine. The increase in this parameter is limited by material constraints of the turbine blade.The modern Gas turbine blade has undergone a drastic change from a simple solid blade to a modern multi-pass blade with internal and external cooling techniques. This paper aims to introduce the reader the concept of turbine blade cooling, the classification of techniques and further explain some of the important internal cooling technologies used in a modern gas turbine blade along with the various factors that affect the cooling effectiveness.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, cooling technologies, internal cooling, pin-fin cooling, jet impingement cooling, rib turbulated cooling, metallic foam cooling

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32 Integration of Quality Function Deployment and Modular Function Deployment in Product Development

Authors: Naga Velamakuri, Jyothi K. Reddy

Abstract:

Quality must be designed into a product and not inspected has become the main motto of all the companies globally. Due to the rapidly increasing technology in the past few decades, the nature of demands from the consumers has become more sophisticated. To sustain this global revolution of innovation in production systems, companies have to take steps to accommodate this technology growth. In this process of understanding the customers' expectations, all the firms globally take steps to deliver a perfect output. Most of these techniques also concentrate on the consistent development and optimization of the product to exceed the expectations. Quality Function Deployment(QFD) and Modular Function Deployment(MFD) are such techniques which rely on the voice of the customer and help deliver the needs. In this paper, Quality Function Deployment and Modular Function Deployment techniques which help in converting the quantitative descriptions to qualitative outcomes are discussed. The area of interest would be to understand the scope of each of the techniques and the application range in product development when these are applied together to any problem. The research question would be mainly aimed at comprehending the limitations using modularity in product development.

Keywords: quality function deployment, modular function deployment, house of quality, methodology

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31 Effect of Design Parameters on Porpoising Instability of a High Speed Planing Craft

Authors: Lokeswara Rao P., Naga Venkata Rakesh N., V. Anantha Subramanian

Abstract:

It is important to estimate, predict, and avoid the dynamic instability of high speed planing crafts. It is known that design parameters like relative location of center of gravity with respect to the dynamic lift centre and length to beam ratio of the craft have influence on the tendency to porpoise. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamic performance on the basis of the semi-empirical Savitsky method and also estimates the same by numerical simulations based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using a commercial code namely, STAR- CCM+. The paper examines through the same numerical simulation considering dynamic equilibrium, the changing running trim, which results in porpoising. Some interesting results emerge from the study and this leads to early detection of the instability.

Keywords: CFD, planing hull, porpoising, Savitsky method

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30 Multi-Band, Polarization Insensitive, Wide Angle Receptive Metamaterial Absorber for Microwave Applications

Authors: Lincy Stephen, N. Yogesh, G. Vasantharajan, V. Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and simulation of a five band metamaterial absorber at microwave frequencies. The absorber unit cell consists of squares and strips arranged as the top layer and a metallic ground plane as the bottom layer on a dielectric substrate. Simulation results show five near perfect absorption bands at 3.15 GHz, 7.15 GHz, 11.12 GHz, 13.87 GHz, and 16.85 GHz with absorption magnitudes 99.68%, 99.05%, 96.98%, 98.36% and 99.44% respectively. Further, the proposed absorber exhibits polarization insensitivity and wide angle receptivity. The surface current analysis is presented to explain the mechanism of absorption in the structure. With these preferable features, the proposed absorber can be excellent choice for potential applications such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, radar cross section reduction.

Keywords: electromagnetic absorber, metamaterial, multi- band, polarization insensitive, wide angle receptive

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29 Prevalence of Depression among Post Stroke Survivors in South Asian Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Roseminu Varghese, Laveena Anitha Barboza, Jyothi Chakrabarty, Ravishankar

Abstract:

Depression among post-stroke survivors is prevalent, but it is unidentified. The purpose of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian region from all published health sciences research articles. The review also aimed to analyze the disparities in the prevalence of depression among the post-stroke survivors from different study locations. Data search to identify the relevant research articles published from 2005 to 2016 was done by using mesh terms and keywords in Web of Science, PubMed Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, J gate, IndMED databases. The final analysis comprised of 9 studies, including a population of 1,520 men and women. Meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0. The overall pooled post-stroke depression prevalence was 0.46, 95% (CI), (0.3- 0.62). The prevalence rate in this systematic review is evident of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian Region. Identifying the prevalence of post-stroke depression at an early stage is important to improve outcomes of the rehabilitative process of stroke survivors and for its early intervention.

