Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

Search results for: addiction

119 Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

Authors: Eui Jun Jeong, Hye Rim Lee, Ji Hye Yoo

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Recent studies have verified the significant relationship of user personality with Internet use. However, in game studies, little research has emphasized on the effects of personality traits on game addiction. This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism conscientiousness, agreeableness, & openness) with the degree of game addiction. Results showed that neuroticism increase game addiction with no effect of extraversion on the addiction. General self-efficacy negatively affected game addiction, whereas game self-efficacy increased the degree of game addiction. Loneliness enhanced game addiction while depression showed a negative effect on the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

Keywords: game addiction, big five personality, social activities, self-efficacy, loneliness, depression

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118 Internet Addiction among Students: An Empirical Study in Pondicherry University

Authors: Mashood C., Abdul Vahid K., Ashique C. K.

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The technology is growing beyond human expectation. Internet is one of very sophisticated product of the information technology. It has various advantages like connecting the world, simplifying the difficult tasks done in past etc. Simultaneously it has demerits also; that is lack of authenticity and internet addiction. To find out the problems of internet addiction, a study conducted among the Postgraduate students of Pondicherry University and collected 454 samples. The study strictly focused to identify the internet addiction among students, influence and interdependence of personality on internet addiction among first years and second years. To evaluate this, we used two major analysis, these are Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to predict the internet addiction with the observed data and Logistic Regression to identify the difference between first years and second years in the case of internet addiction. Before applying to the core analysis, the data applied to some preliminary tests to check the model fit. The empirical findings shows that , the students of Pondicherry University are very much addicted to the internet, But there is no such huge difference between first years and second years in case of internet addiction.

Keywords: internet addiction, students, Pondicherry University, empirical study

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117 The Relationship between Coping Styles and Internet Addiction among High School Students

Authors: Adil Kaval, Digdem Muge Siyez

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With the negative effects of internet use in a person's life, the use of the Internet has become an issue. This subject was mostly considered as internet addiction, and it was investigated. In literature, it is noteworthy that some theoretical models have been proposed to explain the reasons for internet addiction. In addition to these theoretical models, it may be thought that the coping style for stressing events can be a predictor of internet addiction. It was aimed to test with logistic regression the effect of high school students' coping styles on internet addiction levels. Sample of the study consisted of 770 Turkish adolescents (471 girls, 299 boys) selected from high schools in the 2017-2018 academic year in İzmir province. Internet Addiction Test, Coping Scale for Child and Adolescents and a demographic information form were used in this study. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that the model of coping styles predicted internet addiction provides a statistically significant prediction of internet addiction. Gender does not predict whether or not to be addicted to the internet. The active coping style is not effective on internet addiction levels, while the avoiding and negative coping style are effective on internet addiction levels. With this model, % 79.1 of internet addiction in high school is estimated. The Negelkerke pseudo R2 indicated that the model accounted for %35 of the total variance. The results of this study on Turkish adolescents are similar to the results of other studies in the literature. It can be argued that avoiding and negative coping styles are important risk factors in the development of internet addiction.

Keywords: adolescents, coping, internet addiction, regression analysis

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116 A Study on the Effect of the Mindfulness and Cultivation of Wisdom as an Intervention Strategy for College Student Internet Addiction

Authors: P. C. Li, R. H. Feng, S. J. Chen, Y. J. Yu, Y. L. Chen, X. Y. Fan

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of mindfulness and wisdom comprehensive strategy intervention on addiction to the Internet of college students by engaging fourteen intensive full-day mindfulness-based wisdom retreat curriculum. Wisdom, one of the practice method from the threefold training. Internet addiction, a kind of impulse control disorder, which attract the attentions of society due to its high prevalence and harmfulness in the last decade. Therefore, the study of internet addiction intervention is urgent. Participants with internet addiction were Chinese college students and screened by internet addiction disorder diagnose questionnaire (IAD-DQ). A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design was used as research design. The finding shows that the mindfulness-based wisdom intervention strategy appeared to be effective in reducing the Internet addiction. Moreover, semi-structure interview method was conducted and outcomes included five themes: the reduction of internet use, the increment of awareness on emotion, self-control, present concentration and better positive lifestyle, indicating that mindfulness could be an effective intervention for this group with internet addiction.

