Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Archana Avhad

25 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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24 Development of a Mathematical Model to Characterize the Oil Production in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Environment

Authors: Paul C. Njoku, Archana Swati Njoku

Abstract:

The study deals with the development of a mathematical model to characterize the oil production in Nigeria. This is calculated by initiating the dynamics of oil production in million barrels revenue plan cost of oil production in million nairas and unit cost of production from 1974-1982 in the contest of the federal Republic of Nigeria. This country export oil to other countries as well as importing specialized crude. The transport network from origin/destination tij to pairs is taking into account simulation runs, optimization have been considered in this study.

Keywords: mathematical oil model development dynamics, Nigeria, characterization barrels, dynamics of oil production

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23 Modified Active (MA) Algorithm to Generate Semantic Web Related Clustered Hierarchy for Keyword Search

Authors: G. Leena Giri, Archana Mathur, S. H. Manjula, K. R. Venugopal, L. M. Patnaik

Abstract:

Keyword search in XML documents is based on the notion of lowest common ancestors in the labelled trees model of XML documents and has recently gained a lot of research interest in the database community. In this paper, we propose the Modified Active (MA) algorithm which is an improvement over the active clustering algorithm by taking into consideration the entity aspect of the nodes to find the level of the node pertaining to a particular keyword input by the user. A portion of the bibliography database is used to experimentally evaluate the modified active algorithm and results show that it performs better than the active algorithm. Our modification improves the response time of the system and thereby increases the efficiency of the system.

Keywords: keyword matching patterns, MA algorithm, semantic search, knowledge management

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22 Nanotechnology as a Futuristic Approach to Architecture with Special Reference to Chandigarh

Authors: Chaudhary Archana, Dhingra Poshika

Abstract:

The architecture of the world is at a crossroads with the advent of new technology. The issues of energy efficiency and global warming are getting important with the coming times. New technologies are making their mark. For the architecture profession, nanotechnology will greatly impact construction materials and their properties. Nanotechnology, the understanding and control of matter at a scale of one to one hundred billions of a meter, is bringing incredible changes to the materials and processes of buildings. Materials will behave in many different ways as we are able to more precisely control their properties at the nanoscale. It is precisely called the next industrial revolution. We live in an age where scientific progress continues to transform human lifestyle. This is evermore true when it comes to the progress being made in the field of nanotechnology. This science stands to change and advance the practice of design in a multitude of ways – where architectural progress is being made at the molecular level. The nanotechnology has already been adopted in various buildings across the world. What an impact it shall have on the futuristic architecture in Chandigarh, India shall be discussed in the paper. But before we hurtle off toward a nano-utopia, we need to step back and ask ourselves whether this is a direction in which we really want to go.

Keywords: building materials, energy efficiency, nanotechnology, sustainability

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21 Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithm Based Multi Objective Optimization Technique

Authors: Ashwini Gowda K. S, Archana M. R, Anjaneyappa V

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This paper presents pavement maintenance and management system (PMMS) to obtain optimum pavement maintenance and rehabilitation strategies and maintenance scheduling for a network using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). Optimal pavement maintenance & rehabilitation strategy is to maximize the pavement condition index of the road section in a network with minimum maintenance and rehabilitation cost during the planning period. In this paper, NSGA-II is applied to perform maintenance optimization; this maintenance approach was expected to preserve and improve the existing condition of the highway network in a cost-effective way. The proposed PMMS is applied to a network that assessed pavement based on the pavement condition index (PCI). The minimum and maximum maintenance cost for a planning period of 20 years obtained from the non-dominated solution was found to be 5.190x10¹⁰ ₹ and 4.81x10¹⁰ ₹, respectively.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, maintenance and rehabilitation, optimization technique, pavement condition index

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20 Effect of the Initial Billet Shape Parameters on the Final Product in a Backward Extrusion Process for Pressure Vessels

Authors: Archana Thangavelu, Han-Ik Park, Young-Chul Park, Joon-Hong Park

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we have proposed a method for evaluation of backward extrusion process of pressure vessel made up of steel. Demand for lighter and stiffer products have been increasing in the last years especially in automobile engineering. Through detailed finite element analysis, effective stress, strain and velocity profile have been obtained with optimal range. The process design of a forward and backward extrusion axe-symmetric part has been studied. Forging is mainly carried out because forged products are highly reliable and possess superior mechanical properties when compared to normal products. Performing computational simulations of 3D hot forging with various dimensions of billet and optimization of weight is carried out using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA) Optimization technique. The technique used in this study can be used for newly developed materials to investigate its forgeability for much complicated shapes in closed hot die forging process.