Keywords: depression, post stroke survivors, prevalence, systematic review

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28 Intensive Crosstalk between Autophagy and Intracellular Signaling Regulates Osteosarcoma Cell Survival Response under Cisplatin Stress

Authors: Jyothi Nagraj, Sudeshna Mukherjee, Rajdeep Chowdhury

Abstract:

Autophagy has recently been linked with cancer cell survival post drug insult contributing to acquisition of resistance. However, the molecular signaling governing autophagic survival response is poorly explored. In our study, in osteosarcoma (OS) cells cisplatin shock was found to activate both MAPK and autophagy signaling. An activation of JNK and autophagy acted as pro-survival strategy, while ERK1/2 triggered apoptotic signals upon cisplatin stress. An increased sensitivity of the cells to cisplatin was obtained with simultaneous inhibition of both autophagy and JNK pathway. Furthermore, we observed that the autophagic stimulation upon drug stress regulates other developmentally active signaling pathways like the Hippo pathway in OS cells. Cisplatin resistant cells were thereafter developed by repetitive drug exposure followed by clonal selection. Basal levels of autophagy were found to be high in resistant cells to. However, the signaling mechanism leading to autophagic up-regulation and its regulatory effect differed in OS cells upon attaining drug resistance. Our results provide valuable clues to regulatory dynamics of autophagy that can be considered for development of improved therapeutic strategy against resistant type cancers.

Keywords: JNK, autophagy, drug resistance, cancer

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27 Enhanced PAHs' Biodegradation by Consortia Developed with Biofilm – Biosurfactant - Producing Microorganisms

Authors: Swapna Guntupalli, Leela Madhuri Chalasani, Kshatri Jyothi, C. V. Rao, Bondili J. S.

Abstract:

The study hypothesizes that enhanced biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is achievable with an assemblage of microorganisms that are capable of producing biofilm and biosurfactants. Accordingly, PAHs degrading microorganism’s (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and yeast) were screened and grouped into different consortia based on their capabilities to produce biofilm and biosurfactants. Among these, Consortium BTSN09 consisting of bacterial fungal cocultures showed highest degradation due to the synergistic action between them. Degradation effiencies were evaluated using HPLC and GC-MS. Within 7days, BTSN09 showed 51% and 50.7% degradation of Phenanthrene (PHE) and Pyrene (PYR) with 200mg/L and 100 mg/L concentrations respectively in a liquid medium. In addition, several degradative enzymes like laccases, 1hydroxy-2-naphthoicacid dioxygenase, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, catechol1,2 dioxygenase and catechol2,3 dioxygenase activity was observed during degradation. Degradation metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis and from the results it was confirmed that the metabolism of degradation proceeds via pthalic acid pathway for both PAHs. Besides, Microbial consortia also demonstrated good biosurfactant production capacity, achieving maximum oil displacement area and emulsification activity of 19.62 cm2, 65.5% in presence of PAHs as sole carbon source. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, micro and macrocolonies formation with different stages of biofim development in presence of PAHs during degradation.

