Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 628

Search results for: COVID 19

628 Implications about the Impact of COVID-19 on Business

Authors: Anwar Kashgari

Abstract:

COVID-19 has severe impacts on business all over the world. The great lockdown of many business owners requires a sage deal with this pandemic. This paper seeks to support business leaders with a standpoint about the COVID-19 situation and provides implications for the (Small and Medium Enterprises) SMEs and companies. The paper reflects the author's view about the impact of COVID-19 on business activities. We discussed the impact of COVID-19 upon three aspects, namely, startups, SMEs, and e-commerce. The KSA is an example of the developing countries about which we present the current situation. Finally, recommendations to policy and decision-makers are given.

Keywords: COVID 19, business networking, globalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
627 The Impact of COVID-19 on Reconstructive Breast Surgery and Future Prospective

Authors: Amenah Galo, Mohammed Farid, Kareem Alsharkawy, Robert Warner, Karthikeyan Srinivasan, Haitham Khalil, Ruth Waters

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Introduction: The cessation of elective surgery, particularly breast reconstruction, continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The restructuring of medical services and staff redeployment severely affected the ability to return to normality for surgical specialties. The aim of this study is to determine the decline in breast reconstruction affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary center. Methods: A retrospective review of breast reconstruction cases (autologous, non-autologous) or mastectomies Pre- COVID (March 2019-March 2020) and during COVID (March 2020- March 2021) at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, were collated. Data included patient demographics, BMI, previous and recent reconstruction, length of hospital stay, and mastectomies, including risk-reducing. Results: The number of patients who had breast reconstruction was significantly lower during COVID (n=62) compared to pre-COVID (n=199). The mean age (pre-COVID 51, COVID 59 years), BMI (Pre-COVID and COVID = 27), previous reconstruction (pre-COVID n=101, 51%, COVID n=33, 53%) and length hospital stay was less during COVID (3 days) compared to Pre-COVID (4 days). The proportion of risk-reducing mastectomies and reconstruction during COVID (32%, n=20) were higher than pre-COVID (21%, n=41). A higher proportion rate of autologous reconstruction (DIEP 56, TRAM 17) Pre-COVID compared to COVID (DIEP 22, TRAM 7). Implant reconstructions were higher during COVID (n=19, 31%) than pre-COVID (n=31, 16%). Conclusion: The lack of regular provision for breast reconstruction continues to decline during the pandemic. This will have a tremendous impact on waiting lists without a timeline for reconstruction to offer patients. An international survey highlights the disparities in offering breast reconstruction and strategies to rectify this issue.

Keywords: breast reconstruction, COVID-19 pandemic, mastectomy, autologous, implant

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
626 The Effect of Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Student Mental

Authors: Adelia Desi Agnesita

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The advent of a new disease called covid-19 made many major changes in the world, one of which is the process of learning and teaching. Learning formerly offline but now is done online, which makes students need adaptation to the learning process. The covid-19 pandemic that occurs almost worldwide causes activities that involve many people to be avoided, one of which is learning to teach. In Indonesia, since March 2020, the process of college learning is turning into online/ long-distance learning. It's to prevent the spread of the covid-19. Student online learning presents some of the obstacles to poor signals, many of the tasks, lack of focus, difficulty sleeping, and resulting stress.

Keywords: learning, online, covid-19, pandemic

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625 Burden of Severe COVID-19 in Center of Iran: Results of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)

Authors: Moslem Taheri Soodejani, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

Abstract:

Introduction: The outbreak of Covid-19 disease is an international public health concern. Therefore, the analysis of information related to mortality and disability due to COVID-19 is considered important, so the present study was designed and conducted with the aim of assessing COVID-19 Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) in Yazd. Methods: In Yazd province, all suspected cases of Covid-19 that would be referred to central hospitals in order to get confirmed through PCR or CT scan tests were recruited to our study. The fatality data of Covid- 19 was gathered from the forensic medicine organization. The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) combines in one measure years of life lost (YLL), the loss of healthy life due to premature mortality and years of life lived with disability (YLD), the loss of healthy life because of disease and disability. Results: The total burden of COVID-19 was 23,472 years. The number of years lost due to premature death was 23385 and the number of years of life with disability due to COVID-19 was estimated to be 87 years. The disease burden was 12992 years for men and 10480 years for women. The overall incidence of COVID-19 was 1411 per 100,000, of which 1419 in men and 1402 in women per 100,000. Conclusion: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic affected a large population and the residents of Yazd Province lost many years of their lives due to this disease.