Keywords: backward extrusion, hot forging, optimization, finite element analysis, Taguchi method

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19 Exploratory Study of Community Interaction Project in Environment Education for Youth

Authors: Archana Vadeyar, Smita Phatak

Abstract:

Nurturing flora and fauna is the crux of Environment Education yet one tends to forget to nurture the human minds. Youth education presently is too academic, exam oriented and lacks all-round development. A project is whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. Projects at +2 stages have become, just an easier way of securing marks. The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of an experiential environment education (EE) project for youth involving community interaction. Youth were encouraged to plan activities for children-based on EE through General knowledge (GK), language, math, science, fun games, quiz, sports, art and craft, stories. A purposive sample of 73 students was administered a self-prepared and validated questionnaire; supported by content analysis of reports from EE Journals of 21 students and some photos. Responses of students revealed that project was a joyful and motivating experience, with learnings and realizations, developed concern for others, made them feel responsible, happy and contented. Community interaction programs need to be included in the regular schedule to add more meaning to EE projects and cater to the needs of adolescents for diverting youth energy towards positive action.

Keywords: experiential, project, environment education, youth, community interaction

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18 Efficient Storage and Intelligent Retrieval of Multimedia Streams Using H. 265

Authors: S. Sarumathi, C. Deepadharani, Garimella Archana, S. Dakshayani, D. Logeshwaran, D. Jayakumar, Vijayarangan Natarajan

Abstract:

The need of the hour for the customers who use a dial-up or a low broadband connection for their internet services is to access HD video data. This can be achieved by developing a new video format using H. 265. This is the latest video codec standard developed by ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) on April 2013. This new standard for video compression has the potential to deliver higher performance than the earlier standards such as H. 264/AVC. In comparison with H. 264, HEVC offers a clearer, higher quality image at half the original bitrate. At this lower bitrate, it is possible to transmit high definition videos using low bandwidth. It doubles the data compression ratio supporting 8K Ultra HD and resolutions up to 8192×4320. In the proposed model, we design a new video format which supports this H. 265 standard. The major areas of applications in the coming future would lead to enhancements in the performance level of digital television like Tata Sky and Sun Direct, BluRay Discs, Mobile Video, Video Conferencing and Internet and Live Video streaming.

Keywords: access HD video, H. 265 video standard, high performance, high quality image, low bandwidth, new video format, video streaming applications

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17 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana

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Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: HSV space, histology, enhancement, image

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16 An Optimized Association Rule Mining Algorithm

Authors: Archana Singh, Jyoti Agarwal, Ajay Rana

Abstract:

Data Mining is an efficient technology to discover patterns in large databases. Association Rule Mining techniques are used to find the correlation between the various item sets in a database, and this co-relation between various item sets are used in decision making and pattern analysis. In recent years, the problem of finding association rules from large datasets has been proposed by many researchers. Various research papers on association rule mining (ARM) are studied and analyzed first to understand the existing algorithms. Apriori algorithm is the basic ARM algorithm, but it requires so many database scans. In DIC algorithm, less amount of database scan is needed but complex data structure lattice is used. The main focus of this paper is to propose a new optimized algorithm (Friendly Algorithm) and compare its performance with the existing algorithms A data set is used to find out frequent itemsets and association rules with the help of existing and proposed (Friendly Algorithm) and it has been observed that the proposed algorithm also finds all the frequent itemsets and essential association rules from databases as compared to existing algorithms in less amount of database scan. In the proposed algorithm, an optimized data structure is used i.e. Graph and Adjacency Matrix.

Keywords: association rules, data mining, dynamic item set counting, FP-growth, friendly algorithm, graph

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15 Corporate Social Responsibility in Indian Apparel Industry

Authors: Archana Gandhi

Abstract:

Indian apparel manufacturers see several benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). At the same time, they clearly face steep challenges in its implementation. From the perspective of the participants, the challenges tend to outweigh the benefits. The short-term expenses, misperceptions about the financial benefits of CSR and the additional burden of implementing CSR-related policies and activities tend to overshadow perceptions of the long-term benefits. CSR activities currently seen in the Indian apparel industry are primarily people focused, society-focused or environment-focused. However, most CSR activities focus on employee welfare, including teaching employees about health and safety awareness, creating opportunities for community building, and providing general education to employees. Employee retention is very high in socially responsible Indian firms as compared to non-CSR firms, largely because CSR plays a crucial role in overall employee satisfaction, which translates to worker loyalty and low turnover. Employee retention and commitment are not the​ only potential benefits of CSR in the Indian apparel industry. CSR can also enhance a company’s image. Although it is a long-term benefit, being socially responsible can build a company’s social reputation and help it to gain others’ trust. Buyers do not hesitate to do business with these companies, since it is difficult to find socially responsible firms in India.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, apparel industry, workers, improve work life