Keywords: PAHs, biosurfactant, biofilm, biodegradation

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26 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, antibacterial activity, FTIR, TEM, SEM

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25 Semi-Supervised Learning Using Pseudo F Measure

Authors: Mahesh Balan U, Rohith Srinivaas Mohanakrishnan, Venkat Subramanian

Abstract:

Positive and unlabeled learning (PU) has gained more attention in both academic and industry research literature recently because of its relevance to existing business problems today. Yet, there still seems to be some existing challenges in terms of validating the performance of PU learning, as the actual truth of unlabeled data points is still unknown in contrast to a binary classification where we know the truth. In this study, we propose a novel PU learning technique based on the Pseudo-F measure, where we address this research gap. In this approach, we train the PU model to discriminate the probability distribution of the positive and unlabeled in the validation and spy data. The predicted probabilities of the PU model have a two-fold validation – (a) the predicted probabilities of reliable positives and predicted positives should be from the same distribution; (b) the predicted probabilities of predicted positives and predicted unlabeled should be from a different distribution. We experimented with this approach on a credit marketing case study in one of the world’s biggest fintech platforms and found evidence for benchmarking performance and backtested using historical data. This study contributes to the existing literature on semi-supervised learning.

Keywords: PU learning, semi-supervised learning, pseudo f measure, classification

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24 Study of Indian and Southeast Asian Literature to Trace Evolution of Hanuman

Authors: Subramanian Chidambaran

Abstract:

Right from the Vedic period, we have instances of human heroes being deified and later even assimilated into other deities. Many scholars opine Indra to be one such Vedic deity who rose from a ‘human leader’ to the position of Devata. We also see the assimilation of the Vedic deity Rudra into Śiva in post-Vedic period. Thus the current deities and Gods we worship in the polytheistic Hindu system have been a result of many such deifications and assimilations. Hanumān is one such contemporary character in Indian culture that changed from a valiant hero of the Rāmāyaṇa to a prominent deity in present days. There are also many arguments on whether Hanumān was truly a monkey or a human as the term ‘vānara’ could be interpreted as ‘vā narah’ i.e. ‘or a human’. Despite the popularity of this deity, there is very little academic research done on the genesis and evolution of him. There are many questions that arise - Does Hanumān find any mention (in any form) in literature or archaeological evidence prior to Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa? What is the character of Hanumān in the Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa? How has this evolved in later Indian literature and where do we see the deification process beginning? What’s the character of Hanumān in literature beyond Indian shores such as Southeast Asian literature and how does it compare with those in Indian literature? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions and trace the evolution of the character Hanumān right from the Vālmῑki Rāmāyaṇa to other Indian literature as well as Southeast Asian literature.

Keywords: Hanumān, Indian, Rāmāyaṇa, Southeast Asia

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23 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal

Abstract:

Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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22 Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Zeolite Catalyzed Chemical Industry Processes

Authors: Mithil Pandey, Ragunathan Bala Subramanian

Abstract:

One of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry is Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) which produces the majority of the world’s gasoline. Some useful products are generated from the vacuum gas oil, heavy gas oil and residue feedstocks by the FCC unit in an oil refinery. Moreover, Zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) have found widespread applications and have proved to be substantial and paradigmatic in oil refining and petrochemical processes, such as FCC because of their porous features. Several famous zeo-catalysts have been fabricated and applied in industrial processes as milestones in history, and have brought on huge changes in petrochemicals. So far, more than twenty types of zeolites have been industrially applied, and their versatile porous architectures with their essential features have contributed to affect the catalytic efficiency. This poster depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts which are accompanied by an increase in environmental and demands. The crucial roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The development of industrial processes for the FCC process, aromatic conversions and olefin production, makes it obvious that the pore architecture plays a very important role in zeo-catalysis processes. By looking at the different necessities of industrial processes, rational construction of the pore model is critically essential. Besides, the pore structure of the zeolite would have a substantial and direct effect on the utilization efficiency of the zeo-catalyst.

