Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: OpenCV

14 Improvements in OpenCV's Viola Jones Algorithm in Face Detection–Skin Detection

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, M. K. Gupta, Astha Jain


This paper proposes a new improved approach for false positives filtering of detected face images on OpenCV’s Viola Jones Algorithm In this approach, for Filtering of False Positives, Skin Detection in two colour spaces i.e. HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) and YCrCb (Y is luma component and Cr- red difference, Cb- Blue difference) is used. As a result, it is found that false detection has been reduced. Our proposed method reaches the accuracy of about 98.7%. Thus, a better recognition rate is achieved.

Keywords: face detection, Viola Jones, false positives, OpenCV

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13 A Neuron Model of Facial Recognition and Detection of an Authorized Entity Using Machine Learning System

Authors: J. K. Adedeji, M. O. Oyekanmi


This paper has critically examined the use of Machine Learning procedures in curbing unauthorized access into valuable areas of an organization. The use of passwords, pin codes, user’s identification in recent times has been partially successful in curbing crimes involving identities, hence the need for the design of a system which incorporates biometric characteristics such as DNA and pattern recognition of variations in facial expressions. The facial model used is the OpenCV library which is based on the use of certain physiological features, the Raspberry Pi 3 module is used to compile the OpenCV library, which extracts and stores the detected faces into the datasets directory through the use of camera. The model is trained with 50 epoch run in the database and recognized by the Local Binary Pattern Histogram (LBPH) recognizer contained in the OpenCV. The training algorithm used by the neural network is back propagation coded using python algorithmic language with 200 epoch runs to identify specific resemblance in the exclusive OR (XOR) output neurons. The research however confirmed that physiological parameters are better effective measures to curb crimes relating to identities.

Keywords: biometric characters, facial recognition, neural network, OpenCV

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12 Image Processing and Calculation of NGRDI Embedded System in Raspberry

Authors: Efren Lopez Jimenez, Maria Isabel Cajero, J. Irving-Vasqueza


The use and processing of digital images have opened up new opportunities for the resolution of problems of various kinds, such as the calculation of different vegetation indexes, among other things, differentiating healthy vegetation from humid vegetation. However, obtaining images from which these indexes are calculated is still the exclusive subject of active research. In the present work, we propose to obtain these images using a low cost embedded system (Raspberry Pi) and its processing, using a set of libraries of open code called OpenCV, in order to obtain the Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI).

Keywords: Raspberry Pi, vegetation index, Normalized Red-Green Difference Index (NGRDI), OpenCV

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11 Underneath Vehicle Inspection Using Fuzzy Logic, Subsumption, and Open Cv-Library

Authors: Hazim Abdulsada


The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, mobile robots, Opencv, subsumption, under vehicle inspection

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10 Object Recognition System Operating from Different Type Vehicles Using Raspberry and OpenCV

Authors: Maria Pavlova


In our days, it is possible to put the camera on different vehicles like quadcopter, train, airplane and etc. The camera also can be the input sensor in many different systems. That means the object recognition like non separate part of monitoring control can be key part of the most intelligent systems. The aim of this paper is to focus of the object recognition process during vehicles movement. During the vehicle’s movement the camera takes pictures from the environment without storage in Data Base. In case the camera detects a special object (for example human or animal), the system saves the picture and sends it to the work station in real time. This functionality will be very useful in emergency or security situations where is necessary to find a specific object. In another application, the camera can be mounted on crossroad where do not have many people and if one or more persons come on the road, the traffic lights became the green and they can cross the road. In this papers is presented the system has solved the aforementioned problems. It is presented architecture of the object recognition system includes the camera, Raspberry platform, GPS system, neural network, software and Data Base. The camera in the system takes the pictures. The object recognition is done in real time using the OpenCV library and Raspberry microcontroller. An additional feature of this library is the ability to display the GPS coordinates of the captured objects position. The results from this processes will be sent to remote station. So, in this case, we can know the location of the specific object. By neural network, we can learn the module to solve the problems using incoming data and to be part in bigger intelligent system. The present paper focuses on the design and integration of the image recognition like a part of smart systems.

Keywords: camera, object recognition, OpenCV, Raspberry

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9 Alphabet Recognition Using Pixel Probability Distribution