Keywords: DALY, covid- 19, Yazd, Iran

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624 Complicated Sinusitis with Sphenopalatine Artery Thrombosis in a Covid-19 Patient

Authors: Sara Mahmood, Omar Ahmed, Youssef Aladham, Moustafa Abdelnaby

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The varied complications of COVID-19 present an ongoing challenge to healthcare professionals. A rare presentation of complicated sinusitis with pre-septal cellulitis and hard palatal necrosis in a COVID-19 patient, was reported. A 52-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with typical COVID manifestations where he had two successive COVID-19 positive swabs. During his admission, he developed symptoms of right orbital complications of sinusitis along with both clinical and radiological evidence of ipsilateral hard palatal necrosis. Imaging confirmed a diagnosis of right pan-sinusitis complicated with right pre-septal infection and hard palatal bony defect on the same side. Intra-operatively, the sphenopalatine artery was found to be thrombosed. This case focuses on the possible association between these manifestations and the known thromboembolic complications of COVID-19. Ongoing management of such complicated rare cases should be through a multidisciplinary team.

Keywords: COVID-19, sinusitis, sphenopalatine artery, thrombosis

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623 Case Studies on the Impact of COVID-19 on Films and Digital Media

Authors: Hitender Sehrawat

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COVID-19 has been a game-changer for many industries and businesses across the globe. In this article, the impact of COVID-19 is discussed, specifically on films, television, and digital media industry. Based on the review of the newspaper articles, three case studies are presented. One case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on Bollywood, the second case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on Hollywood, and third case study is on the impact of COVID-19 on television and digital media industry. It is argued that COVID-19 has had a negative impact on Bollywood and Hollywood, whereas it has impacted the television and digital media industry in a positive way. COVID-19 has brought about disruption in the lives and businesses of people, and the film and television industry is not an exception. Although there are negative impacts of COVID-19 on Bollywood and Hollywood, it has positive impacts on television and the digital media industry. Maybe the disruption of the traditional film industry by the digital media industry will be the normal for a long time to come. However, measures need to be thought about a revival of the Bollywood and Hollywood for the many livelihoods they cater to. Bollywood and Hollywood are not just film industries, but the core identities of India and the United States. What shape film industry will take in the future would be interesting to see. This article opens up avenues for more in-depth empirical research in this area in the future.

Keywords: films, COVID-19, television, media industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
622 Fighting COVID-19: Lessons and Experience from the World’s Largest Economies

Authors: Xiaowen Zhang, Wanda Luen-Wun Siu

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The paper reviews the insights gained in combating COVID-19 in the US, Japan, and China. After evaluation and investigation, we found that China’s and Japan’s experience of fighting COVID-19 is commendable. The Chinese government and the Japanese administration have implemented highly effective governance and public health course of action to fight COVID-19. Government-led epidemic control with a staunch belief in science can roll out effective pandemic control strategies. In contrast, the US failed to react to COVID-19 effectively. The relaxed public health measures of ending shutdowns prematurely were not working. When the US keeps business open after the spring shutdown, COVID-19 cases are soaring. Such experiences inform us effective governance and a mandatory and stricter approach can better curb a pandemic than milder measures in handling a public health emergency. And China and Japan, where collectivistic culture reins, can better maneuver a public health crisis with collective efforts.

