Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: genotoxicity

33 Genotoxicity Induced by Nanoparticles on Human Lymphoblast Cells (TK6)

Authors: Piyaporn Buaklang, Narisa Kengtrong Bordeerat


The use of nanoparticles is increasing worldwide and there are many nanotech-based daily products available in the market. The toxicity of nanoparticles results from their extremely small size which can be transported easily into the blood stream and other organs. We aimed to study the genotoxicity of two nanoparticles, Titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) and Zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), in TK6 cells by micronucleus assay. The cells were tested at 8, 24, and 48 hours after exposed to 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 µg/mL of TiO2-NPs particles size < 25 nm and < 100 nm and to ZnO-NPs at 1, 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, particles size < 50 nm and < 100 nm. At 24 hours of incubation transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the nanoparticles TiO2-NPs at 1.00 µg/mL and ZnO-NPs at 10 µg/mL were able to be taken into the cells and induced the production of increasing amount of micronucleus in dose-dependent manner. The effect of the two nanoparticles on chromosome aberration indicated that TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs are genotoxic. In addition, the toxicity of TiO2-NPs was found to be 10 times more toxic than ZnO-NPs after 24 hours exposure. Analysis showed that the TiO2-NPs induced formation of micronucleus was both time and dose dependent, whereas the genotoxicity of ZnO-NPs was only dose dependent. In conclusion, TiO2-NPs and ZnO-NPs were able to transport through the cells membrane and directly genotoxic to TK6 cells in dose-dependent manner.

Keywords: nanoparticles, genotoxicity, human lymphoblast cells (TK6), micronucleus

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32 In vitro Investigation of Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Properties of Gunnera perpensa Roots Extracts

Authors: P. H. Mfengwana, S. S. Mashele, L. Verschaeve, R. Anthonissen, I. T. Manduna


Gunnera perpensa is traditionally used mostly by women for the treatment of different gynaecological related conditions due to its proven uterine contractility effects. The uses of this plant include menstrual pain relief, treatment of infertility and promotion of easy labour. However, even though this plant species has been reported to possess numerous medicinal properties, to author’s best knowledge, its safety has not been investigated. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Gunnera perpensa aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts. The in vitro toxicity of the plant extracts was assessed with the neutral red uptake (NRU) test. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Gunnera perpensa were investigated using high-throughput assays: bacterial Vitotox test and the alkaline comet assay with and without S9 activation on human C3A cells. Ethyl Methanesulfonate (EMS) and 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4-NQO) were used as positive controls, respectively. All extracts showed toxicity in a dose-dependent manner; however, that does not mean they were all genotoxic. Methanol extract did show genotoxicity with S9 (metabolism) only at the highest concentration of 500 µg/ml due to increased DNA damage observed, however, no genotoxicity was observed from other concentrations. Therefore, the results show that Gunnera perpensa extracts are genotoxic and not safe for human use.

Keywords: antigenotoxicity, comet test, genotoxicity, Gunnera perpensa, vitotox assay

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31 Genistein Suppresses Doxorubicin Associated Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Tanveer Beg, Yasir H. Siddique, Gulshan Ara, Asfar S. Azmi, Mohammad Afzal


Doxorubicin is a well-known DNA intercalating chemotherapy drug that is widely used for treatment of different cancers. Its clinical utility is limited due to the observed genotoxic side effects on healthy cells suggesting that newer combination and genoprotective regimens are urgently needed for the management of doxorubicin chemotherapy. Some dietary phytochemicals are well known for their protective mechanism of action and genistein from soy is recognized as an anti-oxidant with similar properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of genistein against the genotoxic doses of doxorubicin by assessing chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, cell cycle kinetics, cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage markers in cultured human lymphocytes. Our results reveal that genistein treatment significantly suppresses genotoxic damage induced by doxorubicin. It is concluded that genistein has the potential to reduce the genotoxicity induced by anti-cancer drugs, thereby reducing the chances of developing secondary tumors during the therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, DNA damage markers, doxorubicin, genistein, genotoxicity, human lymphocyte culture

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30 Protective Effect of Cow Urine against Chlorpyrifos Induced-Genotoxicity and Neurotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Shelly Sharma, Pooja Chadha


Humans are exposed to pesticides and insecticides either directly or indirectly. Exposure to these pesticides may lead to acute toxicity to mammals and non-target organisms. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide widely used in various countries of the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity associated with chlorpyrifos exposure and possible mitigating effect of cow urine against genotoxic and toxic effects in rat brain induced by chlorpyrifos. For this purpose LD50 was determined and rats were orally administered with 1/8th of LD50 (19mg/kg b.wt). Brain samples were taken after 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs of treatment. A significant increase in the % tail DNA was observed along with the increase in MDA levels of brain tissues in chlorpyrifos treated groups as compared to control. Cow urine treated groups show decrease in DNA damage and MDA levels as compared to CPF treated group. The study indicates that cow urine has ameliorative potential against neurotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CPF. Cow urine is considered rich in vitamin A, E and volatile fatty acids which provide antioxidant potential to it. Thus, it can be used as a genoprotective agent.

Keywords: comet assay, brain, cow urine, genotoxicity, toxicity

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29 In vitro Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Human Keratinocytes

Authors: H. Bouaziz, M. Sefi, J. de Lapuente, M. Borras, N. Zeghal


Although arsenic trioxide has been the subject of toxicological research, in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using relevant cell models and uniform methodology are not well elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) using the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays, respectively. Human keratinocytes were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide for 4 h prior to cytogenetic assessment. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that arsenic trioxide significantly reduced the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing a IC50 value of 34.18 ± 0.6 µM. Data generated from the comet assay also indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in HaCaT cells associated with arsenic trioxide exposure. We observed a significant increase in comet tail length and tail moment, showing an evidence of arsenic trioxide -induced genotoxic damage in HaCaT cells. This study confirms that the comet assay is a sensitive and effective method to detect DNA damage caused by arsenic.

