Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Pratima Tatke

7 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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6 Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation on Sarcopenic Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Deepak Nathiya1, Ramesh Roop Rai, Pratima Singh1, Preeti Raj1, Supriya Suman, Balvir Singh Tomar

Abstract:

Background: Sarcopenia is a catabolic state in liver cirrhosis (LC), accelerated with a breakdown of skeletal muscle to release amino acids which adversely affects survival, health-related quality of life, and response to any underlying disease. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementations on parameters associated with improved prognosis in sarcopenic patients with LC, as well as to evaluate its impact on cirrhotic-related events. Methods: We carried out a 24 week, single-center, randomized, open-label, controlled, two cohort parallel-group intervention trial comparing the efficacy of BCAA against lactoalbumin (L-ALB) on 106 sarcopenic liver cirrhotics. The BCAA (intervention) group was treated with 7.2 g BCAA per whereas, the lactoalbumin group was also given 6.3 g of L-Albumin. The primary outcome was to assess the impact of BCAA on parameters of sarcopenia: muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. The secondary outcomes were to study combined survival and maintenance of liver function changes in laboratory and clinical markers in the duration of six months. Results: Treatment with BCAA leads to significant improvement in sarcopenic parameters: muscle strength, muscle function, and muscle mass. The total cirrhotic-related complications and cumulative event-free survival occurred fewer in the BCAA group than in the L-ALB group. Prognostic markers also improved significantly in the study. Conclusion: The current clinical trial demonstrated that long-term BCAAs supplementation improved sarcopenia and prognostic markers in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: sarcopenia, liver cirrhosis, BCAA, quality of life

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5 Molecular Detection of Acute Virus Infection in Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in North India during 2014-2016

Authors: Ali Ilter Akdag, Pratima Ray

Abstract:

Background:This acute gastroenteritis viruses such as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus are mainly responsible for diarrhea in children below < 5 years old. Molecular detection of these viruses is crucially important to the understand development of the effective cure. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of common these viruses in children < 5 years old presented with diarrhea from Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre (Meerut) North India, India Methods: Total 312 fecal samples were collected from diarrheal children duration 3 years: in year 2014 (n = 118), 2015 (n = 128) and 2016 (n = 66) ,< 5 years of age who presented with acute diarrhea at the Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM) centre(Meerut) North India, India. All samples were the first detection by EIA/RT-PCR for rotaviruses, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: In 312 samples from children with acute diarrhea in sample viral agent was found, rotavirus A was the most frequent virus identified (57 cases; 18.2%), followed by Astrovirus in 28 cases (8.9%), adenovirus in 21 cases (6.7%). Mixed infections were found in 14 cases, all of which presented with acute diarrhea (14/312; 4.48%). Conclusions: These viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. Rotavirus A is the most common etiological agent, follow by astrovirus. This surveillance is important to vaccine development of the entire population. There is variation detection of virus year wise due to differences in the season of sampling, method of sampling, hygiene condition, socioeconomic level of the entire people, enrolment criteria, and virus detection methods. It was found Astrovirus higher then Rotavirus in 2015, but overall three years study Rotavirus A is mainly responsible for causing severe diarrhea in children <5 years old in North India. It emphasizes the required for cost-effective diagnostic assays for Rotaviruses which would help to determine the disease burden.

Keywords: adenovirus, Astrovirus, hospitalized children, Rotavirus

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4 Metabolic Variables and Associated Factors in Acute Pancreatitis Patients Correlates with Health-Related Quality of Life

Authors: Ravinder Singh, Pratima Syal

Abstract:

Background: The rising prevalence and incidence of Acute Pancreatitis (AP) and its associated metabolic variables known as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are common medical conditions with catastrophic consequences and substantial treatment costs. The correlation between MetS and AP, as well as their impact on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is uncertain, and because there are so few published studies, further research is needed. As a result, we planned this study to determine the relationship between MetS components impact on HRQoL in AP patients. Patients and Methods: A prospective, observational study involving the recruitment of patients with AP with and without MetS was carried out in tertiary care hospital of North India. Patients were classified with AP if they were diagnosed with two or more components of the following criteria, abdominal pain, serum amylase and lipase levels two or more times normal, imaging trans-abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance. The National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criterion was used to diagnose the MetS. The various socio-demographic variables were also taken into consideration for the calculation of statistical significance (P≤.05) in AP patients. Finally, the correlation between AP and MetS, along with their impact on HRQoL was assessed using Student's t test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: AP with MetS (n = 100) and AP without MetS (n = 100) patients were divided into two groups. Gender, Age, Educational Status, Tobacco use, Body Mass Index (B.M.I), and Waist Hip Ratio (W.H.R) were the socio-demographic parameters found to be statistically significant (P≤.05) in AP patients with MetS. Also, all the metabolic variables were also found to statistically significant (P≤.05) and found to be increased in patients with AP with MetS as compared to AP without MetS except HDL levels. Using the SF-36 form, a greater significant decline was observed in physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) in patients with AP with MetS as compared to patients without MetS (P≤.05). Furthermore, a negative association between all metabolic variables with the exception of HDL, and AP was found to be producing deterioration in PCS and MCS. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that patients with AP with MetS had a worse overall HRQOL than patients with AP without MetS due to number of socio-demographic and metabolic variables having direct correlation impacting physical and mental health of patients.

Keywords: metabolic disorers, QOL, cost effectiveness, pancreatitis

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3 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Contraception among the Married Women of Reproductive Age Group in Selected Wards of Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City

Authors: Pratima Thapa

Abstract:

Background: It is very critical to understand that awareness of family planning and proper utilization of contraceptives is an important indicator for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It also plays an important role in promoting reproductive health of the women in an underdeveloped country like ours. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices of contraception among married women of reproductive age group in selected wards of Dharan Sub-Metropolitan City. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 209 married women of reproductive age. Simple random sampling was used to select the wards, population proportionate sampling for selecting the sample numbers from each wards and purposive sampling for selecting each sample. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to interpret the data considering p-value 0.05. Results: The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 30.01 ± 8.12 years. Majority 92.3% had ever heard of contraception. Popular known method was Inj. Depo (92.7%). Mass media (85.8%) was the major source of information. Mean percentage score of knowledge was 45.23%.less than half (45%) had adequate knowledge. Majority 90.4% had positive attitude. Only 64.6% were using contraceptives currently. Misbeliefs and fear of side effects were the main reason for not using contraceptives. Education, occupation, and total income of the family was associated with knowledge regarding contraceptives. Results for Binary Logistic Regression showed significant correlates of attitude with distance to the nearest health facility (OR=7.97, p<0.01), education (OR=0.24, p<0.05) and age group (0.03, p<0.01). Regarding practice, likelihood of being current user of contraceptives increased significantly by being literate (OR=5.97, p<0.01), having nuclear family (OR=4.96, p<0.01), living in less than 30 minute walk distance from nearest health facility (OR=3.34, p<0.05), women’s participation in decision making regarding household and fertility choices (OR=5.23, p<0.01) and husband’s support on using contraceptives (OR=9.05, p<0.01). Significant and positive correlation between knowledge-attitude, knowledge-practice and attitude-practice were observed. Conclusion: Results of the study indicates that there is need to increase awareness programs in order to intensify the knowledge and practices of contraception. The positive correlation indorses that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and hence good practice. Further, projects aiming to increase better counselling about contraceptives, its side effects and the positive effects that outweighs the negative aspects should be enrolled appropriately.

Keywords: attitude, contraceptives, knowledge, practice

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2 Role of Indigenous Peoples in Climate Change

Authors: Neelam Kadyan, Pratima Ranga, Yogender

Abstract:

Indigenous people are the One who are affected by the climate change the most, although there have contributed little to its causes. This is largely a result of their historic dependence on local biological diversity, ecosystem services and cultural landscapes as a source of their sustenance and well-being. Comprising only four percent of the world’s population they utilize 22 percent of the world’s land surface. Despite their high exposure-sensitivity indigenous peoples and local communities are actively responding to changing climatic conditions and have demonstrated their resourcefulness and resilience in the face of climate change. Traditional Indigenous territories encompass up to 22 percent of the world’s land surface and they coincide with areas that hold 80 percent of the planet’s biodiversity. Also, the greatest diversity of indigenous groups coincides with the world’s largest tropical forest wilderness areas in the Americas (including Amazon), Africa, and Asia, and 11 percent of world forest lands are legally owned by Indigenous Peoples and communities. This convergence of biodiversity-significant areas and indigenous territories presents an enormous opportunity to expand efforts to conserve biodiversity beyond parks, which tend to benefit from most of the funding for biodiversity conservation. Tapping on Ancestral Knowledge Indigenous Peoples are carriers of ancestral knowledge and wisdom about this biodiversity. Their effective participation in biodiversity conservation programs as experts in protecting and managing biodiversity and natural resources would result in more comprehensive and cost effective conservation and management of biodiversity worldwide. Addressing the Climate Change Agenda Indigenous Peoples has played a key role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The territories of indigenous groups who have been given the rights to their lands have been better conserved than the adjacent lands (i.e., Brazil, Colombia, Nicaragua, etc.). Preserving large extensions of forests would not only support the climate change objectives, but it would respect the rights of Indigenous Peoples and conserve biodiversity as well. A climate change agenda fully involving Indigenous Peoples has many more benefits than if only government and/or the private sector are involved. Indigenous peoples are some of the most vulnerable groups to the negative effects of climate change. Also, they are a source of knowledge to the many solutions that will be needed to avoid or ameliorate those effects. For example, ancestral territories often provide excellent examples of a landscape design that can resist the negatives effects of climate change. Over the millennia, Indigenous Peoples have developed adaptation models to climate change. They have also developed genetic varieties of medicinal and useful plants and animal breeds with a wider natural range of resistance to climatic and ecological variability.

Keywords: ancestral knowledge, cost effective conservation, management, indigenous peoples, climate change

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1 Need for Elucidation of Palaeoclimatic Variability in the High Himalayan Mountains: A Multiproxy Approach

Authors: Sheikh Nawaz Ali, Pratima Pandey, P. Morthekai, Jyotsna Dubey, Md. Firoze Quamar

Abstract:

The high mountain glaciers are one of the most sensitive recorders of climate changes, because they have the tendency to respond to the combined effect of snow fall and temperature. The Himalayan glaciers have been studied with a good pace during the last decade. However, owing to its large ecological diversity and geographical vividness, major part of the Indian Himalaya is uninvestigated, and hence the palaeoclimatic patterns as well as the chronology of past glaciations in particular remain controversial for the entire Indian Himalayan transect. Although the Himalayan glaciers are nourished by two important climatic systems viz. the southwest summer monsoon and the mid-latitude westerlies, however, the influence of these systems is yet to be understood. Nevertheless, existing chronology (mostly exposure ages) indicate that irrespective of the geographical position, glaciers seem to grow during enhanced Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The Himalayan mountain glaciers are referred to the third pole or water tower of Asia as they form a huge reservoir of the fresh water supplies for the Asian countries. Mountain glaciers are sensitive probes of the local climate, and, thus, they present an opportunity and a challenge to interpret climates of the past as well as to predict future changes. The principle object of all the palaeoclimatic studies is to develop a futuristic models/scenario. However, it has been found that the glacial chronologies bracket the major phases of climatic events only, and other climatic proxies are sparse in Himalaya. This is the reason that compilation of data for rapid climatic change during the Holocene shows major gaps in this region. The sedimentation in proglacial lakes, conversely, is more continuous and, hence, can be used to reconstruct a more complete record of past climatic variability that is modulated by changing ice volume of the valley glacier. The Himalayan region has numerous proglacial lacustrine deposits formed during the late Quaternary period. However, there are only few such deposits which have been studied so far. Therefore, this is the high time when efforts have to be made to systematically map the moraines located in different climatic zones, reconstruct the local and regional moraine stratigraphy and use multiple dating techniques to bracket the events of glaciation. Besides this, emphasis must be given on carrying multiproxy studies on the lacustrine sediments that will provide a high resolution palaeoclimatic data from the alpine region of the Himalaya. Although the Himalayan glaciers fluctuated in accordance with the changing climatic conditions (natural forcing), however, it is too early to arrive at any conclusion. It is very crucial to generate multiproxy data sets covering wider geographical and ecological domains taking into consideration multiple parameters that directly or indirectly influence the glacier mass balance as well as the local climate of a region.

Keywords: glacial chronology, palaeoclimate, multiproxy, Himalaya

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