Keywords: US, China, Japan, COVID-19

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621 A Comparative Study of Deep Learning Methods for COVID-19 Detection

Authors: Aishrith Rao

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COVID 19 is a pandemic which has resulted in thousands of deaths around the world and a huge impact on the global economy. Testing is a huge issue as the test kits have limited availability and are expensive to manufacture. Using deep learning methods on radiology images in the detection of the coronavirus as these images contain information about the spread of the virus in the lungs is extremely economical and time-saving as it can be used in areas with a lack of testing facilities. This paper focuses on binary classification and multi-class classification of COVID 19 and other diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc. Different deep learning methods such as VGG-19, COVID-Net, ResNET+ SVM, Deep CNN, DarkCovidnet, etc., have been used, and their accuracy has been compared using the Chest X-Ray dataset.

Keywords: deep learning, computer vision, radiology, COVID-19, ResNet, VGG-19, deep neural networks

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620 Urban Resilience: Relation between COVID-19 and Urban Environment in Amman City

Authors: Layla Mujahed

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COVID-19 is an exam for all the city’s systems. It shows many gaps in the systems such as healthcare, economic, social, and environment. This pandemic is paving for a new era, an era of technology and it has changed people’s lives, such as physical, and emotional changes, and converting communication into digitalized. The effect of COVID-19 has covered all urban city parts. COVID-19 will not be the last pandemic our cities will face. For that, more researches focus on enhancing the quality of the urban environment. This pandemic encourages a rethinking of the environment’s role, especially in cities. Cities are trying to provide the best suitable strategies and regulations to prevent the spread of COVID-19, and an example of that is Amman city. Amman has a high increment in the number of COVID-19 infected people, while it has controlled the situation for months. For that, this paper studies the relation between COVID-19 and urban environmental studies cases about cities around the world, and learns from their models to face COVID-19. In Amman, people’s behavior has changed towards public transportation and public green spaces. N­ew governmental regulations focus on increasing people’s mental awareness, supporting local businesses, and enhancing neighborhood planning that can help Amman to face any future pandemics.

Keywords: COVID-19, urban environment, urban planning, urban resilience

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619 Immunoglobulin G Glycosylation Profile in Influenza and COVID-19 Infected Patients

Authors: Marina Kljaković-Gašpić Batinjan, Tea Petrović, Frano Vučković, Irzal Hadžibegović, Barbara Radovani, Ivana Jurin, Lovorka Đerek, Eva Huljev, Alemka Markotić, Ivica Lukšić, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Gordan Lauc, Ivan Gudelj, Rok Čivljak

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Immunoglobulin G has essential role in defense against infectious diseases, but its role cannot be fully recognized without understanding of changes in its N-glycans attached to the Fc domain. We analyzed and compared total IgG glycome in plasma samples of patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls. We found similarities in IgG glycosylation changes in COVID-19 survivors and influenza patients that could be the consequence of adequate immune response to enveloped viruses, while observed changes in deceased COVID-19 patients may indicate its deviation.

Keywords: COVID-19, glycosylation, immunoglobulin G, influenza, pneumonia, viral infection

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618 Modelling the Effect of Distancing and Wearing of Face Masks on Transmission of COVID-19 Infection Dynamics

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi

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The COVID-19 is an infection caused by coronavirus, which has been designated as a pandemic in the world. In this paper, we proposed a model to study the effect of distancing and wearing masks on the transmission of COVID-19 infection dynamics. The invariant region of the model is established. The COVID-19 free equilibrium and the reproduction number of the model were obtained. The local and global stability of the model is determined using the linearization technique method and Lyapunov method. It was found that COVID-19 free equilibrium state is locally asymptotically stable in feasible region Ω if R₀ < 1 and globally asymptomatically stable if R₀ < 1, otherwise unstable if R₀ > 1. More so, numerical analysis and simulations of the dynamics of the COVID-19 infection are presented.

Keywords: distancing, reproduction number, wearing of mask, local and global stability, modelling, transmission

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617 Applications for Tracking Close Contact with COVID-19 Patients in Malaysia

Authors: Bih Ni Lee

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This paper discusses the unending coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. The activity of detecting, testing those with symptoms, and isolating their contacts is the most effective method of stopping the chain of coronavirus infection. The number of cases of coronavirus continues to increase with some reporting a cure, but not a few die. Efforts to treat and prevent continue to fight COVID-19 with flu-like symptoms. The importance of the study is to identify smartphone applications that can track the movement of individuals in an effort to curb the spread of COVID-19, especially in Malaysia. This research method used a literature review, which included new insights into the quality of action and scientific papers. It synthesized information gleaned from a variety of sources. The findings of the study are that the Government of Malaysia has launched three main applications to track the movement of individuals, namely Gerak Malaysia, MyTrace, MySejahtera. Similarly, every state in Malaysia has its own state government application to track individual movements. Overall, Malaysia is one of the countries in the world that has successfully curbed the spread of COVID-19; Covid-19 cases in Malaysia are under control.