Keywords: mindfulness, internet addiction, wisdom comprehensive intervention, cognitive-behavior therapy

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115 Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction in Normal Users and Users with Internet Addiction

Authors: Mansour Abdi, Hadi Molaei Yasavoli

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The purpose of this research is to comparison of self- efficacy and life satisfaction in normal users and users with internet addiction. The present study was descriptive and causal-comparative. Therefore, 304 students were selected random sampling method from students of Semnan University and completed questionnaires of internet addiction (young), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and Life Satisfaction (SWIS). For data analysis was used the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The results showed that internet addiction users have lower levels of self-efficacy and life satisfaction in comparison with normal users and the difference in p=0/0005 significantly. The findings showed that 78 percent of the variance in the dependent variables of self-efficacy and life satisfaction by grouping variables (internet addiction users and normal) is determined. Finally, considering that the rate of self-efficacy and life satisfaction is effective in the incidence of Internet addiction, it is proposed required measures are taken to enhance self-efficacy and life satisfaction in Internet users.

Keywords: self-efficacy, life satisfaction, users, internet addiction, normal users

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114 Parenting Styles and Their Relation to Videogame Addiction

Authors: Petr Květon, Martin Jelínek

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We try to identify the role of various aspects of parenting style in the phenomenon of videogame playing addiction. Relevant self-report questionnaires were part of a wider set of methods focused on the constructs related to videogame playing. The battery of methods was administered in school settings in paper and pencil form. The research sample consisted of 333 (166 males, 167 females) elementary and high school students at the age between 10 and 19 years (m=14.98, sd=1.77). Using stepwise regression analysis, we assessed the influence of demographic variables (gender and age) and parenting styles. Age and gender together explained 26.3% of game addiction variance (F(2,330)=58.81, p<.01). By adding four aspect of parenting styles (inconsistency, involvement, control, and warmth) another 10.2% of variance was explained (∆F(4,326)=13.09, p<.01). The significant predictor was gender of the respondent, where males scored higher on game addiction scale (B=0.70, p<.01), age (β=-0.18, p<.01), where younger children showed higher level of addiction, and parental inconsistency (β=0.30, p<.01), where the higher the inconsistency in upbringing, the more developed game playing addiction.

Keywords: gender, parenting styles, video games, addiction

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113 Relationship Between Family Factors and Tendency to Addiction

Authors: Farzaneh Golshekoh

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The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to addiction in high school female students in Ahwaz. The sample consisted of 250 students who were selected by cluster random sampling from among all high school female students in Ahvaz. Measuring tools were Iranian tendency towards addiction (IAPS), responsibility California Psychological Inventory (CPI), emotional family atmosphere (AFC) and religious beliefs. The simple correlation coefficient at α=0/05 showed that there is a significant negative relationship between religious beliefs, family responsibility and emotional atmosphere with a tendency to abuse female students. The regression analysis showed that the variables of the emotional atmosphere of the family and religious beliefs as predictors of female students have a tendency to addiction.

Keywords: emotional atmosphere, family responsibility, religious beliefs, tendency to addiction

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112 Technological Loneliness; The Effect on Loneliness of Internet Addiction of University Students; The Case of Turkey

Authors: Adem Pala, Mustafa Biner

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Nowadays, despite the fact that technology and internet shorten the virtual distance, too much use and misuse of internet create distance among people. There is a considerable number of people living in the same house even sitting at the same table but busy themselves with mobiles and computers for long hours without talking to each other. Internet usage is very common among young people especially university students. Evolving out of this problem, internet addiction of university students and effect on their loneliness, and relationship between them consist of the purpose of this study. The study is important because it discusses what can be done in order to make the young people more social via determining the university students’ loneliness and their internet addiction. The study was carried out with 440 university students studying at different universities and departments. The group consists of 200 female and 240 male students with average of age 20,9. In the study, 19 questions, “internet addiction scale” consisting of 3 subscales, and UCLA loneliness scale were used as data collection tools. As a result, it is found out that the loneliness of individuals with internet addiction is higher than the other individuals. The males’ loneliness related to internet addiction is higher than the females; on the other hand, it is determined females feel more lonesome in general loneliness. It is thought that the findings of the study will determine the individuals under risk, prevent them, help researchers and people doing clinical studies during rehabilitation progress.