Keywords: arsenic trioxide, cytotoxixity, genotoxicity, HaCaT

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28 Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Glyphosate and Its Two Impurities in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

Authors: Marta Kwiatkowska, Paweł Jarosiewicz, Bożena Bukowska


Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) is a non-selected broad spectrum ingredient in the herbicide (Roundup) used for over 35 years for the protection of agricultural and horticultural crops. Glyphosate was believed to be environmentally friendly but recently, a large body of evidence has revealed that glyphosate can negatively affect on environment and humans. It has been found that glyphosate is present in the soil and groundwater. It can also enter human body which results in its occurrence in blood in low concentrations of 73.6 ± 28.2 ng/ml. Research conducted for potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity can be an important element in determining the toxic effect of glyphosate. Due to regulation of European Parliament 1107/2009 it is important to assess genotoxicity and cytotoxicity not only for the parent substance but also its impurities, which are formed at different stages of production of major substance – glyphosate. Moreover verifying, which of these compounds are more toxic is required. Understanding of the molecular pathways of action is extremely important in the context of the environmental risk assessment. In 2002, the European Union has decided that glyphosate is not genotoxic. Unfortunately, recently performed studies around the world achieved results which contest decision taken by the committee of the European Union. World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2015 has decided to change the classification of glyphosate to category 2A, which means that the compound is considered to "probably carcinogenic to humans". This category relates to compounds for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity on experimental animals. That is why we have investigated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects of the most commonly used pesticide: glyphosate and its impurities: N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA) and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), mostly lymphocytes. DNA damage (analysis of DNA strand-breaks) using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and ATP level were assessed. Cells were incubated with glyphosate and its impurities: PMIDA and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine at concentrations from 0.01 to 10 mM for 24 hours. Evaluating genotoxicity using the comet assay showed a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage for all compounds studied. ATP level was decreased to zero as a result of using the highest concentration of two investigated impurities, like bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine and PMIDA. Changes were observed using the highest concentration at which a person can be exposed as a result of acute intoxication. Our survey leads to a conclusion that the investigated compounds exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic potential but only in high concentrations, to which people are not exposed environmentally. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (Contract-2013/11/N/NZ7/00371), MSc Marta Kwiatkowska, project manager.

Keywords: cell viability, DNA damage, glyphosate, impurities, peripheral blood mononuclear cells

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27 Assessment of Genotoxic Effects of a Fungicide (Propiconazole) in Freshwater Fish Gambusia Affinis Using Alkaline Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet Essay)

Authors: Bourenane Bouhafs Naziha


ARTEA330EC is a fungicide used to inhibit the growth of many types of fungi on and cereals and rice, it is the single largest selling agrochemical that has been widely detected in surface waters in our area (Northeast Algerian). The studies on long-term genotoxic effects of fugicides in different tissues of fish using genotoxic biomarkers are limited. Therefore, in the present study DNA damage by propiconazole in freshwater fish Gambusia affinis by comet assays was investigated. The LC(50)- 96 h of the fungicide was estimated for the fish in a semi-static system. On this basis of LC(50) value sublethal and nonlethal concentrations were determined (25; 50; 75; and 100 ppm). The DNA damage was measured in erythrocytes as the percentage of DNA in comet tails of fishes exposed to above concentrations the fungicide. In general,non significant effects for both the concentrations and time of exposure were observed in treated fish compared with the controls. However It was found that the highest DNA damage was observed at the highest concentration and the longest time of exposure (day 12). The study indicated comet assay to be sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of propiconasol and other pesticides in fishes.

Keywords: genotoxicity, fungicide, propiconazole, freshwater, Gambusia affinis, alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis

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26 In vivo Evidence of Protective Effect of Hyparrhenia Hirta against Nitrate-Induced Genotoxicity

Authors: H. Bouaziz-Ketata, G. Ben Salah, Z. Aidi, C. Kallel, H. Kammoun, F. Fakhfakh, N. Zeghal


The present study was performed to evaluate the potential protective effect of Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in NaNO3-induced genotoxic and hematotoxic effects. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 bw either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 bw. NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. In parallel, the NaNO3-treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against genotoxic and hematotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above.

Keywords: Hyparrhenia hirta, sodium nitrate, erythrocytes, genotoxicity

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25 Adverse Effects of Natural Pesticides on Human and Animals: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa


Synthetic pesticides are widely used in large-scale worldwide for control pests in agriculture and public health sectors in both developed and developing countries. Although the positive role of pesticides, they have many adverse toxic effects on humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last few years, scientists have been searching for new active compounds from natural resources as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. Currently, many commercial natural pesticides are available commercially worldwide. These products are recommended for uses in organic farmers and considered as safe pesticides. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of natural pesticides on mammals. Available commercial pesticides in the market contain essential oils (e.g. pepper, cinnamon, and garlic), plant extracts, microorganism (e.g. bacteria, fungi or their toxin), mineral oils and some active compounds from natural recourses e.g. spinosad, neem, pyrethrum, rotenone, abamectin and other active compounds from essential oils (EOs). Some EOs components, e.g., thujone, pulegone, and thymol have high acute toxicity (LD50) is 87.5, 150 and 980 mg/kg. B.wt on mice, respectively. Natural pesticides such as spinosad, pyrethrum, neem, abamectin, and others have toxicological effects to mammals and ecosystem. These compounds were found to cause hematotoxicity, hepato-renal toxicity, biochemical alteration, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. It caused adverse effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, natural pesticides in general not safe and have high acute toxicity and can induce adverse effects at long-term exposure.