Authors: Vaidehi Murarka, Sneha Mehta, Dishant Upadhyay


Our project topic is “Alphabet Recognition using pixel probability distribution”. The project uses techniques of Image Processing and Machine Learning in Computer Vision. Alphabet recognition is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files etc. Alphabet Recognition based OCR application is sometimes used in signature recognition which is used in bank and other high security buildings. One of the popular mobile applications includes reading a visiting card and directly storing it to the contacts. OCR's are known to be used in radar systems for reading speeders license plates and lots of other things. The implementation of our project has been done using Visual Studio and Open CV (Open Source Computer Vision). Our algorithm is based on Neural Networks (machine learning). The project was implemented in three modules: (1) Training: This module aims “Database Generation”. Database was generated using two methods: (a) Run-time generation included database generation at compilation time using inbuilt fonts of OpenCV library. Human intervention is not necessary for generating this database. (b) Contour–detection: ‘jpeg’ template containing different fonts of an alphabet is converted to the weighted matrix using specialized functions (contour detection and blob detection) of OpenCV. The main advantage of this type of database generation is that the algorithm becomes self-learning and the final database requires little memory to be stored (119kb precisely). (2) Preprocessing: Input image is pre-processed using image processing concepts such as adaptive thresholding, binarizing, dilating etc. and is made ready for segmentation. “Segmentation” includes extraction of lines, words, and letters from the processed text image. (3) Testing and prediction: The extracted letters are classified and predicted using the neural networks algorithm. The algorithm recognizes an alphabet based on certain mathematical parameters calculated using the database and weight matrix of the segmented image.

Keywords: contour-detection, neural networks, pre-processing, recognition coefficient, runtime-template generation, segmentation, weight matrix

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8 Implementation of a Low-Cost Driver Drowsiness Evaluation System Using a Thermal Camera

Authors: Isa Moazen, Ali Nahvi


Driver drowsiness is a major cause of vehicle accidents, and facial images are highly valuable to detect drowsiness. In this paper, we perform our research via a thermal camera to record drivers' facial images on a driving simulator. A robust real-time algorithm extracts the features using horizontal and vertical integration projection, contours, contour orientations, and cropping tools. The features are included four target areas on the cheeks and forehead. Qt compiler and OpenCV are used with two cameras with different resolutions. A high-resolution thermal camera is used for fifteen subjects, and a low-resolution one is used for a person. The results are investigated by four temperature plots and evaluated by observer rating of drowsiness.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, thermal imaging, driver drowsiness detection, feature extraction

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7 Real Time Detection, Prediction and Reconstitution of Rain Drops

Authors: R. Burahee, B. Chassinat, T. de Laclos, A. Dépée, A. Sastim


The purpose of this paper is to propose a solution to detect, predict and reconstitute rain drops in real time – during the night – using an embedded material with an infrared camera. To prevent the system from needing too high hardware resources, simple models are considered in a powerful image treatment algorithm reducing considerably calculation time in OpenCV software. Using a smart model – drops will be matched thanks to a process running through two consecutive pictures for implementing a sophisticated tracking system. With this system drops computed trajectory gives information for predicting their future location. Thanks to this technique, treatment part can be reduced. The hardware system composed by a Raspberry Pi is optimized to host efficiently this code for real time execution.

Keywords: reconstitution, prediction, detection, rain drop, real time, raspberry, infrared

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6 Dynamic Foot Pressure Measurement System Using Optical Sensors

Authors: Tanapon Keatsamarn, Chuchart Pintavirooj


Foot pressure measurement provides necessary information for diagnosis diseases, foot insole design, disorder prevention and other application. In this paper, dynamic foot pressure measurement is presented for pressure measuring with high resolution and accuracy. The dynamic foot pressure measurement system consists of hardware and software system. The hardware system uses a transparent acrylic plate and uses steel as the base. The glossy white paper is placed on the top of the transparent acrylic plate and covering with a black acrylic on the system to block external light. Lighting from LED strip entering around the transparent acrylic plate. The optical sensors, the digital cameras, are underneath the acrylic plate facing upwards. They have connected with software system to process and record foot pressure video in avi file. Visual Studio 2017 is used for software system using OpenCV library.

Keywords: foot, foot pressure, image processing, optical sensors

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5 Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person

Authors: Rodrigo C. Belleza, Jr., Roselyn A. Maaño, Karl Patrick E. Camota, Darwin Kim Q. Bulawan


Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may result from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.

Keywords: algorithms, blind, computer vision, embedded systems, image analysis

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4 Imp_hist-Si: Improved Hybrid Image Segmentation Technique for Satellite Imagery to Decrease the Segmentation Error Rate

Authors: Neetu Manocha


Image segmentation is a technique where a picture is parted into distinct parts having similar features which have a place with similar items. Various segmentation strategies have been proposed as of late by prominent analysts. But, after ultimate thorough research, the novelists have analyzed that generally, the old methods do not decrease the segmentation error rate. Then author finds the technique HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. In this technique, cluster-based and threshold-based segmentation techniques are merged together. After then, to improve the result of HIST-SI, the authors added the method of filtering and linking in this technique named Imp_HIST-SI to decrease the segmentation error rates. The goal of this research is to find a new technique to decrease the segmentation error rates and produce much better results than the HIST-SI technique. For testing the proposed technique, a dataset of Bhuvan – a National Geoportal developed and hosted by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) is used. Experiments are conducted using Scikit-image & OpenCV tools of Python, and performance is evaluated and compared over various existing image segmentation techniques for several matrices, i.e., Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR).