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14 Improving Human Resources Management in Indian Civil Service

Authors: Anant Deogaonkar, Archana Nanoty

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The term civil service plays a vital role in functioning of any government. In today’s modern era of globalization civil services essentially contribute for the success of the good governance system. The civil service in India refers to the body of government officials employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. The Indian Civil Services were created to foster the idea of unity in diversity with the expectation of giving continuity and change in administration independent of the political scenario and turmoil affecting the country. The civil service is an integral part of administration and the structures of administration to determine the way civil service functions. The concept of good governance necessarily precludes the effective human resource management ensuring the root level reach of the good governance. The serious matter of concern is the element of change. The civil service in general has maintained status quo instead of sweeping changes in social and economic scenario. One may disagree for this but it is a fact on the street that the Indian civil service was not able to deliver up to the expectations of the people and was lacking on the service front. The effective management of human resources at civil service needs to be prioritized and will form a key factor in successful delivery of the desired results may be in minimum duration. This paper focuses on the various ways of effective management of human resources in civil services. It also highlights the importance of improvement in human resource management in civil services with the detailed discussion of positives and negatives if any of the human resource management in civil services.

Keywords: civil services, human resources management, India, governance

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13 Efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the Reduction of HbA1c in Overweight Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Rohit Sane, Pravin Ghadigaonkar, Purvi Ahuja, Suvarna Tirmare, Archana Kelhe, Kranti Shinde, Rahul Mandole

Abstract:

To evaluate the efficacy of Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program with the reduction of HbA1c in overweight Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients retrospectively. Methods: Retrospective study was carried out on 34 overweight type II diabetic patients (Mean Age = 54.58 ±11.38 yrs). A total of 34 patients were enrolled after screening of 68 patients (HbA1c 7-10%). The patients were on concomitant drugs namely insulin (11.76%), DPP-4 inhibitor (17.64%), Biguanide (55.88%), Sulfonylurea (52.94%), thiazolidinedione (11.76%), other medications (20.58%) and no allopathic medications (14.70%). The patients were given Comprehensive Diabetic Care Program consisting of panchkarma procedures namely snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy) and basti (enema), which was completed in 15 sittings. During the therapy and next 90 days, the patients followed low carbohydrate and moderate protein & fat diet. The primary endpoint of this study was the evaluation of reduction in HbA1c at the end of the follow-up after 90 days. Results: Thirty-four overweight type II diabetic patients (mean age: 54.58[±11.38], HbA1c[7-10%], 67.64% male and 32.35% female) were enrolled in the study. A significant reduction was observed in HbA1c levels (14.30%, p<0.05) at the end of the 90 days follow-up as compared to baseline. Also, BMI was reduced by 5.87%. There was reduction in the usage of the concomitant drugs namely insulin (2.94%), DPP-4 inhibitor (2.94%), Biguanide (32.35%), Sulfonylurea (35.29%), thiazolidinedione (5.88%), other medications(17.64%) and no allopathic medications (32.35%). Conclusion: The results of the study highlight not only in the reduction of HbA1c, but also in BMI and drug tapering of the CDC program in the overweight type II diabetic patients with HbA1c (7-10%).

Keywords: HbA1c, low carb diet, Panchakarma therapy, Type II Diabetes

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12 Processing Methods for Increasing the Yield, Nutritional Value and Stability of Coconut Milk

Authors: Archana G. Lamdande, Shyam R. Garud, K. S. M. S. Raghavarao

Abstract:

Coconut has two edible parts, that is, a white kernel (solid endosperm) and coconut water (liquid endosperm). The white kernel is generally used in fresh or dried form for culinary purposes. Coconut testa, is the brown skin, covering the coconut kernel. It is removed by paring of wet coconut and obtained as a by-product in coconut processing industries during the production of products such as desiccated coconut, coconut milk, whole coconut milk powder and virgin coconut oil. At present, it is used as animal feed component after drying and recovering the residual oil (by expelling). Experiments were carried out on expelling of coconut milk for shredded coconut with and without testa removal, in order to explore the possibility of increasing the milk yield and value addition in terms of increased polyphenol content. The color characteristics of coconut milk obtained from the grating without removal of testa were observed to be L* 82.79, a* 0.0125, b* 6.245, while that obtained from grating with removal of testa were L* 83.24, a* -0.7925, b* 3.1. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of coconut milk obtained from the grating with testa (833.8 µl/ml) when compared to that from without testa (521.3 µl/ml). However, significant difference was not observed in protein content of coconut milk obtained from the grating with and without testa (4.9 and 5.0% w/w, respectively). Coconut milk obtained from grating without removal of testa showed higher milk yield (62% w/w) when compared to that obtained from grating with removal of testa (60% w/w). The fat content in coconut milk was observed to be 32% (w/w), and it is unstable due to such a high fat content. Therefore, several experiments were carried out for examining its stability by adjusting the fat content at different levels (32, 28, 24, and 20% w/w). It was found that the coconut milk was more stable with a fat content of 24 % (w/w). Homogenization and ultrasonication and their combinations were used for exploring the possibility of increasing the stability of coconut milk. The microscopic study was carried out for analyzing the size of fat globules and the degree of their uniform distribution.