Keywords: natural pesticides, toxicity, safety, genotoxicity, ecosystem, biochemical

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24 Indirect Genotoxicity of Diesel Engine Emission: An in vivo Study Under Controlled Conditions

Authors: Y. Landkocz, P. Gosset, A. Héliot, C. Corbière, C. Vendeville, V. Keravec, S. Billet, A. Verdin, C. Monteil, D. Préterre, J-P. Morin, F. Sichel, T. Douki, P. J. Martin


Air Pollution produced by automobile traffic is one of the main sources of pollutants in urban atmosphere and is largely due to exhausts of the diesel engine powered vehicles. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, which is part of the World Health Organization, classified in 2012 diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer. Amongst the strategies aimed at limiting exhausts in order to take into consideration the health impact of automobile pollution, filtration of the emissions and use of biofuels are developed, but their toxicological impact is largely unknown. Diesel exhausts are indeed complex mixtures of toxic substances difficult to study from a toxicological point of view, due to both the necessary characterization of the pollutants, sampling difficulties, potential synergy between the compounds and the wide variety of biological effects. Here, we studied the potential indirect genotoxicity of emission of Diesel engines through on-line exposure of rats in inhalation chambers to a subchronic high but realistic dose. Following exposure to standard gasoil +/- rapeseed methyl ester either upstream or downstream of a particle filter or control treatment, rats have been sacrificed and their lungs collected. The following indirect genotoxic parameters have been measured: (i) telomerase activity and telomeres length associated with rTERT and rTERC gene expression by RT-qPCR on frozen lungs, (ii) γH2AX quantification, representing double-strand DNA breaks, by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed-paraffin embedded (FFPE) lung samples. These preliminary results will be then associated with global cellular response analyzed by pan-genomic microarrays, monitoring of oxidative stress and the quantification of primary DNA lesions in order to identify biological markers associated with a potential pro-carcinogenic response of diesel or biodiesel, with or without filters, in a relevant system of in vivo exposition.

Keywords: diesel exhaust exposed rats, γH2AX, indirect genotoxicity, lung carcinogenicity, telomerase activity, telomeres length

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23 Monitoring the Pollution Status of the Goan Coast Using Genotoxicity Biomarkers in the Bivalve, Meretrix ovum

Authors: Avelyno D'Costa, S. K. Shyama, M. K. Praveen Kumar


The coast of Goa, India receives constant anthropogenic stress through its major rivers which carry mining rejects of iron and manganese ores from upstream mining sites and petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping and harbor-related activities which put the aquatic fauna such as bivalves at risk. The present study reports the pollution status of the Goan coast by the above xenobiotics employing genotoxicity studies. This is further supplemented by the quantification of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and various trace metals (iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, and lead) in gills of the estuarine clam, Meretrix ovum as well as from the surrounding water and sediment, over a two-year sampling period, from January 2013 to December 2014. Bivalves were collected from a probable unpolluted site at Palolem and a probable polluted site at Vasco, based upon the anthropogenic activities at these sites. Genotoxicity was assessed in the gill cells using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The quantity of TPHs and trace metals present in gill tissue, water and sediments were analyzed using spectrofluorometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), respectively. The statistical significance of data was analyzed employing Student’s t-test. The relationship between DNA damage and pollutant concentrations was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Significant DNA damage was observed in the bivalves collected from Vasco which is a region of high industrial activity. Concentrations of TPHs and trace metals (iron, manganese, and cadmium) were also found to be significantly high in gills of the bivalves collected from Vasco compared to those collected from Palolem. Further, the concentrations of these pollutants were also found to be significantly high in the water and sediments at Vasco compared to that of Palolem. This may be due to the lack of industrial activity at Palolem. A high positive correlation was observed between the pollutant levels and DNA damage in the bivalves collected from Vasco suggesting the genotoxic nature of these pollutants. Further, M. ovum can be used as a bioindicator species for monitoring the level of pollution of the estuarine/coastal regions by TPHs and trace metals.

Keywords: comet assay, metals, micronucleus test, total petroleum Hydrocarbons

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22 Oxidative Antioxidative Status and DNA Damage Profile Induced by Chemotherapy in Algerian Children with Lymphoma

Authors: Assia Galleze, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nacira Cherif, Nidel Benhalilou, Nabila Attal, Chafia Touil Boukkoffa, Rachida Raache


Introduction and aims: Chemotherapeutic agents used to inhibit cell division and reduce tumor growth, increase reactive oxygen species levels, which contributes to their genotoxicity [1]. The comet assay is an inexpensive and rapid method to detect the damage at cellular levels and has been used in various cancer populations undergoing chemotherapy [2,3]. The present study aim to assess the oxidative stress and the genotoxicity induced by chemotherapy by the determination of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lymphocyte DNA damage in Algerian children with lymphoma. Materials and Methods: For our study, we selected thirty children with lymphoma treated in university hospital of Beni Messous, Algeria, and fifty unrelated subjects as controls, after obtaining the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964). Plasma levels of MDA, PC and SOD activity were spectrophotometrically measured, while DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Results and Discussion: Plasma MDA, PC levels and lymphocyte DNA damage, were found to be significantly higher in lymphoma patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Whereas, SOD activity in lymphoma patients was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between DNA damage, MDA and PC in patients (r = 0.96, p < 0.001, r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively), and negative correlation with SOD (r = 0.87, p < 0.01). Conclusion and Perspective: Our results indicated that, leukocytes DNA damage and oxidative stress were significantly higher in lymphoma patients, suggesting that the direct effect of chemotherapy and the alteration of the redox balance may influence oxidative/antioxidative status.