Keywords: internet addiction, loneliness, Turkey, university students

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111 Social Media Utilisation and Addiction among Students in Nigerian Universities

Authors: Kolawole Akinjide Aramide, Razaq Oyewo

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This study investigates social media utilisation and addiction among students in Nigerian universities. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) students were randomly selected across five selected universities in Nigeria but only 215 provided useful responses for the study. The study revealed regular use of social media for the purpose of communicating and connecting with friends only while Picassa, Twitter, Flickr, Youtube, MySpace, Blogger, Linkedln and LibraryThing were found to top the list of social media being used on regular basis by the students. The level of social media addiction among the students was found to be low. A significant difference was established between undergraduate and postgraduate students’ utilization of social media as the undergraduate students were found to utilise social media more than the postgraduate students. However, no significant difference was found in the level of addiction to social media between the undergraduate and postgraduate students.

Keywords: social media utilisation, social media addiction, Nigerian students, universities

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110 Motivation for Therapy in Clinical Social Work in Kuwait

Authors: Hend Almaseb

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​The motivational model proposed by Self-Determination Theory provided an explanation for clients’ motivation for therapy. Among a sample of 78 inpatient residents in the Addiction Treatment Center, this study examined the relationship between three types of motivation (Autonomous, Controlled, and Amotivation) and each of the following variables: Age, Marital Status, Educational Level of Participant, and Number of Years of Addiction. In addition, the study investigated whether or not the participants are motivated to receive therapy. The results showed 1) a significant relationship between Controlled Motivation and the following variables: Age, Marital Status, and Number of Years of Addiction; 2) a significant relationship between Autonomous Motivation and Number of Years of Addiction; and a significant relationship between Educational Level and Amotivation. The results also illustrated that the participants of this study were not motivated to seek therapy.

Keywords: addiction, clinical social work, motivation, self-determination

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109 Grounded Theory of Consumer Loyalty: A Perspective through Video Game Addiction

Authors: Bassam Shaikh, R. S. A. Jumain

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Game addiction has become an extremely important topic in psychology researchers, particularly in understanding and explaining why individuals become addicted (to video games). In previous studies, effect of online game addiction on social responsibilities, health problems, government action, and the behaviors of individuals to purchase and the causes of making individuals addicted on the video games has been discussed. Extending these concepts in marketing, it could be argued than the phenomenon could enlighten and extending our understanding on consumer loyalty. This study took the Grounded Theory approach, and found that motivation, satisfaction, fulfillments, exploration and achievements to be part of the important elements that builds consumer loyalty.

Keywords: grounded theory, consumer loyalty, video games, video game addiction

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108 Relationship between Smartphone Addiction and Academic Performance among University Students

Authors: Arooba Azam Khan

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The present study aims to focus on the relationship between smartphone addiction and academic performance of students along with social networking sites, overuse of smartphone, GPA’s and time management skills as their sub-variables. In this world of technology, the smartphone becomes a vital part of everyone’s life. The addiction of smartphones has both negative and positive impact on young people (students). Students keep themselves busy with smartphones without noticing that smartphone addiction is creating a negative impact on their social, academic, and personal lives. A quantitative approach was used to collect data through questionnaire from 360 students of two private universities in Pakistan in summer 2017. The target age group was 19-24 studying in Bachelors programmes. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (version 20), linear correlation and regression tests were applied. Results reveal that there is a negative relationship between smartphone addiction and academic performance. Moreover, it has been proved that students with good time management skills achieve high grades/GPA’s than those who have poor time management skills. From the findings, the researcher suggests that students should spend their time wisely and use their smartphones for educational purpose. However, students need training and close monitoring to get benefits out of smartphones use.