Keywords: COVID-19 app, national security council, Gerak Malaysia, MyTrace, MySejahtera

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616 Using the Internet of Things to Deal with Ventilators for Minimizing the Direct Contact with COVID-19 Patients

Authors: Mohammed Al-Shalabi

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In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has become an important technology for connecting various smart objects in many applications, especially in health monitoring applications. The IoT technology develops healthcare applications from traditional to personalized ones by making the treatment and monitoring of patients more easily. Nowadays, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the necessity of enhancing healthcare monitoring applications to avoid the spreading of this pandemic is increased. In this paper, a mechanism is proposed to minimize the direct contact with COVID-19 patients who need ventilators by using IoT technology. The proposed mechanism saves the medical providers from the COVID-19 infection and then minimizes the spreading of this disease.

Keywords: internet of things, healthcare monitoring, COVID-19, ventilators, thingspeak, clouds

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615 Topic Sentiments toward the COVID-19 Vaccine on Twitter

Authors: Melissa Vang, Raheyma Khan, Haihua Chen

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has changed people's lives from all over the world. More people have turned to Twitter to engage online and discuss the COVID-19 vaccine. This study aims to present a text mining approach to identify people's attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine on Twitter. To achieve this purpose, we collected 54,268 COVID-19 vaccine tweets from September 01, 2020, to November 01, 2020, then the BERT model is used for the sentiment and topic analysis. The results show that people had more negative than positive attitudes about the vaccine, and countries with an increasing number of confirmed cases had a higher percentage of negative attitudes. Additionally, the topics discussed in positive and negative tweets are different. The tweet datasets can be helpful to information professionals to inform the public about vaccine-related informational resources. Our findings may have implications for understanding people's cognitions and feelings about the vaccine.

Keywords: BERT, COVID-19 vaccine, sentiment analysis, topic modeling

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614 Artificial Intelligence-Based Chest X-Ray Test of COVID-19 Patients

Authors: Dhurgham Al-Karawi, Nisreen Polus, Shakir Al-Zaidi, Sabah Jassim

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The management of COVID-19 patients based on chest imaging is emerging as an essential tool for evaluating the spread of the pandemic which has gripped the global community. It has already been used to monitor the situation of COVID-19 patients who have issues in respiratory status. There has been increase to use chest imaging for medical triage of patients who are showing moderate-severe clinical COVID-19 features, this is due to the fast dispersal of the pandemic to all continents and communities. This article demonstrates the development of machine learning techniques for the test of COVID-19 patients using Chest X-Ray (CXR) images in nearly real-time, to distinguish the COVID-19 infection with a significantly high level of accuracy. The testing performance has covered a combination of different datasets of CXR images of positive COVID-19 patients, patients with viral and bacterial infections, also, people with a clear chest. The proposed AI scheme successfully distinguishes CXR scans of COVID-19 infected patients from CXR scans of viral and bacterial based pneumonia as well as normal cases with an average accuracy of 94.43%, sensitivity 95%, and specificity 93.86%. Predicted decisions would be supported by visual evidence to help clinicians speed up the initial assessment process of new suspected cases, especially in a resource-constrained environment.