Keywords: chemotherapy, comet assay, DNA damage, lymphoma

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21 Study of the Genotoxic Potential of Plant Growth Regulator Ethephon

Authors: Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mohammad Abdollahi


Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. The toxicity of organophosphate compounds is mostly attributed to their potent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and their involvement in neurodegenerative disease. Although there are few reports on butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory role of ethephon, still there is no evidence on neurotoxicity and genotoxicity of this compound. The aim of the current study is to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon using two genotoxic endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay on embryonic murine fibroblast. γH2AX serves as an early and sensitive biomarker for evaluating the genotoxic effects of chemicals. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity were also examined. The results showed a significant increase in cell proliferation 24h post-treatment with 10, 40,160µg/ml ethephon. The γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci count per cell were increased at low concentration of ethephon that was concomitant with increased DNA damage break at 40 and 160 µg/ml as illustrated by increased comet tail moment. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS formation were observed at 160 µg/ml and higher doses. The results showed that low-dose of ethephon promoted cell proliferation while induce DNA damage, raising the possibility of ethephon mutagenicity. Ethephon-induced genotoxic effect of low dose might not related to oxidative damage. However, ethephon was found to increase oxidative stress at higher doses, lead to cellular cytotoxicity. Taken together, all data indicated that ethylene, deserves more attention as a plant regulator with potential genotoxicity for which appropriate control is needed to reduce its usage.

Keywords: ethephon, DNA damage, γH2AX, oxidative stress

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20 In vivo Genotoxicity Testing of Sesbania Grandiflora (Katuray) Flower Methanolic Extract

Authors: Levylee Bautista, Dawn Grace Santos, Aishwarya Veluchamy, Jesusa Santos, Ghafoor, Jr. I Haque, Rodolfo Rafael


The booming interest in using natural compounds as an alternative to conventional medications has paved way to focus the attention on plants that provide rich sources of bioactive phytochemicals. For regulatory purposes, evaluation of the genotoxic effects of such alternatives is therefore empirical as part of the plant’s hazard assessment. Sesbania grandiflora is among the plants used as a traditional remedy in folk medicine and a subject of research for its medicinal benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential induced by S. grandiflora flower methanol extract (SGFME) in terms of the frequency of micronucleus (MN) in polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) (MNPCE) and PCE ratio employing the micronucleus assay. The frequency of MN was examined in bone marrow cells (BMCs) obtained from male Swiss albino mice exposed in vivo to four different concentrations (11.25, 22.5, 40, and 90 mg/kg) of SGFME and MMC (70 mg/kg; positive control) and sacrificed 24 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Results showed a significant (p < 0.01) rate of MNPCEs for 11.25 and 22.5 tested concentrations of SGFME and is comparable with the MMC-treated mice. Although PCE ratio values in all doses of SGFME-treated mice were over 0.20, it is worth noting that 40 and 90 tested concentrations of SGFME-treated mice exhibited the lowest value, i.e., 0.22 and 0.28, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that S. grandiflora possesses genotoxic potential for murine BMCs. Such activity could be ascribed from the bioactive compounds present in S. grandiflora that require further isolation and characterization of the active molecules. Likewise, findings of this study warrant a caution of the use of S. grandiflora insomuch as further investigations do not demonstrate their safety.

Keywords: genotoxicity, micronucleus, phytochemicals, Sesbania grandiflora

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19 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Chemical Material in Filters PM2.5 of the Monitoring Stations of the Network of Air Quality in the Valle De Aburrá, Colombia

Authors: Alejandra Betancur Sánchez, Carmen Elena Zapata Sánchez, Juan Bautista López Ortiz


Adverse effects and increased air pollution has raised concerns about regulatory policies and has fostered the development of new air quality standards; this is due to the complexity of the composition and the poorly understood reactions in the atmospheric environment. Toxic compounds act as environmental agents having various effects, from irritation to death of cells and tissues. A toxic agent is defined an adverse response in a biological system. There is a particular class that produces some kind of alteration in the genetic material or associated components, so they are recognized as genotoxic agents. Within cells, they interact directly or indirectly with DNA, causing mutations or interfere with some enzymatic repair processes or in the genesis or polymerization of proteinaceous material involved in chromosome segregation. An air pollutant may cause or contribute to increased mortality or serious illness and even pose a potential danger to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the viability and the genotoxic potential on the cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and peripheral blood of particulate matter PM T lymphocytes 2.5 obtained from filters collected three monitoring stations network air quality Aburrá Valley. Tests, reduction of MTT, trypan blue, NRU, comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations allowed evidence reduction in cell viability in cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and damage to the DNA from cell line CHOK1, however, no significant effects were observed in the number of SCEs and chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that PM2.5 material has genotoxic potential and can induce cancer development, as has been suggested in other studies.

Keywords: PM2.5, cell line Jurkat, cell line CHO-K1, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity

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18 Toxicological Effects of Atmospheric Fine Particulate Matter on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Metabolic Activation, Genotoxicity and Epigenetic Modifications

Authors: M. Borgie, Z. Dagher, F. Ledoux, A. Verdin, F. Cazier, H. Greige, P. Shirali, D. Courcot


In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as carcinogenic to humans. Despite the clearly relationship established by epidemiological studies between PM exposure and the onset of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, uncertainties remain about the physiopathological mechanisms responsible for these diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicological effects of two samples of atmospheric PM2.5 collected at urban and rural sites on human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, especially to investigate the metabolic activation of organic compounds, the alteration of epigenetic mechanisms (i.e. microRNAs genes expression), the phosphorylation of H2AX and the telomerase activity. Our results showed a significant increase in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhRR genes expression, miR-21 gene expression, H2AX phosphorylation and telomerase activity in BEAS-2B cells after their exposure to PM2.5, both in a dose and site-dependent manner. These results showed that PM2.5, especially urban PM, are able to induce the expression of metabolizing enzymes which can provide metabolic biotransformation of organic compounds into more toxic and carcinogenic metabolites, and to induce the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 which promotes cell growth and enhances tumor invasion and metastasis in lung cancer. In addition, our results have highlighted the role of PM2.5 in the activation of telomerase, which can maintain the telomeres length and subsequently preventing cell death, and have also demonstrated the ability of PM2.5 to induce DNA breaks and thus to increase the risk of mutations or chromosomal translocations that lead to genomic instability. All these factors may contribute to cell abnormalities, and thus the development of cancer.