Keywords: catalysts, fluid catalytic cracking, industrial processes, zeolite

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21 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Annona cherimola Mill

Authors: Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, Chakrapani Pullagummi, Anupalli Roja Rani

Abstract:

Exploration of the chemical constituents of the plants and pharmacological screening may provide us the basis for the development of novel agents. Plants have provided us some of the very important life saving drugs used in the modern medicine. The aim of our work was to screen the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of leaves of Annona cherimola Mill plant from Tirumala forest, Tirupathi. It was originally called Chirimuya by the Inca people who lived where it was growing in the Andes of South America, is an edible fruit-bearing species of the genus Annona from the family Annonaceae. Annona cherimola Mill is a multipurpose tree with edible fruits and is one of the sources of the medicinal products. The antibacterial activity was measured by agar well diffusion method; the diameter of the zone of bacterial growth inhibition was measured after incubation of plates. The inhibitory effect was studied against the pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Antioxidant assays were also performed for the same extracts by spectrophotometric methods using known standard antioxidants as reference. The studied plant extracts were found to be very effective against the pathogenic microorganisms tested. The methanolic extract of Annona cherimola Mill from showed maximum activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the least concentration required showing the activity was 0.5mg/ml. Phytochemical screening of the plants revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and carbohydrates. Good presence of antioxidants was also found in the methanolic extracts.

Keywords: annona cherimola, phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial activity, methanol extract

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20 Study on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) Beams on Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: A. Siva, K. Bala Subramanian, Kinson Prabu

Abstract:

Concrete is widely used construction materials all over the world. Now a day’s fibers are used in this construction due to its advantages like increase in stiffness, energy absorption, ductility and load carrying capacity. The fiber used in the concrete to increases the structural integrity of the member. It is one of the emerging techniques used in the construction industry. In this paper, the effective utilization of high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) beams has been experimental investigated. The experimental investigation has been conducted on different steel fibers (Hooked, Crimpled, and Hybrid) under cyclic loading. The behaviour of HPFRC beams is compared with the conventional beams. Totally four numbers of specimens were cast with different content of fiber concrete and compared conventional concrete. The fibers are added to the concrete by base volume replacement of concrete. The silica fume and superplasticizers were used to modify the properties of concrete. Single point loading was carried out for all the specimens, and the beam specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The load-deflection behaviour of fibers is compared with the conventional concrete. The ultimate load carrying capacity, energy absorption and ductility of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete is higher than the conventional concrete by 5% to 10%.

Keywords: cyclic loading, ductility, high performance fiber reinforced concrete, structural integrity

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19 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala, M. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: aircraft, endurance, HALE, high altitude, long range, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle

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18 Laser Ultrasonic Imaging Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique Algorithm

Authors: Sundara Subramanian Karuppasamy, Che Hua Yang

Abstract:

In this work, the laser ultrasound technique has been used for analyzing and imaging the inner defects in metal blocks. To detect the defects in blocks, traditionally the researchers used piezoelectric transducers for the generation and reception of ultrasonic signals. These transducers can be configured into the sparse and phased array. But these two configurations have their drawbacks including the requirement of many transducers, time-consuming calculations, limited bandwidth, and provide confined image resolution. Here, we focus on the non-contact method for generating and receiving the ultrasound to examine the inner defects in aluminum blocks. A Q-switched pulsed laser has been used for the generation and the reception is done by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Based on the Doppler effect, LDV provides a rapid and high spatial resolution way for sensing ultrasonic waves. From the LDV, a series of scanning points are selected which serves as the phased array elements. The side-drilled hole of 10 mm diameter with a depth of 25 mm has been introduced and the defect is interrogated by the linear array of scanning points obtained from the LDV. With the aid of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm, based on the time-shifting principle the inspected images are generated from the A-scan data acquired from the 1-D linear phased array elements. Thus the defect can be precisely detected with good resolution.