Keywords: coconut milk, homogenization, stability, testa, ultrasonication

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11 Smoking, Bullying, and Being Bullied among Secondary School Students: Their Associations with Attachment Styles

Authors: Ruziana Masiran, Hamidin Awang, Cheah Y. T. Jun, Nor Fauziah Hashim, Archana Premkumar, Mohd. Feizel Aisiddiq, Mohd. Fakharuddin

Abstract:

Risk behaviours among secondary school students are common and show an increasing trend over the years. Existing attachment styles between the students and their parents influence the psychosocial development of this group of population hence contributing to the adoption of risk behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between three risk behaviours; smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students and their styles of attachment to parents in a district in Malaysia. Using multistage simple random sampling, a cross-sectional study was designed with the level of significance, α set at 0.05. The validated self-administered Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and Youth Risk Behaviours Surveillance Questionnaire focusing on smoking and bullying were utilized. Secondary school students aged 13 to 17 years old from ten schools in the district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia were sampled. Prevalence of smoking was 15.8%, bullying 8.5% and being bully victims 19.0%. It was found that male gender was a significant risk factor for smoking (p < 0.001), while being Chinese (OR=0.156, 95%CI=0.029-0.837, p=0.030) and having married parents (OR=0.490, 95%CI=0.302-0.796, p=0.490) are protective against smoking. Students with insecure attachment to mothers (OR=1.650, 95%CI=1.018-2.675, p=0.042) and fathers (OR=2.039, 95%CI=1.285-3.234, p=0.002) are at 1.6 and 2 times risk respectively to smoke compared to those with secure attachment. The odds of male students bullying is almost twice than that for female students (OR=2.017, 95%CI=1.416-2.873, p < 0.001), and the odds of being bullied is 1.5 times higher for male students (OR=1.519, 95%CI=1.183-1.950, p=0.001). Those who are insecurely attached to fathers are at 1.8 times higher risk to be bullies (OR=1.867, 95%CI=1.272-2.740, p < 0.001) and 1.5 times higher risk to be bullied (OR=1.546, 95%CI=1.026-2.329, p=0.037). In conclusion, insecure attachment shows a strong association with smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students in Malaysia.

Keywords: attachment styles, bullied, bullying, insecure attachment, risk behaviours, smoking and attachment

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10 Low-Cost Image Processing System for Evaluating Pavement Surface Distress

Authors: Keerti Kembhavi, M. R. Archana, V. Anjaneyappa

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Most asphalt pavement condition evaluation use rating frameworks in which asphalt pavement distress is estimated by type, extent, and severity. Rating is carried out by the pavement condition rating (PCR), which is tedious and expensive. This paper presents the development of a low-cost technique for image pavement distress analysis that permits the identification of pothole and cracks. The paper explores the application of image processing tools for the detection of potholes and cracks. Longitudinal cracking and pothole are detected using Fuzzy-C- Means (FCM) and proceeded with the Spectral Theory algorithm. The framework comprises three phases, including image acquisition, processing, and extraction of features. A digital camera (Gopro) with the holder is used to capture pavement distress images on a moving vehicle. FCM classifier and Spectral Theory algorithms are used to compute features and classify the longitudinal cracking and pothole. The Matlab2016Ra Image preparing tool kit utilizes performance analysis to identify the viability of pavement distress on selected urban stretches of Bengaluru city, India. The outcomes of image evaluation with the utilization semi-computerized image handling framework represented the features of longitudinal crack and pothole with an accuracy of about 80%. Further, the detected images are validated with the actual dimensions, and it is seen that dimension variability is about 0.46. The linear regression model y=1.171x-0.155 is obtained using the existing and experimental / image processing area. The R2 correlation square obtained from the best fit line is 0.807, which is considered in the linear regression model to be ‘large positive linear association’.

Keywords: crack detection, pothole detection, spectral clustering, fuzzy-c-means

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9 Verbal Working Memory in Sequential and Simultaneous Bilinguals: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Archana Rao R., Deepak P., Chayashree P. D., Darshan H. S.