Keywords: smartphone addiction, academic performance, time management skills, quantitative research

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107 A Profile of an Exercise Addict: The Relationship between Exercise Addiction and Personality

Authors: Klary Geisler, Dalit Lev-Arey, Yael Hacohen

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It is a well-known fact that exercise has favorable effects on people's physical health, as well as mental well-being. However, as for as excessive exercise, it may likely elevate negative consequences (e.g., physical injuries, negligence of everyday responsibilities such as work, family life). Lately, there is a growing interest in exercise addiction, sometimes referred to as exercise dependence, which is defined as a craving for physical activity that results in extreme work-out sessions and generates negative physiological and psychological symptoms (e.g., withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, social conflict). Exercise addiction is considered a behavioral addiction, yet it was not included in the latest editions of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), due to lack of significant research. Specifically, there is scarce research on the relationship between exercise addiction and personality dimensions. The purpose of the current research was to examine the relationship between primary exercise addiction symptoms and the big five dimensions, perfectionism (high performance expectations and self-critical performance evaluations) and subjective affect. participants were 152 trainees on a variety of aerobic sports activities (running, cycling, swimming) that were recruited through sports groups and trainers. 88% of participants trained for at least 5 hours per week, 24% of the participants trained above 10 hours per week. To test the predictive ability of the IVs a hierarchical linear regression with forced block entry was performed. It was found that Neuroticism significantly predicted exercise addiction symptoms (20% of the variance, p<0.001), while consciousness was negatively correlated with exercise addiction symptoms (14% of variance p<0.05); both had a unique contribution. Other dimensions of the big five (agreeableness, openness and extraversion) did not have any contribution to the dependent. Moreover, maladaptive perfectionism (self-critical performance evaluations) significantly predicted exercise addiction symptoms as well (10% of the variance P < 0.05). The overall regression model explained 54% of variance.

Keywords: big five, consciousness, excessive exercise, exercise addiction, neuroticism, perfectionism, personality

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106 The Antecedents of Internet Addiction toward Smartphone Usage

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Chechen Liao, Hen-Yi Huang

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Twenty years after Internet development, scholars have started to identify the negative impacts brought by the Internet. Overuse of Internet could develop Internet dependency and in turn cause addiction behavior. Therefore understanding the phenomenon of Internet addiction is important. With the joint efforts of experts and scholars, Internet addiction has been officially listed as a symptom that affects public health, and the diagnosis, causes and treatment of the symptom have also been explored. On the other hand, in the area of smartphone Internet usage, most studies are still focusing on the motivation factors of smartphone usage. Not much research has been done on smartphone Internet addiction. In view of the increasing adoption of smartphones, this paper is intended to find out whether smartphone Internet addiction exists in modern society or not. This study adopted the research methodology of online survey targeting users with smartphone Internet experience. A total of 434 effective samples were recovered. In terms of data analysis, Partial Least Square (PLS) in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for sample analysis and research model testing. Software chosen for statistical analysis is SPSS 20.0 for windows and SmartPLS 2.0. The research result successfully proved that smartphone users who access Internet service via smartphone could also develop smartphone Internet addiction. Factors including flow experience, depression, virtual social support, smartphone Internet affinity and maladaptive cognition all have significant and positive influence on smartphone Internet addiction. In the scenario of smartphone Internet use, descriptive norm has a positive and significant influence on perceived playfulness, while perceived playfulness also has a significant and positive influence on flow experience. Depression, on the other hand, is negatively influenced by actual social support and positive influenced by the virtual social support.