Keywords: laser ultrasonics, linear phased array, nondestructive testing, synthetic aperture focusing technique, ultrasonic imaging

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17 Dietary Effect of Probiotic Bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 Isolate from Jeju Island`s Traditional Fermented Food, on Innate Immune Response of Oplegnathus fasciatus Challenged with Vibrio anguillarum

Authors: Dong Hwi Kim, Dharaneedharan Subramanian, So Hyun Park, Ha-Ri Choi, Ji-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hoon Lee, Moon Soo Heo

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 isolated from a traditional fermented sea food, as probiotic bacteria in the diets for Rock-bream, Oplegnathus faciatus. A total of 180 fish (187.4 ± 2.7 g) were divided into two groups, control (C) and probiotic (P) group (90 fish per group) in triplicate. C group was fed with basal diet without probiotic, while P group was fed with B. amyloliquefaciens spores at concentration of 1.4 x 106 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of feed. After two months of feeding experiments, P group fish showed significant improvements in body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with C group. Also, bi-weekly assessment of serum protein, glucose, fatty acid profile showed a significant increase in probiotic fed fish than that of control fish group. Similar increase in serum antioxidant and lysozyme activity was found in probiotic fed fish group. Twenty days challenge experiment shows decrease mortality in probiotic fed fish group when compared with that of control group. Hence, these results indicate that the use of B. amyloliquefaciens JFP-2 as a feed supplement, is beneficial to improve the health status of Oplegnathus fasciatus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Oplegnathus fasciatus, probiotic feed, rock bream

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16 Development of High Strength Self Curing Concrete Using Super Absorbing Polymer

Authors: K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, S. Swaminathan, Arul. M. G. Ajin

Abstract:

Concrete is an essential building material which is widely used in construction industry all over the world due to its compressible strength. Curing of concrete plays a vital role in durability and other performance necessities. Improper curing can affect the concrete performance and durability easily. When areas like scarcity of water, structures is not accessible by humans external curing cannot be performed, so we opt for internal curing. Internal curing (or) self-curing plays a major role in developing the concrete pore structure and microstructure. The concept of internal curing is to enhance the hydration process to maintain the temperature uniformly. The evaporation of water in the concrete is reduced by self-curing agent (Super Absorbing Polymer – SAP) thereby increasing the water retention capacity of the concrete. The research work was carried out to reduce water, which is prime material used for concrete in the construction industry. Concrete curing plays a major role in developing hydration process. Concept of self-curing will reduce the evaporation of water from concrete. Self-curing will increase water retention capacity as compared to the conventional concrete. Proper self-curing (or) internal curing increases the strength, durability and performance of concrete. Super absorbing Polymer (SAP) used as internal curing agent. In this study 0.2% to 0.4% of SAP was varied in different grade of high strength concrete. In the experiment replacement of cement by silica fumes with 5%, 10% and 15% are studied. It is found that replacement of silica fumes by 10 % gives more strength and durability when compared to others

Keywords: compressive strength, high strength concrete rapid chloride permeability, super absorbing polymer

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15 The Understanding of Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Diabetic Rats Treated with Andrographis paniculata and Erythrina indica Methanol Extract

Authors: Chakrapani Pullagummi, Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, B. Chandra Sekhar Singh, Prem Kumar, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and its action. The objective of present study was alloxan induced diabetes in S.D (Sprague Dawley) rats, treated with leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and bark extract of Erythrina indica. Plant extract treated rats were analyzed biochemically and molecularly. on normal and diabetic rats. The changes in MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose (by GOD method) levels in blood of both normal and diabetic rat were analyzed. Diabetes induced rats were treated with methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are of medicinal importance. Later after inducing diabetes the rats were treated with medicinal plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are well known for their anti diabetic and antioxidative property in order to control the glucose and MDA levels. The blood plasma of diabetic and normal rats was analyzed for the levels of MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose levels. Results of this study suggested that the Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica can be used as a potential natural antidiabetic agent for treating and postponing the appearance of complications that arise due to Diabetes. Molecular study deals with the analysis of binding mechanism of 2 selected natural compounds from Andrographis and Erythrina extracts against the novel target for type T2D namely PPAR-γ compared with Rosiglitazone (standard compound). The results revealed that most of the selected herbal lead compounds were effective targets against the receptors. These compounds showed favorable interactions with the amino acid residues thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-diabetic compounds.