Keywords: COVID-19, chest x-ray scan, artificial intelligence, texture analysis, local binary pattern transform, Gabor filter

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613 Predicting COVID-19 Severity Using a Simple Parameters in Resource-Limited Settings

Authors: Sireethorn Nimitvilai, Ussanee Poolvivatchaikarn, Nuchanart Tomeun

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Objective: To determine the simple laboratory parameters to predict disease severity among COVID-19 patients in resource-limited settings. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Nakhonpathom Hospital, a 722-bed tertiary care hospital, with an average of 50,000 admissions per year, during April 15 and May 15, 2021. Eligible patients were adults aged ≥ 15 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19. Baseline characteristics, comorbid conditions ad laboratory findings at admission were collected. Predictive factors for severe COVID-19 infection were analyzed. Result: There were 207 patients (79 male and 128 female) and the mean age was 46.7 (16.8) years. Of these, 39 cases (18.8%) were severe and 168 (81.2%) cases were non-severe. Factors associated with severe COVID-19 were neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≥ 4 (OR 8.1, 95%CI 2.3-20.3, P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio ≥ 10 (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.3-9.1, p 0.01). Conclusions: Complete blood counts, C-reactive protein and albumin are simple, inexpensive, widely available tests and can be used to predict severe COVID-19 in resource-limited settings.

Keywords: COVID-19, predictor of severity, resource-limiting settings, simple laboratory parameters

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612 An Inflammatory Mediated Hypothesis of COVID-19 Psychosis

Authors: Hilary P. Stevenson, Alexander J. Hayek, Amie Dereczyk

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In this case report, we provide an example of an asymptomatic COVID-19 positive patient who presented with new-onset psychosis with severe paranoid delusions. He was seen in our ED after ingesting isopropyl alcohol which he reported was an attempt to escape presumed attackers, which at the time was logical to the patient. The patient’s family had COVID-19 symptoms that corresponded to those typically observed from the Omicron variant. The patient was treated successfully, within ten days, with Risperdal twice-daily dosing resulting in the resolution of the patient’s delusions and improved insight regarding the events that led to his hospitalization. In this work, we examine possible contributing factors to new-onset psychosis in the context of COVID-19, a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly notable in the literature. One area of importance is the already established inflammatory hypothesis of psychosis in which defects in the innate immune system, which result in its overactivation, may play a role in a typical first-episode psychosis, in addition to subsequent episodes. Given that COVID-19 is known to cause derangements in the innate immune system, such as cytokine storm reactions, this link may be critical in further understanding the etiologies of new-onset COVID-19 psychosis and its risk factors. Also included in this work is a brief review of antipsychotic interventions that have been described in the literature to date for the first episode of COVID-19-related psychosis. This will explore the potential of some antipsychotics to innately diminish the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, further enhancing their usefulness in COVID-19 first-episode psychosis patients.

Keywords: COVID-19, first break psychosis, inflammatory hypothesis of psychosis, Risperdal

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611 Asymptomatic Intercostal Schwannoma in a Patient with COVID-19: The First of Its Kind

Authors: Gabriel Hunduma

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Asymptomatic intra-thoracic neurogenic tumours are rare. Tumours arising from the intercostal nerves of the chest wall are exceedingly rare. This paper reports an incidental discovery of a neurogenic intercostal tumour while being investigated for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 54-year-old female underwent a thoracotomy and resection for an intercostal tumour. Pre-operative images showed an intrathoracic mass, and the biopsy revealed a schwannoma. The most common presenting symptom recorded in literature is chest pain; however, our case remained asymptomatic despite the size of the mass and thoracic area it occupied. After an extensive search of the literature, COVID-19 was found to have an influence on the development of certain cells in breast cancer. Hence there is a possibility that COVID-19 played a role in progressing the development of the schwannoma cells.

Keywords: thoracic surgery, intercostal schwannoma, chest wall oncology, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
610 Covid Encephalopathy and New-Onset Seizures in the Context of a Prior Brain Abnormality: A Case Report