Keywords: BEAS-2B cells, carcinogenesis, epigenetic alterations and genotoxicity, PM2.5

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17 In Vitro Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Composite Obtained by Mixture of Natural Rubber and Leather Residues for Textile Application

Authors: Dalita G. S. M. Cavalcante, Elton A. P. dos Reis, Andressa S. Gomes, Caroline S. Danna, Leandra Ernest Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E. Job


In order to minimize environmental impacts, a composite was developed from mixture of leather shavings (LE) with natural rubber (NR), which patent is already deposited. The new material created can be used in applications such as floors e heels for shoes. Besides these applications, the aim is to use this new material for the production of products for the textile industry, such as boots, gloves and bags. But the question arises, as to biocompatibility of this new material. This is justified because the structure of the leather shavings has chrome. The trivalent chromium is usually not toxic, but the hexavalent chromium can be highly toxic and genotoxic for living beings, causing damage to the DNA molecule and contributing to the formation of cancer. Based on this, the objective of this study is evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of the new composite, using as system - test two cell lines (MRC-5 and CHO-K1) by comet assay. For this, the production of the composite was performed in three proportions: for every 100 grams of NR was added 40 (E40), 50 (E50) or 60 (E60) grams of LE. The latex was collected from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). For vulcanization of the NR, activators and accelerators were used. The two cell lines were exposed to the new composite in its three proportions using elution method, that is, cells exposed to liquid extracts obtained from the composite for 24 hours. For obtaining the liquid extract, each sample of the composite was crushed into pieces and mixed with an extraction solution. The quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in the extracts were performed by Optical Emission Spectrometry by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to both extracts were monitored by alkaline version of the comet assay. The results of the quantification of metals in ICP-OES indicated the presence of total chromium in different extracts, but were not detected presence of hexavalent chromium in any extract. Through the comet assay were not found DNA damage of the CHO-K1 cells exposed to both extracts. As for MRC-5, was found a significant increase in DNA damage in cells exposed to E50 and E60. Based on the above data, it can be asserted that the extracts obtained from the composite were highly genotoxic for MRC-5 cells. These biological responses do not appear to be related to chromium metal, since there was a predominance of trivalent chromium in the extracts, indicating that during the production process of the new composite, there was no formation of hexavalent chromium. In conclusion it can infer that the leather shavings containing chromium can be reused, thereby reducing the environmental impacts of this waste. Already on the composite indicates to its incorporation in applications that do not aim at direct contact with the human skin, and it is suggested the chain of composite production be studied, in an attempt to make it biocompatible so that it may be safely used by the textile industry.

Keywords: cell line, chrome, genotoxicity, leather, natural rubber

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16 Mutagenic in vitro Activity and Genotoxic Effect of Zygophyllum Cornutun Methanolic Extract

Authors: Awatif Boumaza, Abderraouf Hilali, Hayat Talbi, Houda Sbayou


The methanolic extract of Zygophyllum cornutun coss, an Algerian medicinal plant, was screened to the presence of mutagenic activity and genotoxic effect using the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome) and the micronucleus assay respectively. Positive results were obtained with both tests. The Ames test showed mutagenic activity in the presence of microsomal activation, while negative result was observed without microsomal activation. In the micronucleus test, two parameters were evaluated: the frequency of the micronucleus that increased in a dose dependent way and the proliferation index that decreased according to the micronucleus frequency. Even that further studies must be carried out, the mutagenic activity and the genotoxic effect of Zygophyllum cornutum should be taken in consideration when used as therapeutic plant.

Keywords: ames test, micronucleus test, mutagenic activity, genotoxicity, Zygophyllum cornutum

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15 Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy: Preliminary Results of MAPEC_LIFE Project

Authors: Elisabetta Ceretti, Silvia Bonizzoni, Alberto Bonetti, Milena Villarini, Marco Verani, Maria Antonella De Donno, Sara Bonetta, Umberto Gelatti


Introduction: Air pollution is a global problem. In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to human. The study of the health effects of air pollution in children is very important because they are a high-risk group in terms of the health effects of air pollution and early exposure during childhood can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. The MAPEC_LIFE (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) is a project founded by EU Life+ Programme which intends to evaluate the associations between air pollution and early biological effects in children and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods: The study was carried out on 6-8-year-old children living in five Italian towns in two different seasons. Two biomarkers of early biological effects, primary DNA damage detected with the comet assay and frequency of micronuclei, were investigated in buccal cells of children. Details of children diseases, socio-economic status, exposures to other pollutants and life-style were collected using a questionnaire administered to children’s parents. Child exposure to urban air pollution was assessed by analysing PM0.5 samples collected in the school areas for PAHs and nitro-PAHs concentration, lung toxicity and in vitro genotoxicity on bacterial and human cells. Data on the chemical features of the urban air during the study period were obtained from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection. The project created also the opportunity to approach the issue of air pollution with the children, trying to raise their awareness on air quality, its health effects and some healthy behaviors by means of an educational intervention in the schools. Results: 1315 children were recruited for the study and participate in the first sampling campaign in the five towns. The second campaign, on the same children, is still ongoing. The preliminary results of the tests on buccal mucosa cells of children will be presented during the conference as well as the preliminary data about the chemical composition and the toxicity and genotoxicity features of PM0.5 samples. The educational package was tested on 250 children of the primary school and showed to be very useful, improving children knowledge about air pollution and its effects and stimulating their interest. Conclusions: The associations between levels of air pollutants, air mutagenicity and biomarkers of early effects will be investigated. A tentative model to calculate the global absolute risk of having early biological effects for air pollution and other variables together will be proposed and may be useful to support policy-making and community interventions to protect children from possible health effects of air pollutants.