Keywords: andrographis paniculata, erythrina indica, alloxan, lipid peroxidation, blood glucose level, PPAR-γ

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14 Development and Characterization Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems of Poorly Soluble Drug Dutasteride

Authors: Rajinikanth Siddalingam, Poonguzhali Subramanian

Abstract:

The present study aims to prepare and evaluate the self-nano emulsifying drug delivery (SNEDDS) system to enhance the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug dutasteride. The formulation was prepared using capryol PGMC, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams with presence and absence of drug were plotted to find out the nano emulsification range and also to evaluate the effect of dutasteride on the emulsification behavior of the phases. Prepared SNEDDS formulations were evaluated for its particle size distribution, nano emulsifying properties, robustness to dilution, self-emulsification time, turbidity measurement, drug content and in-vitro dissolution. The optimized formulations are further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze-thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential were carried out to confirm the stability of the formed SNEDDS formulations. The particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation found to be 35.45 nm, -15.45 and 0.19, respectively. The in vitro results are revealed that the prepared formulation enhanced the dissolution rate of dutasteride significantly as compared with pure drug. The in vivo studies in was conducted using rats and the results are revealed that SNEDDS formulation has enhanced the bioavailability of dutasteride drug significantly as compared with raw drug. Based the results, it was concluded that the dutasteride-loaded SNEDDS shows potential to enhance the dissolution of dutasteride, thus improving the bioavailability and therapeutic effects.

Keywords: self-emulsifying drug delivery system, dutasteride, enhancement of bioavailability, dissolution enhancement

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13 A Multivariate Analysis of Patent Price Variations in the Emerging United States Patent Auction Market: Role of Patent, Seller, and Bundling Related Characteristics

Authors: Pratheeba Subramanian, Anjula Gurtoo, Mary Mathew

Abstract:

Transaction of patents in emerging patent markets is gaining momentum. Pricing patents for a transaction say patent sale remains a challenge. Patents vary in their pricing with some patents fetching higher prices than others. Sale of patents in portfolios further complicates pricing with multiple patents playing a role in pricing a bundle. In this paper, a set of 138 US patents sold individually as single invention lots and 462 US patents sold in bundles of 120 portfolios are investigated to understand the dynamics of selling prices of singletons and portfolios and their determinants. Firstly, price variations when patents are sold individually as singletons and portfolios are studied. Multivariate statistical techniques are used for analysis both at the lot level as well as at the individual patent level. The results show portfolios fetching higher prices than singletons at the lot level. However, at the individual patent level singletons show higher prices than per patent price of individual patent members within the portfolio. Secondly, to understand the price determinants, the effect of patent, seller, and bundling related characteristics on selling prices is studied separately for singletons and portfolios. The results show differences in the set of characteristics determining prices of singletons and portfolios. Selling prices of singletons are found to be dependent on the patent related characteristics, unlike portfolios whose prices are found to be dependent on all three aspects – patent, seller, and bundling. The specific patent, seller and bundling characteristics influencing selling price are discussed along with the implications.

Keywords: auction, patents, portfolio bundling, seller type, selling price, singleton

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12 Liability Aspects Related to Genetically Modified Food under the Food Safety Legislation in India

Authors: S. K. Balashanmugam, Padmavati Manchikanti, S. R. Subramanian

Abstract:

The question of legal liability over injury arising out of the import and the introduction of GM food emerges as a crucial issue confronting to promote GM food and its derivatives. There is a greater possibility of commercialized GM food from the exporting country to enter importing country where status of approval shall not be same. This necessitates the importance of fixing a liability mechanism to discuss the damage, if any, occurs at the level of transboundary movement or at the market. There was a widespread consensus to develop the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and to give for a dedicated regime on liability and redress in the form of Nagoya Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on the Liability and Redress (‘N-KL Protocol’) at the international context. The national legal frameworks based on this protocol are not adequately established in the prevailing food legislations of the developing countries. The developing economy like India is willing to import GM food and its derivatives after the successful commercialization of Bt Cotton in 2002. As a party to the N-KL Protocol, it is indispensable for India to formulate a legal framework and to discuss safety, liability, and regulatory issues surrounding GM foods in conformity to the provisions of the Protocol. The liability mechanism is also important in the case where the risk assessment and risk management is still in implementing stage. Moreover, the country is facing GM infiltration issues with its neighbors Bangladesh. As a precautionary approach, there is a need to formulate rules and procedure of legal liability to discuss any kind of damage occurs at transboundary trade. In this context, the proposed work will attempt to analyze the liability regime in the existing Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 from the applicability and domestic compliance and to suggest legal and policy options for regulatory authorities.