Keywords: internet addiction, smartphone usage, social support, perceived playfulness

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105 The Moderation Effect of Smart Phone Addiction in Relationship between Self-Leadership and Innovative Behavior

Authors: Gi-Ryun Park, Gye-Wan Moon, Dong-Hoon Yang

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This study aims to explore the positive effects of self-leadership and innovative behavior that'd been proven in the existing researches proactively and understand the regulation effects of smartphone addiction which has recently become an issue in Korea. This study conducted a convenient sampling of college students attending the four colleges located at Daegu. A total of 210 questionnaires in 5-point Likert scale were distributed to college students. Among which, a total of 200 questionnaires were collected for our final analysis data. Both correlation analysis and regression analysis were carried out to verify those questionnaires through SPSS 20.0. As a result, college students' self-leadership had a significantly positive impact on innovative behavior (B= .210, P= .003). In addition, it is found that the relationship between self-leadership and innovative behavior can be adjusted depending on the degree of smartphone addiction in college students (B= .264, P= .000). This study could first understand the negative effects of smartphone addiction and find that if students' self-leadership is improved in terms of self-management and unnecessary use of smartphone is controlled properly, innovative behavior can be improved. In addition, this study is significant in that it attempts to identify a new impact of smartphone addiction with the recent environmental changes, unlike the existing researches that'd been carried out from the perspective of organizational behavior theory.

Keywords: innovative behavior, revolutionary behavior, self-leadership, smartphone addiction

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104 A Cross-Sectional Study on Smartphone Addiction, Sleep Hygiene, and Perceived Stress

Authors: Kriti Singh, Saurabh Tripathi, Pankaj Chaudhary, Abid Ali Ansari, Seema Nigam

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Introduction: The introduction of android and iOS has changed our lives dramatically over the past few years. The new generation is more dependent on their mobile phones for carrying out their daily pursuits. Smartphones have revolutionized our lives. The cutdown in rates of mobile network services has been affecting us drastically. A new type of dependence is seen among the people for Smartphones. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the state of addiction among the group of medical students, along with its association with sleep hygiene and anxiety. Material and Method: Study included 50 individuals in the age group of 18-35 years. Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Perceived Stress Scales were used conducting the study. Results: Mean age of 22 years (12%). The majority of subjects were 20-year olds (15 out of 50), the majority were males with few females. Mean Smartphone addiction score 39 (very severe), Mean Sleep Hygiene Index score 26.76 (moderate maladaptive hygiene and Mean Perceived Stress score of 19.92 (moderate stress). Conclusion: In majority students were found to have a very severe Smartphone Addiction with moderate sleep hygiene and a moderate level of perceived stress. The Smartphone was being used was for surfing social media applications.

Keywords: addiction perceived stress, sleep hygiene index, smartphone

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103 Profile of Internet and Smartphone Overuse Based on Internet Usage Needs

Authors: Yeoju Chung

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Adolescents internet and smartphone addiction are increasing in Korea. But differences between internet addiction and smartphone addiction have been researched in these days. The main objective of this article is to explore the presence of clusters within a sample of adolescents based on dimensions associated with addiction and internet usage needs. The sample consists of 617 adolescents in the 14-19 year age group who were recruited in Korea A cluster analysis identified four groups of participants: internet overuse(IO), smartphone overuse(SO), both overuse(B) and normal(N) use group. MANOVA analysis based on internet usage showed that there are differences among four groups in internet usage needs. IO has higher cyber self-seeking needs and emotion and thought expression needs than SO. SO has higher real relationship and life needs with cyberworld than IO, B, and N. B has the highest cyber self-seeking needs and emotion and thought expression needs, however, game fun seeking needs is the highest in IO. These results support that IO seeks game fun needs, SO seeks real relationship and life needs, and B seeks cyber self and expression in cyberworld.