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Cognitive abilities in bilinguals have been widely studied over the last few decades. Bilingualism has been found to extensively facilitate the ability to store and manipulate information in Working Memory (WM). The mechanism of WM includes primary memory, attentional control, and secondary memory, each of which makes a contribution to WM. Many researches have been done in an attempt to measure WM capabilities through both verbal (phonological) and nonverbal tasks (visuospatial). Since there is a lot of speculations regarding the relationship between WM and bilingualism, further investigation is required to understand the nature of WM in bilinguals, i.e., with respect to sequential and simultaneous bilinguals. Hence the present study aimed to highlight the verbal working memory abilities in sequential and simultaneous bilinguals with respect to the processing and recall abilities of nouns and verbs. Two groups of bilinguals aged between 18-30 years were considered for the study. Group 1 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) sequential bilinguals who had acquired L1 (Kannada) before the age of 3 and had exposure to L2 (English) for a period of 8-10 years. Group 2 consisted of 20 (10 males and 10 females) simultaneous bilinguals who have acquired both L1 and L2 before the age of 3. Working memory abilities were assessed using two tasks, and a set of stimuli which was presented in gradation of complexity and the stimuli was inclusive of frequent and infrequent nouns and verbs. The tasks involved the participants to judge the correctness of the sentence and simultaneously remember the last word of each sentence and the participants are instructed to recall the words at the end of each set. The results indicated no significant difference between sequential and simultaneous bilinguals in processing the nouns and verbs, and this could be attributed to the proficiency level of the participants in L1 and the alike cognitive abilities between the groups. And recall of nouns was better compared to verbs, maybe because of the complex argument structure involved in verbs. Similarly, authors found a frequency of occurrence of nouns and verbs also had an effect on WM abilities. The difference was also found across gradation due to the load imposed on the central executive function and phonological loop.

Keywords: bilinguals, nouns, verbs, working memory

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8 Obesity-Associated Vitamin D Insufficiency Among Women

Authors: Archana Surendran, Kalpana C. A.

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Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in women. Vitamin D bioavailability could be reduced in obesity due to increased sequestration by white adipose tissue. Increased sun exposure due to more frequent outdoor physical activity as well as a diet rich in vitamin D could be the common cause of both higher levels of 25(OH)D and a more favorable lipid profile. The study was conducted with the aim to assess the obesity status among selected working women in Coimbatore, determine their lifestyle and physical activity pattern, study their dietary intake, estimate the vitamin D and lipid profile of selected women and associate the relationship between Vitamin D and obesity among the selected women. A total of 100 working women (non pregnant, non lactating) working in IT sector, hotels and teaching staff were selected for the study. Anthropometric measurements and dietary recall were conducted for all. The women were further categorized as obese and non-obese based on their BMI. Fifteen obese and 15 non-obese women were selected and their fasting blood glucose level, serum Vitamin D and lipid profile were measured. Association between serum vitamin D, lipid profile, anthropometric measurements, food intake and sun exposure was correlated. Fifty six percent of women in the age group between 25-39 years and 44 percent of women in the age group between 40-45 years were obese. Waist and hip circumference of women in the age group between 40-45 years (89.7 and 107.4 cm) were higher than that of obese women in the age group between 25-39 years (88.6 and 102.8 cm). There were no women with sufficient vitamin D levels. In the age group between 40-45 years (obese women), serum Vitamin D was inversely proportional to waist-hip ratio and LDL cholesterol. There was an inverse relationship between body fat percentage and Total cholesterol with serum vitamin D among the women of the age group between 25-39 years. Consumption of milk and milk products were low among women. Intake of calcium was deficit among the women in both the age groups and showed a negative correlation. Sun exposure was less for all the women. Findings from the study revealed that obese women with a higher consumption of fat and less intake of calcium-rich foods have low serum Vitamin D levels than the non-obese women. Thus, it can be concluded that there is an association between Vitamin D status and obesity among adult women.

Keywords: obesity, sun exposure, vitamin D, women

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7 Application of Host Factors as Biomarker in Early Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Ambrish Tiwari, Sudhasini Panda, Archana Singh, Kalpana Luthra, S. K. Sharma