Keywords: air pollution exposure, biomarkers of early effects, children, public health policy

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14 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Methidathion Pesticide

Authors: Mohammad Y. Alfaifi


Methidathion (MTD) (Trade name Supracide®) is a non-systemic organophosphorus insecticide used intensively worldwide including Saudi Arabia. However, there is a lack in published studies about it's genotoxicity. In this study we evaluated MTD toxicity in rat bone marrow cells (in vivo) and in lymphocytes (in vitro) using different doses based on LD50. MNNCE (Micronucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index) and NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic and apoptotic cells were recorded in rat's bone marrow samples. CA, MI (number of cells undergoing mitosis) necrotic, and apoptotic cells recorded in lymphocytes. Results showed that there was a slight increase in the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells. However, no structural chromosomal aberrations were detected in vivo or in vitro. On the other hand, the results showed significant increase in necrotic and apoptotic cells following MTD administration in a dose-dependent manner comparing to positive and negative control groups. In light of these results, MTD can be considered highly cytotoxic and moderate genotoxic, and precaution should be taken when using MTD.

Keywords: methidathion, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, toxicity, chromosomal aberrations

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13 Genotoxicity of 4-Nonylphenol (4NP) on Oreochromus spilurs Fish

Authors: M. M. Alsharif


4-Nonylphenol Compound is widely used as an element of detergents, paints, insecticides and many others products. It is known that the existence of this compound may lead to the emission of estrogenic responses in mammals, birds and fish. It is described as pollutant since it causes disorder of endocrine glands. In previous studies, it was proven that this compound exists in water and in the materials precipitated in Red Sea coast in Jeddah near the drains of processed drainage water and near the drainage site of the residuals of paper factories. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytogenetic aberrations caused by 4-nonylphenol through exposing Talapia Fishes to aquatic solution of the compound with 0, 15, 30 microgram/liter for one month. Samples of gills and liver were collected for micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and measuring DNA and RNA amount in the treated fish. The results pointed out that there is a significant increase in the numbers of micronuclei in the fish exposed to the former concentrations as compared to the control group. Exposing fishes to 4-nonylphenol resulted in an increased amount of both DNA and RNA, compared to the control group. There is a positive correlation between the amount of the compound (i.e. dosage dependent effect) and the inspiring for cytogenetic effect on Talapia fishes in Jeddah. Therefore, micronucleus test, DNA and RNA contents can be considered as an index of cumulative exposure, which appear to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic effects of 4-Nonylphenol compound on fish.

Keywords: genotoxic, 4-nonylphenol, micronuclei, fish, DNA, RNA

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12 Assessment of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effect of Tartrazine in Both Male and Female Albino Rats

Authors: Alaa F. A. Bakr, Sherein S. Abdelgayed, Osama. S. EL-Tawil, Adel M. Bakeer


Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of tartrazine in both male and female albino rats. Methodology: Forty adult male (20) and female (20) Sprague Dawley albino rats (120 - 150g) were obtained and distributed into four experimental groups; Group I; 10 untreated males, Group II; 10 untreated females, Group III; 10 treated males, and Group IV; 10 treated females. Body weight was recorded weekly, reduced glutathione (RGH), lipid peroxidation (SOD), and superoxide dismutase activity (MDA) in liver tissue were carried out, histopathological studies of brain, liver, and kidneys were performed, COMET assay was performed, all values were statistically analyzed. Results: Decrease in the activity of RGH and SOD in the treated groups were reported, but there was a more significant decrease in the female treated group. MDA was increased in treated groups with tartrazine, moreover, it was more significant in the female treated group. Multiple histological lesions were developed in brain, liver, and kidneys. COMET showed positive results. Conclusion: Our study concluded that Tartrazine has a cytotoxic and genotoxic effect on albino rats and it was more significant in females than males.

Keywords: tartrazine, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, histopathology, albino rats

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11 Evaluation of DNA Oxidation and Chemical DNA Damage Using Electrochemiluminescent Enzyme/DNA Microfluidic Array

Authors: Itti Bist, Snehasis Bhakta, Di Jiang, Tia E. Keyes, Aaron Martin, Robert J. Forster, James F. Rusling


DNA damage from metabolites of lipophilic drugs and pollutants, generated by enzymes, represents a major toxicity pathway in humans. These metabolites can react with DNA to form either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is the oxidative product of DNA or covalent DNA adducts, both of which are genotoxic and hence considered important biomarkers to detect cancer in humans. Therefore, detecting reactions of metabolites with DNA is an effective approach for the safety assessment of new chemicals and drugs. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor array which can detect DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage in a single array, facilitating a more accurate diagnostic tool for genotoxicity screening. Layer-by-layer assembly of DNA and enzyme are assembled on the pyrolytic graphite array which is housed in a microfluidic device for sequential detection of two type of the DNA damages. Multiple enzyme reactions are run on test compounds using the array, generating toxic metabolites in situ. These metabolites react with DNA in the films to cause DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage which are detected by ECL generating osmium compound and ruthenium polymer, respectively. The method is further validated by the formation of 8-oxodG and DNA adduct using similar films of DNA/enzyme on magnetic bead biocolloid reactors, hydrolyzing the DNA, and analyzing by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Hence, this combined DNA/enzyme array/LC-MS approach can efficiently explore metabolic genotoxic pathways for drugs and environmental chemicals.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemiluminescence, DNA damage, microfluidic array

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10 Radioprotective Effects of Selenium and Vitamin-E against 6Mv X-Rays in Human Volunteers Blood Lymphocytes by Micronuclei Assay