Authors: Omar Sorour, Michael Leahy, Thomas Irvine, Vladimir Koren

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Introduction: Covid encephalitis is a rare yet dangerous complication, particularly affecting the older and immunocompromised. Symptoms range from confusion to delirium, coma, and seizures. Although neurological manifestations have become more well-characterized in COVID patients, little is known about whether priorneurological abnormalities may predispose patients to COVID encephalopathy. Case Description: A 73 y.o. male with a CT and MRI-confirmed stable, prior 9 mm cavernoma in the right frontal lobe and no past history of seizures was hospitalized with generalized weakness, abdominal pain, nausea, and shortness of breath with subsequent COVID pneumonia. Three days after the initial presentation, the patient developed a spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizure consistent with presumed COVID encephalitis, along with somnolence and confusion. A day later, the patient had two other seizure episodes. Follow-up EEG suggested an inter-ictal epileptic focus with sharp waves corresponding to roughly the same location as the patient’s pre-existing cavernoma. The patient’s seizures stopped shortly thereafter, while his encephalopathy continued for days. Conclusion: We illustrate that a pre-existing anatomic cortical abnormality may act as a potential nidus for new-onset seizure activity in the context of suggested COVID encephalopathy. Future studies may further demonstrate that manifestations of COVIDencephalopathy in certain patients may be more predictable than initially assumed.

Keywords: cavernoma, covid, encephalopathy, seizures

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609 Building Capacity and Personnel Flow Modeling for Operating amid COVID-19

Authors: Samuel Fernandes, Dylan Kato, Emin Burak Onat, Patrick Keyantuo, Raja Sengupta, Amine Bouzaghrane

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The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the United States, forcing cities to impose stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders. Building operations had to adjust as non-essential personnel worked from home. But as buildings prepare for personnel to return, they need to plan for safe operations amid new COVID-19 guidelines. In this paper we propose a methodology for capacity and flow modeling of personnel within buildings to safely operate under COVID-19 guidelines. We model personnel flow within buildings by network flows with queuing constraints. We study maximum flow, minimum cost, and minimax objectives. We compare our network flow approach with a simulation model through a case study and present the results. Our results showcase various scenarios of how buildings could be operated under new COVID-19 guidelines and provide a framework for building operators to plan and operate buildings in this new paradigm.

Keywords: network analysis, building simulation, COVID-19

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608 The SOCI Strategy as a Method to Meet the Innovation Challenges of COVID-19

Authors: Victoria Wolf, Renata Dobrucka, Robert Prezkop, Stephan Haubold

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The COVID-19 causes a worldwide crisis and has an impact in every dimension of the economy. Organizations with the ability to adapt to new developments and which innovate solutions for the disrupted world during and after the Corona crises have the opportunity to not only survive the crisis but rather to use new trends to implement new business models and gain advantage. In this context, startups seem to have better opportunities to manage the Corona crisis through their innovation-based nature. The main result of this paper is the understanding that by applying a startup orientated innovation (SOCI) strategy, established companies can be motivated to meet the challenge of COVID-19 in a similar way like startups. This result can be achieved by describing the role of innovation and a SOCI strategy as helpful methods for organizations to meet the coming challenges during and after the COVID-19 epidemics. In addition to this, this paper presents a practical application of SOCI through the PANDA approach of the Fresenius University of Applied Sciences in Germany and discuss it in the context of COVID-19 as an exemplary successful real-world implementation of SOCI strategy.

Keywords: Covid-19, innovation, open innovation, startup, soci framework

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607 COVID-19 Teaches Probability Risk Assessment

Authors: Sean Sloan

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Probability Risk Assessments (PRA) can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. So in searching for different ways to describe PRA to relate it to their lives; COVID-19 came up. The parallels are amazing. Soon students began analyzing acceptable risk with the virus. This helped them to quantify just how dangerous is dangerous. The original lesson was dismissed and for the remainder of the period, the probability of risk, and the lethality of risk became the topic. Spreading events such as a COVID carrier on an airline became analogous to single fault casualties such as a Tsunami. Odds of spreading became odds of backup-diesel-generator failure – like with Fukashima Daiichi. Fatalities of the disease became expected fatalities due to radiation spread. Quantification from this discussion took it from hyperbole and emotion into one where we could rationally base guidelines. It has been one of the most effective educational devices observed.