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Introduction: On the basis of available literature we know that various host factors play a role in outcome of Tuberculosis (TB) infection by modulating innate immunity. One such factor is Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase enzyme (iNOS) which help in the production of Nitric Oxide (NO), an antimicrobial agent. Expression of iNOS is in control of various host factors in which Vitamin D along with its nuclear receptor Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is one of them. Vitamin D along with its receptor also produces cathelicidin (antimicrobicidal agent). With this background, we attempted to investigate the levels of Vitamin D and NO along with their associated molecules in tuberculosis patients and household contacts as compared to healthy controls and assess the implication of these findings in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Study subjects and methods: 100 active TB patients, 75 household contacts, and 70 healthy controls were taken. VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were studied using real-time PCR. Serum VDR, cathelicidin, iNOS levels were measured using ELISA. Serum Vitamin D levels were measured in serum samples using chemiluminescence based immunoassay. NO was measured using colorimetry based kit. Results: VDR and iNOS mRNA levels were found to be lower in active TB group compared to household contacts and healthy controls (P=0.0001 and 0.005 respectively). The serum levels of Vitamin D were also found to be lower in active TB group as compared to healthy controls (P =0.001). Levels of cathelicidin and NO was higher in patient group as compared to other groups (p=0.01 and 0.5 respectively). However, the expression of VDR and iNOS and levels of vitamin D was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in household contacts compared to both active TB and healthy control groups. Inference: Higher levels of Vitamin D along with VDR and iNOS expression in household contacts as compared to patients suggest that vitamin D might have a protective role against TB which prevents activation of the disease. From our data, we can conclude that decreased vitamin D levels could be implicated in disease progression and we can use cathelicidin and NO as a biomarker for early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: vitamin D, VDR, iNOS, tuberculosis

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6 Energy Intensity: A Case of Indian Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Archana Soni, Arvind Mittal, Manmohan Kapshe

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Energy has been recognized as one of the key inputs for the economic growth and social development of a country. High economic growth naturally means a high level of energy consumption. However, in the present energy scenario where there is a wide gap between the energy generation and energy consumption, it is extremely difficult to match the demand with the supply. India being one of the largest and rapidly growing developing countries, there is an impending energy crisis which requires immediate measures to be adopted. In this situation, the concept of Energy Intensity comes under special focus to ensure energy security in an environmentally sustainable way. Energy Intensity is defined as the energy consumed per unit output in the context of industrial energy practices. It is a key determinant of the projections of future energy demands which assists in policy making. Energy Intensity is inversely related to energy efficiency; lesser the energy required to produce a unit of output or service, the greater is the energy efficiency. Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries is among the highest in the world and stands for enormous energy consumption. Hence, reducing the Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries is one of the best strategies to achieve a low level of energy consumption and conserve energy. This study attempts to analyse the factors which influence the Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing firms and how they can be used to reduce the Energy Intensity. The paper considers six of the largest energy consuming manufacturing industries in India viz. Aluminium, Cement, Iron & Steel Industries, Textile Industries, Fertilizer and Paper industries and conducts a detailed Energy Intensity analysis using the data from PROWESS database of the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). A total of twelve independent explanatory variables based on various factors such as raw material, labour, machinery, repair and maintenance, production technology, outsourcing, research and development, number of employees, wages paid, profit margin and capital invested have been taken into consideration for the analysis.

Keywords: energy intensity, explanatory variables, manufacturing industries, PROWESS database

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5 Quantum Chemical Calculations on Molecular Structure, Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Some Chalcone Derivatives

Authors: Archana Gupta, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract:

The chemistry of chalcones has generated intensive scientific studies throughout the world. Especially, interest has been focused on the synthesis and biodynamic activities of chalcones. The blue light transmittance, excellent crystallizability and the two planar rings connected through a conjugated double bond show that chalcone derivatives are superior nonlinear organic compounds. 3-(2-Chloro-6-fluoro¬phen¬yl)-1-(2-thien¬yl) prop-2-en-1-one, 3-(2, 4- Dichlorophenyl) – 1 - (4-methylphenyl) – prop -2-en-1-one, (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one are some chalcone derivatives exhibiting non linear optical (NLO) properties. NLO materials have been extensively investigated in recent years as they are the key elements for photonic technologies of optical communication, optical interconnect oscillator, amplifier, frequency converter etc. Due to their high molecular hyperpolarizabilities, organic materials display a number of significant NLO properties. Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations on molecular hyperpolarizability β have become one of the key factors in the design of second order NLO materials. Theoretical determination of hyperpolarizability is quite useful both in understanding the relationship between the molecular structure and NLO properties. It also provides a guideline to experimentalists for the design and synthesis of organic NLO materials. Quantum-chemical calculations have made an important contribution to the understanding of the electronic polarization underlying the molecular NLO processes and the establishment of structure–property relationships. In the present investigation, the detailed vibrational analysis of some chalcone derivatives is taken up to understand the correlation of the charge transfer interaction and the NLO activity of the molecules based on density functional theory calculations. The vibrational modes contributing toward the NLO activity have been identified and analyzed. Rather large hyperpolarizability derived by theoretical calculations suggests the possible future use of these compounds for non-linear optical applications. The study suggests the importance of π - conjugated systems for non-linear optical properties and the possibility of charge transfer interactions. We hope that the results of the present study of chalcone derivatives are of assistance in development of new efficient materials for technological applications.