Keywords: commercialization, food safety, FSSAI, genetically modified foods, India, liability

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11 Identification of Suitable Sites for Rainwater Harvesting in Salt Water Intruded Area by Using Geospatial Techniques in Jafrabad, Amreli District, India

Authors: Pandurang Balwant, Ashutosh Mishra, Jyothi V., Abhay Soni, Padmakar C., Rafat Quamar, Ramesh J.

Abstract:

The sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifers has become one of the major environmental concerns. Although, it is a natural phenomenon but, it can be induced with anthropogenic activities like excessive exploitation of groundwater, seacoast mining, etc. The geological and hydrogeological conditions including groundwater heads and groundwater pumping pattern in the coastal areas also influence the magnitude of seawater intrusion. However, this problem can be remediated by taking some preventive measures like rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge. The present study is an attempt to identify suitable sites for rainwater harvesting in salt intrusion affected area near coastal aquifer of Jafrabad town, Amreli district, Gujrat, India. The physico-chemical water quality results show that out of 25 groundwater samples collected from the study area most of samples were found to contain high concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with major fractions of Na and Cl ions. The Cl/HCO3 ratio was also found greater than 1 which indicates the salt water contamination in the study area. The geophysical survey was conducted at nine sites within the study area to explore the extent of contamination of sea water. From the inverted resistivity sections, low resistivity zone (<3 Ohm m) associated with seawater contamination were demarcated in North block pit and south block pit of NCJW mines, Mitiyala village Lotpur and Lunsapur village at the depth of 33 m, 12 m, 40 m, 37 m, 24 m respectively. Geospatial techniques in combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) considering hydrogeological factors, geographical features, drainage pattern, water quality and geophysical results for the study area were exploited to identify potential zones for the Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater harvesting suitability model was developed in ArcGIS 10.1 software and Rainwater harvesting suitability map for the study area was generated. AHP in combination of the weighted overlay analysis is an appropriate method to identify rainwater harvesting potential zones. The suitability map can be further utilized as a guidance map for the development of rainwater harvesting infrastructures in the study area for either artificial groundwater recharge facilities or for direct use of harvested rainwater.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, groundwater quality, rainwater harvesting, seawater intrusion

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10 Computer-Aided Ship Design Approach for Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline Based Ship Hull Surface Geometry

Authors: Anu S. Nair, V. Anantha Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents a surface development and fairing technique combining the features of a modern computer-aided design tool namely the Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline (NURBS) with an algorithm to obtain a rapidly faired hull form. Some of the older series based designs give sectional area distribution such as in the Wageningen-Lap Series. Others such as the FORMDATA give more comprehensive offset data points. Nevertheless, this basic data still requires fairing to obtain an acceptable faired hull form. This method uses the input of sectional area distribution as an example and arrives at the faired form. Characteristic section shapes define any general ship hull form in the entrance, parallel mid-body and run regions. The method defines a minimum of control points at each section and using the Golden search method or the bisection method; the section shape converges to the one with the prescribed sectional area with a minimized error in the area fit. The section shapes combine into evolving the faired surface by NURBS and typically takes 20 iterations. The advantage of the method is that it is fast, robust and evolves the faired hull form through minimal iterations. The curvature criterion check for the hull lines shows the evolution of the smooth faired surface. The method is applicable to hull form from any parent series and the evolved form can be evaluated for hydrodynamic performance as is done in more modern design practice. The method can handle complex shape such as that of the bulbous bow. Surface patches developed fit together at their common boundaries with curvature continuity and fairness check. The development is coded in MATLAB and the example illustrates the development of the method. The most important advantage is quick time, the rapid iterative fairing of the hull form.