Keywords: satellite image, image segmentation, edge detection, error rate, MSE, PSNR, HIST-SI, linking, filtering, imp_HIST-SI

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3 Deep Learning Approach to Trademark Design Code Identification

Authors: Girish J. Showkatramani, Arthi M. Krishna, Sashi Nareddi, Naresh Nula, Aaron Pepe, Glen Brown, Greg Gabel, Chris Doninger


Trademark examination and approval is a complex process that involves analysis and review of the design components of the marks such as the visual representation as well as the textual data associated with marks such as marks' description. Currently, the process of identifying marks with similar visual representation is done manually in United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and takes a considerable amount of time. Moreover, the accuracy of these searches depends heavily on the experts determining the trademark design codes used to catalog the visual design codes in the mark. In this study, we explore several methods to automate trademark design code classification. Based on recent successes of convolutional neural networks in image classification, we have used several different convolutional neural networks such as Google’s Inception v3, Inception-ResNet-v2, and Xception net. The study also looks into other techniques to augment the results from CNNs such as using Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) to pre-process the images. This paper reports the results of the various models trained on year of annotated trademark images.

Keywords: trademark design code, convolutional neural networks, trademark image classification, trademark image search, Inception-ResNet-v2

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2 Intelligent Transport System: Classification of Traffic Signs Using Deep Neural Networks in Real Time

Authors: Anukriti Kumar, Tanmay Singh, Dinesh Kumar Vishwakarma


Traffic control has been one of the most common and irritating problems since the time automobiles have hit the roads. Problems like traffic congestion have led to a significant time burden around the world and one significant solution to these problems can be the proper implementation of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). It involves the integration of various tools like smart sensors, artificial intelligence, position technologies and mobile data services to manage traffic flow, reduce congestion and enhance driver's ability to avoid accidents during adverse weather. Road and traffic signs’ recognition is an emerging field of research in ITS. Classification problem of traffic signs needs to be solved as it is a major step in our journey towards building semi-autonomous/autonomous driving systems. The purpose of this work focuses on implementing an approach to solve the problem of traffic sign classification by developing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier using the GTSRB (German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark) dataset. Rather than using hand-crafted features, our model addresses the concern of exploding huge parameters and data method augmentations. Our model achieved an accuracy of around 97.6% which is comparable to various state-of-the-art architectures.

Keywords: multiclass classification, convolution neural network, OpenCV

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1 Optical-Based Lane-Assist System for Rowing Boats

Authors: Stephen Tullis, M. David DiDonato, Hong Sung Park


Rowing boats (shells) are often steered by a small rudder operated by one of the backward-facing rowers; the attention required of that athlete then slightly decreases the power that that athlete can provide. Reducing the steering distraction would then increase the overall boat speed. Races are straight 2000 m courses with each boat in a 13.5 m wide lane marked by small (~15 cm) widely-spaced (~10 m) buoys, and the boat trajectory is affected by both cross-currents and winds. An optical buoy recognition and tracking system has been developed that provides the boat’s location and orientation with respect to the lane edges. This information is provided to the steering athlete as either: a simple overlay on a video display, or fed to a simplified autopilot system giving steering directions to the athlete or directly controlling the rudder. The system is then effectively a “lane-assist” device but with small, widely-spaced lane markers viewed from a very shallow angle due to constraints on camera height. The image is captured with a lightweight 1080p webcam, and most of the image analysis is done in OpenCV. The colour RGB-image is converted to a grayscale using the difference of the red and blue channels, which provides good contrast between the red/yellow buoys and the water, sky, land background and white reflections and noise. Buoy detection is done with thresholding within a tight mask applied to the image. Robust linear regression using Tukey’s biweight estimator of the previously detected buoy locations is used to develop the mask; this avoids the false detection of noise such as waves (reflections) and, in particular, buoys in other lanes. The robust regression also provides the current lane edges in the camera frame that are used to calculate the displacement of the boat from the lane centre (lane location), and its yaw angle. The interception of the detected lane edges provides a lane vanishing point, and yaw angle can be calculated simply based on the displacement of this vanishing point from the camera axis and the image plane distance. Lane location is simply based on the lateral displacement of the vanishing point from any horizontal cut through the lane edges. The boat lane position and yaw are currently fed what is essentially a stripped down marine auto-pilot system. Currently, only the lane location is used in a PID controller of a rudder actuator with integrator anti-windup to deal with saturation of the rudder angle. Low Kp and Kd values decrease unnecessarily fast return to lane centrelines and response to noise, and limiters can be used to avoid lane departure and disqualification. Yaw is not used as a control input, as cross-winds and currents can cause a straight course with considerable yaw or crab angle. Mapping of the controller with rudder angle “overall effectiveness” has not been finalized - very large rudder angles stall and have decreased turning moments, but at less extreme angles the increased rudder drag slows the boat and upsets boat balance. The full system has many features similar to automotive lane-assist systems, but with the added constraints of the lane markers, camera positioning, control response and noise increasing the challenge.

Keywords: auto-pilot, lane-assist, marine, optical, rowing

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