Keywords: hyperpolarizability, molecular structure, NLO material, quantum chemical calculations

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4 Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophage against Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

Authors: Guna Raj Dhungana, Roshan Nepal, Apshara Parajuli, , Archana Maharjan, Shyam K. Mishra, Pramod Aryal, Rajani Malla

Abstract:

Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known opportunistic human pathogen, primarily causing healthcare-associated infections. The global emergence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeis a major public health burden, which is often extensively multidrug resistant.Thus, because of the difficulty to treat these ‘superbug’ and menace and some term as ‘apocalypse’ of post antibiotics era, an alternative approach to controlling this pathogen is prudent and one of the approaches is phage mediated control and/or treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to isolate novel bacteriophage against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeand characterize for potential use inphage therapy. Material and Methods: Twenty lytic phages were isolated from river water using double layer agar assay and purified. Biological features, physiochemical characters, burst size, host specificity and activity spectrum of phages were determined. One most potent phage: Phage TU_Kle10O was selected and characterized by electron microscopy. Whole genome sequences of the phage were analyzed for presence/absence of virulent factors, and other lysin genes. Results: Novel phage TU_Kle10O showed multiple host range within own genus and did not induce any BIM up to 5th generation of host’s life cycle. Electron microscopy confirmed that the phage was tailed and belonged to Caudovirales family. Next generation sequencing revealed its genome to be 166.2 Kb. bioinformatical analysis further confirmed that the phage genome ‘did not’ contain any ‘bacterial genes’ within phage genome, which ruled out the concern for transfer of virulent genes. Specific 'lysin’ enzyme was identified phages which could be used as 'antibiotics'. Conclusion: Extensively multidrug resistant bacteria like carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaecould be treated efficiently by phages.Absence of ‘virulent’ genes of bacterial origin and presence of lysin proteins within phage genome makes phages an excellent candidate for therapeutics.

Keywords: bacteriophage, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, phage therapy, carbapenemase,

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3 Vibrational Spectra and Nonlinear Optical Investigations of a Chalcone Derivative (2e)-3-[4-(Methylsulfanyl) Phenyl]-1-(3-Bromophenyl) Prop-2-En-1-One

Authors: Amit Kumar, Archana Gupta, Poonam Tandon, E. D. D’Silva

Abstract:

Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials are the key materials for the fast processing of information and optical data storage applications. In the last decade, materials showing nonlinear optical properties have been the object of increasing attention by both experimental and computational points of view. Chalcones are one of the most important classes of cross conjugated NLO chromophores that are reported to exhibit good SHG efficiency, ultra fast optical nonlinearities and are easily crystallizable. The basic structure of chalcones is based on the π-conjugated system in which two aromatic rings are connected by a three-carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Due to the overlap of π orbitals, delocalization of electronic charge distribution leads to a high mobility of the electron density. On a molecular scale, the extent of charge transfer across the NLO chromophore determines the level of SHG output. Hence, the functionalization of both ends of the π-bond system with appropriate electron donor and acceptor groups can enhance the asymmetric electronic distribution in either or both ground and excited states, leading to an increased optical nonlinearity. In this research, the experimental and theoretical study on the structure and vibrations of (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(3-bromophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (3Br4MSP) is presented. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the NLO material in the solid phase have been recorded. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were carried out to study the equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared absorbance and Raman scattering activities. The interpretation of vibrational features (normal mode assignments, for instance) has an invaluable aid from DFT calculations that provide a quantum-mechanical description of the electronic energies and forces involved. Perturbation theory allows one to obtain the vibrational normal modes by estimating the derivatives of the Kohn−Sham energy with respect to atomic displacements. The molecular hyperpolarizability β plays a chief role in the NLO properties, and a systematical study on β has been carried out. Furthermore, the first order hyperpolarizability (β) and the related properties such as dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (α) of the title molecule are evaluated by Finite Field (FF) approach. The electronic α and β of the studied molecule are 41.907×10-24 and 79.035×10-24 e.s.u. respectively, indicating that 3Br4MSP can be used as a good nonlinear optical material.