Keywords: COVID, education, probability, risk

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606 COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: The Role of Existential Concerns in Individual’s Decisions Regarding the Vaccine Uptake

Authors: Vittoria Franchina, Laura Salerno, Rubinia Celeste Bonfanti, Gianluca Lo Coco

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This study examines the relationships between existential concerns (ECs), basic psychological needs (BPNs), vaccine hesitancy (VH), and the mediating role of negative attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a sample of two-hundred eighty-seven adults (Mage = 36.04 (12.07); 59.9% females). Participants were recruited online through clickworker and filled in measures on existential concerns, basic psychological needs, attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines, and vaccine hesitancy for Pfizer-BioNTech and Astrazeneca vaccines separately. Structural equation modelling showed that existential concerns were related to Pfizer-BioNTech and Astrazeneca vaccine hesitancy both directly and indirectly through negative attitudes toward possible side effects of COVID-19 vaccines. The present study has identified several predictive factors relating to the intention to uptake vaccination to protect against COVID-19 in Italy. Specifically, these findings suggest a causal link between existential concerns, attitudes, and vaccine hesitancy.

Keywords: COVID-19, existential concerns, Pfizer-BioNTech and Astrazeneca vaccines, vaccine hesitancy

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605 A Case Study of the Influence of the Covid-19 pandemic on Racial and Ethnic Gaps in Behavioral Health Care Access

Authors: Shantol McIntosh

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Due to environmental and underlying health disparities, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused an added set of economic implications worldwide. Black and Hispanic individuals are more susceptible to contract COVID-19, and if they do, they are more likely to have a severe case that necessitates hospitalization or results in death (Altarum et al., 2020). The literature shows that disparities in health and health treatment are nothing new as they have been recorded for decades and indicate systemic and structural imbalances rooted in racism and discrimination. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency with which these populations have access to healthcare and treatment. The study will also highlight the key drivers of health disparities. Findings and implications for research and policy will be discussed.

Keywords: COVID-19, racial and ethnic disparities, discrimination, policy

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604 Correlation between Early Government Interventions in the Northeastern United States and COVID-19 Outcomes

Authors: Joel Mintz, Kyle Huntley, Waseem Wahood, Samuel Raine, Farzanna Haffizulla

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The effect of different state government interventions on COVID-19 health outcomes is currently unknown. Stay at home (SAH) orders, all non-essential business closures and school closures in the Northeastern US were examined. A linear correlation between the peak number of new daily COVID-19 positive tests, hospitalizations and deaths per capita and the elapsed time between government issued guidance and a fixed number of COVID-19 deaths in each state was performed. Earlier government interventions were correlated with lower peak healthcare burden. Statewide closures of schools and non-essential businesses showed significantly greater (p<.001) correlation to peak COVID-19 disease burden as compared to a statewide SAH. The implications of these findings require further study to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

Keywords: Coronavirus, epidemiology, government intervention, public health, social distancing

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603 Portfolio Management for Construction Company during Covid-19 Using AHP Technique

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Salwa Bheiry

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In general, Covid-19 created many financial and non-financial damages to the economy and community. Level and severity of covid-19 as pandemic case varies over the region and due to different types of the projects. Covid-19 virus emerged as one of the most imperative risk management factors word-wide recently. Therefore, as part of portfolio management assessment, it is essential to evaluate severity of such risk on the project and program in portfolio management level to avoid any risky portfolio. Covid-19 appeared very effectively in South America, part of Europe and Middle East. Such pandemic infection affected the whole universe, due to lock down, interruption in supply chain management, health and safety requirements, transportations and commercial impacts. Therefore, this research proposes Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze and assess such pandemic case like Covid-19 and its impacts on the construction projects. The AHP technique uses four sub-criteria: Health and safety, commercial risk, completion risk and contractual risk to evaluate the project and program. The result will provide the decision makers with information which project has higher or lower risk in case of Covid-19 and pandemic scenario. Therefore, the decision makers can have most feasible solution based on effective weighted criteria for project selection within their portfolio to match with the organization’s strategies.