Authors: Vahid Changizi, Aram Rostami, Akbar Mosavi


Purpose of study: Critical macromolecules of cells such as DNA are in exposure to damage of free radicals that induced from interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems. Selenium and vitamin-E are natural compound that has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo/in vitro radioprotective effect of selenium and vitamin-E separately and synergistically against genotoxicity induced by 6MV x-rays irradiation in cultured blood lymphocytes from 15 human volunteers. Methods: Fifteen volunteers were divided in three groups include A, B and C. These groups were given slenium(800 IU), vitamin-E(100 mg) and selenium(400 IU) + vitamin-E(50 mg), respectively. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each group before(0 hr) and 1, 2 and 3 hr after selenium and vitamin-E administration (separately and synergistically). Then the blood samples were irradiated to 200 cGy of 6 Mv x-rays. After that, lymphocyte samples were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the chromosomal aberrations wih micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Results: The lymphocytes in the blood samples collected at 1 hr after ingestion selenium and vitamin-E, exposed in vitro to x-rays exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei, compared with control group at 0 hr. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei(50%) was observed at 1 hr after administration of selenium and vitamin-E synergistically. Conclusion: The data suggest that ingestion of selenium and vitamin-E as a radioprotector substances before exposures may reduce genetic damage caused by x-rays irradiation.

Keywords: x-rays, selenium, vitamin-e, lymphocyte, micronuclei

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9 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal


Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: cell death, apoptosis, Comet Assay, DNA damage, Drosophila, electromagnetic fields, EMF, radio frequency, RF, TUNEL assay

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8 Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Salvia officinals Extracts on Rat Bone Marrow

Authors: Mohammed A. Alshehri


Salvia officinalis is an aromatic plant member of the mint (Labiatae) family. It is popular kitchen herb. Not surprise to find that the name of this herb related to cure, in Latin language Salvia means to cure where officinalis means medicinal which answer why the sage has a top place in the list of medicinal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic damage and cytological changes caused by exposure of the test organism (Rattusrattus) to Salvia officinals. For this purpose, adult female rats, weighing 200–250 g, were used as donors. A total of 36 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: the experimental groups (rats were intraperitonealy injected with Salvia officinalis pure extract at (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.1mg/kg body weight, the same dose was administered once a day. Control group (rats were injected intraperitonealy physiological saline. And positive control were injected with Cyclophosphamide. On the 21st days following Salvia officinalis pure extract exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of bone marrow were collected. Following that, we performed a micronuclei (MN) test using MNNCE (Micro-nucleated normocromatic erythrocytes) and MNPCE (Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes), NDI (Nuclear division index), and cytological parameters using NDCI (nuclear division cytotoxicity index), necrotic, and apoptotic cells in rat's bone marrow samples. Results showed that there was a no significant increase in the frequency of micro-nucleatedas well as in cytological parameters in bone marrow cells. In light of these results, if Salvia officinalis pure extract may considered to be safe from the stand point of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects.

Keywords: Salvia officinalis, micronucleus, NDI, NDCI, toxicity, chromosomal aberrations

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7 Evaluation of Occupational Exposure to Chromium for Welders of Stainless Steel

Authors: L. Musak, J. Valachova, T. Vasicko, O. Osina


Stainless steel is resistant to electrochemical corrosion by passivation. Welders are greatly exposed to welding fumes of toxic metals, which added to this steel. The content of chromium (Cr) is above 11.5%, Ni and Mo from 2 to 6.5%. The aim of the study was the evaluation of occupational exposure to Cr, chromosome analysis and valuation of individual susceptibility polymorphism of gene CCND1 c.870 G>A. The exposed group was consisted from 117 welders of stainless steels. The average age was 38.43 years and average exposure time 7.14 years. Smokers represented 40.17%. The control group consisted of 123 non-exposed workers with an average age of 39.74 years and time employment 16.67 years. Smokers accounted for 22.76%. Analysis of Cr in blood and urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS Varian SpectraAA 30P) with electrothermal decomposition of the sample in the graphite furnace. For the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was used. Gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP reaction using appropriate primers and restriction enzymes. For statistic analysis the Mann-Whitney U-test was used. The mean Cr level in blood of exposed group was 0.095 µmol/l (0.019 min - max 0.504). No value exceeds the average normal value. The mean value Cr in urine was 7.9 µmol/mol creatinine (min 0.026 to max 19.26). The total number of CA was 1.86% in compared to 1.70% controls. (CTA-type 0.90% vs. 0.80% and CSA-type 0.96% vs. 0.90%). In the number of total CA statistical difference was observed between smokers and non-smokers of exposed group (S-1.57% vs. NS-2.04%, P<0.05). In CCND1 gene polymorphisms was observed the increasing of the total CA with wild-type allele (WT) via heterozygous to the VAR genotype (1.44% <1.82% <2.13%). A statistically higher incidence of CTA-type aberrations in variant genotypes between exposed and control groups was observed (1.22% vs. 0.59%, P <0.05). The work place is usually higher source of exposure to harmful factors. Workers need consistent and frequent health control. In assessing the risk of adverse effects of metals it is important to consider their persistence, behavior and bioavailability. Prolonged exposure to carcinogens may not manifest symptoms of poisoning, but delayed effects may occur, which resulted in a higher incidence of malignant tumors.