Keywords: DFT, MEP, NLO, vibrational spectra

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2 Development Project, Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation: A Study of Navi Mumbai International Airport Project, India

Authors: Rahul Rajak, Archana Kumari Roy

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Purpose: Development brings about structural change in the society. It is essential for socio-economic progress of the society, but it also causes pain to the people who are forced to displace from their motherland. Most of the people who are displaced due to development are poor and tribes. Development and displacement are interlinked with each other in the sense development sometimes leads to displacement of people. These studies mainly focus on socio-economic profile of villages and villagers likely to be affected by the Airport Project and they examine the issues of compensation and people’s level of satisfaction. Methodology: The study is based on Descriptive design; it is basically observational and correlation study. Primary data is used in this study. Considering the time and resource constrains, 100 people were interviewed covering socio-economic and demographic diversities from 6 out of 10 affected villages. Due to Navi Mumbai International Airport Project ten villages have to be displaced. Out of ten villages, this study is based on only six villages. These are Ulwe, Ganeshpuri, Targhar Komberbuje, Chincpada and Kopar. All six villages situated in Raigarh district under the Taluka Panvel in Maharashtra. Findings: It is revealed from the survey that there are three main castes of affected villages that are Agri, Koli, and Kradi. Entire village population of migrated person is very negligible. All three caste have main occupation are agricultural and fishing activities. People’s perception revealed that due to the establishment of the airport project, they may have more opportunities and scope of development rather than the adverse effect, but vigorously leave a motherland is psychological effect of the villagers. Research Limitation: This study is based on only six villages, the scenario of the entire ten affected villages is not explained by this research. Practical implication: The scenario of displacement and resettlement signifies more than a mere physical relocation. Compensation is not only hope for villagers, is it only give short time relief. There is a need to evolve institutions to protect and strengthen the right of Individuals. The development induced displacement exposed them to a new reality, the reality of their legality and illegality of stay on the land which belongs to the state. Originality: Mumbai has large population and high industrialized city have put land at the center of any policy implication. This paper demonstrates through the actual picture gathered from the field that how seriously the affected people suffered and are still suffering because of the land acquisition for the Navi Mumbai International Airport Project. The whole picture arise the question which is how long the government can deny the rights to farmers and agricultural laborers and remain unwilling to establish the balance between democracy and development.

Keywords: compensation, displacement, land acquisition, project affected person (PAPs), rehabilitation

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1 Cryotopic Macroporous Polymeric Matrices for Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Archana Sharma, Vijayashree Nayak, Ashok Kumar

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Three-dimensional matrices were fabricated from blend of natural-natural polymers like carrageenan-gelatin and synthetic -natural polymers such as PEG- gelatin (PEG of different molecular weights (2,000 and 6,000) using two different crosslinkers; glutaraldehyde and EDC-NHS by cryogelation technique. Blends represented a feasible approach to design 3-D scaffolds with controllable mechanical, physical and biochemical properties without compromising biocompatibility and biodegradability. These matrices possessed interconnected porous structure, good mechanical strength, biodegradable nature, constant swelling kinetics, ability to withstand high temperature and visco-elastic behavior. Hemocompatibility of cryogel matrices was determined by coagulation assays and hemolytic activity assay which demonstrated that these cryogels have negligible effects on coagulation time and have excellent blood compatibility. In vitro biocompatibility (cell-matrix interaction) inferred good cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of ECM on matrices. These matrices provide a microenvironment for the growth, proliferation, differentiation and secretion of ECM of different cell types such as IMR-32, C2C12, Cos-7, rat bone marrow derived MSCs and human bone marrow MSCs. Hoechst 33342 and PI staining also confirmed that the cells were uniformly distributed, adhered and proliferated properly on the cryogel matrix. An ideal scaffold used for tissue engineering application should allow the cells to adhere, proliferate and maintain their functionality. Neurotransmitter analysis has been done which indicated that IMR-32 cells adhered, proliferated and secreted neurotransmitters when they interacted with these matrices which showed restoration of their functionality. The cell-matrix interaction up to molecular level was also evaluated so to check genotoxicity and protein expression profile which indicated that these cryogel matrices are non-genotoxic and maintained biofunctionality of cells growing on these matrices. All these cryogels, when implanted subcutaneously in balb/c mice, showed no adverse systemic or local toxicity effects at implantation site. There was no significant increase in inflammatory cell count has otherwise been observed after scaffold implantation. These cryogels are supermacroporous and this porous structure allows cell infiltration and proliferation of host cells. This showed the integration and presence of infiltrated cells into the cryogel implants. Histological analysis confirmed that the implanted cryogels do not have any adverse effect in spite of host immune system recognition at the site of implantation, on its surrounding tissues and other vital host organs. In vivo biocompatibility study after in vitro biocompatibility analysis has also concluded that these synthesized cryogels act as important biological substitutes, more adaptable and appropriate for transplantation. Thus, these cryogels showed their potential for soft tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: cryogelation, hemocompatibility, in vitro biocompatibility, in vivo biocompatibility, soft tissue engineering applications

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