Keywords: computer-aided design, methodical series, NURBS, ship design

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Based Proton Exchange Membranes Derived by Solution Casting Method for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Authors: Mohanapriya Subramanian, V. Raj

Abstract:

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are considered to be one of the most promising candidates for portable and stationary applications in the view of their advantages such as high energy density, easy manipulation, high efficiency and they operate with liquid fuel which could be used without requiring any fuel-processing units. Electrolyte membrane of DMFC plays a key role as a proton conductor as well as a separator between electrodes. Increasing concern over environmental protection, biopolymers gain tremendous interest owing to their eco-friendly bio-degradable nature. Pectin is a natural anionic polysaccharide which plays an essential part in regulating mechanical behavior of plant cell wall and it is extracted from outer cells of most of the plants. The aim of this study is to develop and demonstrate pectin based polymer composite membranes as methanol impermeable polymer electrolyte membranes for DMFCs. Pectin based nanocomposites membranes are prepared by solution-casting technique wherein pectin is blended with chitosan followed by the addition of optimal amount of sulphonic acid modified Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (S-TiO2). Nanocomposite membranes are characterized by Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, and Energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability are determined into order to evaluate their suitability for DMFC application. Pectin-chitosan blends endow with a flexible polymeric network which is appropriate to disperse rigid S-TiO2 nanoparticles. Resulting nanocomposite membranes possess adequate thermo-mechanical stabilities as well as high charge-density per unit volume. Pectin-chitosan natural polymeric nanocomposite comprising optimal S-TiO2 exhibits good electrochemical selectivity and therefore desirable for DMFC application.

Keywords: biopolymers, fuel cells, nanocomposite, methanol crossover

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8 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude towards End of Life Care among Nurses Working in Tertiary Hospital

Authors: Emni Omar Daw Hussin, Pathmawathi Subramanian, Wong Li Ping

Abstract:

Background: To provide quality care at the end of life, nurses should possess knowledge and skills to provide effective end-of-life care, as well as develop the attitudes and interpersonal competence to provide compassionate care. Aim: This study aimed to assess nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards end of life care and caring for terminal ill patients and to examine relationships among demographic variables and nurse’s knowledge and attitudes toward end of life care and caring for terminal ill patients. Method: a cross-sectional study was conducted at 1 tertiary hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Self-administrative questionnaire was used to collect data from 553 nurses from over all departments except emergency department, operation theater and outpatient clinic. Two tools were used in this study, the Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale to assess the nurses’ attitude and End of Life Knowledge Assessment to assess the nurses’ knowledge. Result: the result of this study yielded that, the majority of participants (54.8%) and (54.4%) have less positive attitude and knowledge towards end of life care and caring for terminal ill patients respectively. As well as there is no significant relationship were found between nurses’ ethnicity, religion, and the total score of FATCOD scale; End of Life Knowledge Assessment score. On other hand there is significant relationship among nurses’ age, working experience, level of education, attending any post basic courses and the total score of both FATCOD scale and End of Life Knowledge Assessment. Conclusion: A lack of education and experience and post basic course about end of life care and palliative care may contribute to the negative attitudes and poor knowledge regarding end of life care. Providing sufficient courses about end of life care could enhance the nurses’ knowledge towards end of life care, as well as providing a reflective narrative environment in which nurses can express their personal feelings about death and dying could be a potentially effective approach. Implication for Practice: This study elaborates the need for further research to develop an effective educational programs to enhance nurses’ knowledge and to promote positive attitude towards death and dying, as well as enhance communication skills, and coping strategies.

Keywords: knowledge, attitude, nurse, end of life care

Procedia PDF Downloads 368