Keywords: CCND1, genotoxicity, polymorphism, stainless steel, welders

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6 Evaluation of Azo Dye Toxicity Using Some Haematological and Histopathological Alterations in Fish Catla Catla

Authors: Jagruti Barot


The textile industry plays a major role in the economy of India and on the other side of the coin it is the major source for water pollution. As azo dyes is the largest dye class they are extensively used in many fields such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, food, colour photography, pharmaceuticals and medicine, cosmetic, hair colourings, wood staining, agricultural, biological and chemical research etc. In addition to these, they can have acute and/or chronic effects on organisms depending on their concentration and length of exposure when they discharged as effluent in the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic and histotoxic potentials of environmentally relevant concentrations of RR 120 on Catla catla, important edible freshwater fingerlings. For this, healthy Catla catla fingerlings were procured from the Government Fish Farm and acclimatized in 100 L capacity and continuously aerated glass aquarium in laboratory for 15 days. According to APHA some physic-chemical parameters were measured and maintained such as temperature, pH, dissolve oxygen, alkalinity, total hardness. Water along with excreta had been changed every 24 hrs. All fingerlings were fed artificial food palates once a day @ body weight. After 15 days fingerlings were grouped in 5 (10 in each) and exposed to various concentrations of RR 120 (Control, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) and samples (peripheral blood and gills, kidney) were collected and analyzed at 96 hrs. of interval. All results were compared with the control. Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB), fragmented-apoptotic (FA) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells in blood cells and in tissues (gills and kidney cells) were observed. Prominent histopathological alterations were noticed in gills such as aneurism, hyperplasia, degenerated central axis, lifting of gill epithelium, curved secondary gill lamellae etc. Similarly kidney showed some detrimental changes like shrunken glomeruli with increased periglomerular space, degenerated renal tubules etc. Both haematological and histopathological changes clearly reveal the toxic potential of RR 120. This work concludes that water pollution assessment can be done by these two biomarkers which provide baseline to the further chromosomal or molecular work.

Keywords: micronuclei, genotoxicity, RR 120, Catla catla

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5 The Evaluation of Occupational Exposure of Chrome in Welders of Stainless Steels

Authors: L. Musak, J. Valachova, T. Vasicko, O. Osina


Introduction: Stainless steel is resistant to electrochemical corrosion by passivation. Welders are greatly exposed to welding fumes of toxic metals, which added to this steel. The content of chromium (Cr) in steel was above 11.5%, Ni and Mo from 2 to 6.5%. The aim of the study was the evaluation of occupational exposure to Cr, chromosome analysis and valuation of individual susceptibility polymorphism of gene CCND1 c.870 G>A. Materials and Methods: The exposed group was consisted from 117 welders of stainless steels. The average age was 38.43 years and average exposure time 7.14 years. Smokers represented 40.17%. The control group consisted of 123 non-exposed workers with an average age of 39.74 years and time employment 16.67 years. Smokers accounted for 22.76%. Analysis of Cr in blood and urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS Varian SpectraAA 30P) with electrothermal decomposition of the sample in the graphite furnace. For the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was used cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes, gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP reaction using appropriate primers and restriction enzymes. For statistical analysis was used the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The mean Cr level in exposed group was 0.095 mmol/l (0.019 min-max 0.504). No value does exceed the average normal value. The average value Cr in urine was 7.9 mmol/mol creatinine (min 0.026 to max 19.26). The total number of CA was 1.86% in compared to 1.70% controls. (CTA-type 0.90% vs 0.80% and CSA-type 0.96% vs 0.90%). In the number of total CA was observed statistical difference between smokers and non-smokers of exposed group (S-1.57% vs. NS-2.04%, P<0.05). In CCND1 gene polymorphisms was observed the increasing of the total CA with wild-type allele (WT) via heterozygous to the VAR genotype (1.44%<1.82%<2.13%). There was observed a statistically higher incidence of CTA-type aberrations in variant genotypes between exposed and control groups (1.22% vs. 0.59%, P<0.05). Discussion and conclusions: The work place is usually higher source of exposure to harmful factors. Workers need consistently and checked frequently health control. In assessing the risk of adverse effects of metals is important to consider their persistence, behavior and bioavailability. Prolonged exposure to carcinogens may not manifest symptoms of poisoning, but delayed effects may occur, which resulted in a higher incidence of malignant tumors.

Keywords: genotoxicity, chromium, stainless steels, welders

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4 Impact of Culture Conditions on Cyanophora paradoxa Composition and Antiproliferative Activity in Human Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Helen Herbert, Rachel Parkes, Maria Elena Barone, Sabrina Picciotto, Giorgia Adamo, Angela Paterna, Antonella Bongiovanni, Eva Campion, Nicolas Touzet


Microalgae are promising candidates for biotechnological applications in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. These organisms are capable of accumulating high-value metabolites under specific conditions. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that microalgal compounds such as phycobiliproteins, pigments or lipids can exhibit a range of biological activities, including the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. This study investigated the biological activity of extracts from the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa grown under various cultivation conditions in human breast and lung cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and A549). Analysis of the C. paradoxa biomass revealed a broad spectrum of bioactive compounds to be present such as pigments (chlorophylls, xanthophylls and carotenes), phycobiliproteins and fatty acids (e.g., EPA). Modification of the cultivation environment using blue light, nitrogen starvation and the addition of sodium chloride demonstrated no positive enhancement of such bioactive compounds. In fact, blue light negatively impacted the production of biomass, zeaxanthin, EPA and phycocyanin. Biomass processing by cold maceration using solvents of increasing polarity returned extracts for each of the conditions mentioned above, which were then used in the treatment of human cancer cells, A549 and MCF-7. Some weak cytotoxic activity was observed in vitro for diethyl ether and methanol extracts at 100 µg/ml concentration after a 72-hour incubation. In particular, methanol extracts from the biomass cultivated under a saline-rich environment led to an inhibition in viability in A549 of just 22% while Et20 extracts from the same biomass had no effect in this cell line. In contrast to the A549 cell line, Et2O extracts appeared to impact the viability of the MCF-7 cell line to a greater extent than the methanol extracts. However, the overall reduction in viability using Et20 extracts remained less than 30%, with no effect on viability observed using the methanol extracts. Moreover, no genotoxicity was observed for any of the C. paradoxa extracts, as determined by acridine orange staining. Overall, this work confirms C. paradoxa as a promising candidate for the refinery of natural bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Cyanophora, bioactivity, microalgae, stress conditions

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