Keywords: portfolio management, risk management, COVID-19, analytical hierarchy process technique

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602 On the Influence of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tunisian Stock Market: By Sector Analysis

Authors: Nadia Sghaier

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In this paper, we examine the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of the Tunisian stock market and 12 sectors over a recent period from 23 March 2020 to 18 August 2021, including several waves and the introduction of vaccination. The empirical study is conducted using cointegration techniques which allows for long and short-run relationships. The obtained results indicate that both daily growth in confirmed cases and deaths have a negative and significant effect on the stock market returns. In particular, this effect differs across sectors. It seems more pronounced in financial, consumer goods and industrials sectors. These findings have important implications for investors to predict the behavior of the stock market or sectors returns and to implement hedging strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Tunisian stock market, sectors, COVID-19 pandemic, cointegration techniques

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601 Public Perception and Willingness to Undergo Cosmetic Procedures during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Questionnaire-Based Study Applied to Asymptomatic Individuals

Authors: Ibrahim Alreshidi, Aseel Albrekeit, Ruaa Alharthi

Abstract:

Background: As a result of the spread of COVID-19 at the beginning of 2020, many governments, including Saudi Arabia, have suspended operations in many agencies. Most dermatologists have restricted their practice, including cosmetic procedures, to ensure social distancing. On the 7th of May 2020, Saudi authorities reduced the restriction of COVID-19 virus preventative measures, allowing clinics to start accepting patients following the ministry of health protocols. Objectives: Evaluation of the public's perception and willingness to undergo cosmetic procedures during COVID-19 outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among the individuals who lack typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection in Saudi Arabia. A self-designed web-based questionnaire was developed; content face validity and a pilot study were done. The questionnaire was distributed electronically from the 8th of May until the 31st of May 2020. Results: A total of 656 individuals who lack typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection were included in this analysis. Only 10.5% of participants expressed their will to do cosmetic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 90% of the participants believed that the COVID-19 pandemic was either somewhat serious (52.9%) or very serious (38.7%). The willingness to do cosmetic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic remained unaltered when the price was discounted (p<0.001) and when infection control measures were ensured (p<0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the practice of cosmetic dermatology. Fear of transferring the infection to a beloved home member is the main reason to avoid these procedures. Generating well-structured safety guidelines to decrease the risk of this unusual virus transmission in dermatology practice and creating financial incentives may help increase the public willingness to do these cosmetic procedures during this pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, cosmetic procedures, questionnaire, dermatology

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600 The Impact of COVID-19 on Women’s Health in Bangladesh

Authors: Dil Ware Alam, Faiza Zebeen, Sumaya Binte Masud

Abstract:

COVID-19) has impacted the whole world, including Bangladesh. The epidemic has reduced access to health care, particularly for women, creating challenges for an increasingly disadvantaged population. Women's health and well-being in Bangladesh are susceptible to a rise in domestic violence and need to be addressed quickly. The planet has been greatly influenced by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and Bangladesh is no difference. The pandemic has resulted in a decline in the availability of health care, notably for women's health problems, leading to an increase in difficulties for an increasingly marginalized group. Maternity care, maternal health programs, medical interventions, nutritional counseling and mental health care, are not discussed, and women's health and well-being in Bangladesh is vulnerable with a spike in domestic violence and needs to be resolved urgently.

Keywords: Covid-19, mental health, reproductive health, Bangladesh

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599 Predicting Shortage of Hospital Beds during COVID-19 Pandemic in United States

Authors: Saba Ebrahimi, Saeed Ahmadian, Hedie Ashrafi

Abstract:

World-wide spread of coronavirus grows the concern about planning for the excess demand of hospital services in response to COVID-19 pandemic. The surge in the hospital services demand beyond the current capacity leads to shortage of ICU beds and ventilators in some parts of US. In this study, we forecast the required number of hospital beds and possible shortage of beds in US during COVID-19 pandemic to be used in the planning and hospitalization of new cases. In this paper, we used a data on COVID-19 deaths and patients’ hospitalization besides the data on hospital capacities and utilization in US from publicly available sources and national government websites. we used a novel ensemble modelling of deep learning networks, based on stacking different linear and non-linear layers to predict the shortage in hospital beds. The results showed that our proposed approach can predict the excess hospital beds demand very well and this can be helpful in developing strategies and plans to mitigate this gap.

Keywords: COVID-19, deep learning, ensembled models, hospital capacity planning

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