Keywords: addiction, internet, needs, smartphone

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102 Relationships between Screen Time, Internet Addiction and Other Lifestyle Behaviors with Obesity among Secondary School Students in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Authors: Ozen Asut, Gulifeiya Abuduxike, Imge Begendi, Mustafa O. Canatan, Merve Colak, Gizem Ozturk, Lara Tasan, Ahmed Waraiet, Songul A. Vaizoglu, Sanda Cali

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Obesity among children and adolescents is one of the critical public health problems worldwide. Internet addiction is one of the sedentary behaviors that cause obesity due to the excessive screen time and reduced physical activities. We aimed to examine the relationships between the screen time, internet addiction and other lifestyle behaviors with obesity among high school students in the Near East College in Nicosia, Northern Cyprus. A cross-sectional study conducted among 469 secondary school students, mean age 11.95 (SD, 0.81) years. A self-administrated questionnaire was applied to assess the screen time and lifestyle behaviors. The Turkish adopted version of short-form of internet addiction test was used to assess internet addiction problems. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI and classified based on the BMI percentiles for sex and age. Descriptive analysis, Chi-Square test, and multivariate regression analysis were done. Of all, 17.2% of the participants were overweight and obese, and 18.1% had internet addictions, while 40.7% of them reported having screen time more than two hours. After adjusting the analysis for age and sex, eating snacks while watching television (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.28-7.21), self- perceived body weight (OR, 24.9; 95% CI, 9.64-64.25) and having a play station in the room (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.85 - 11.42) were significantly associated with obesity. Screen time (OR, 4.68; 95% CI, 2.61-8.38; p=0.000) and having a computer in bedroom (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.01- 2.87; p=0.046) were significantly associated with internet addiction, whereas parent’s compliant regarding the lengthy technology use (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.46; p=0.000) was found to be a protective factor against internet addiction. Prolonged screen time, internet addiction, sedentary lifestyles, and reduced physical and social activities are interrelated, multi-dimensional factors that lead to obesity among children and adolescents. A family - school-based integrated approach should be implemented to tackle obesity problems.

Keywords: adolescents, internet addiction, lifestyle, Northern Cyprus, obesity, screen time

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101 Quality of Life Measurements: Evaluation of Intervention Program of Persons with Addiction

Authors: Julie Wittmannová, Petr Šeda

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Quality of life measurements (QLF) help to evaluate interventions programs in different groups of persons with special needs. Our presentation deals with QLF of persons with addiction in relation to the physical activity (PA), type of addiction, age, gender and other variables. The aim of presentation is to summarize the basic findings and offer thoughts for questions arose. Methods: SQUALA (Subjective Quality of Life Analysis); SEIQoL (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life); questionnaire of own construction. The results are evaluated by Mann­Whitney U test and Kruskall­Wallis ANOVA test (p ≤ 0,05). Sample of 64 participants – clients of aftercare center, aged 18 plus. Findings: Application of the methods SQUALA and SEIQoL in the chosen population seems appropriate, the obtaining information regarding the QLF correlate to intervention program topics, the need of an activelifestyle and health related topics in persons with addiction is visible. Conclusions or Implications: The subjective evaluation of quality of life of Aftercare clients is an important part of evaluation process, especially used to evaluate satisfaction with offered services and programs. Techniques SQUALA and SEIQoL gave us the desired outcomes.

Keywords: adapted physical activity, addiction, quality of life, physical activity, aftercare

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100 Advocating in the Criminal Justice System for Individuals Who Use Drugs: Advice from Advocates in the Greater Vancouver Area

Authors: Haley Hrymak

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For decades drug addiction has been understood to be a health problem and not a social problem. While research has advanced to allow for a more comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting addiction, the justice system has lagged behind. Given all that is known about addiction as a health issue and the need for effective rehabilitation to prevent further involvement with crime, there is a need for a dramatic shift in order to ensure individual's human right to health is being upheld within the Canadian criminal justice system. This research employs the qualitative methodology to interview advocates who work with substance users within the Greater Vancouver area to explore best practices for representing individuals with substance abuse issues within the Canadian justice system. The research shows that treatment, not punishment, is what is needed in order for recidivism to be reduced for individuals with substance abuse issues. The creative options that advocates employ to work within the current system are intended to provide a guide for lawyers working within the current criminal justice system.

Keywords: addiction, criminal law, right to health, rehabilitation

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99 Transgressing Gender Norms in Addiction Treatment

Authors: Sara Matsuzaka

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At the center of emerging policy debates on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations is the collision of gender binary views with transgender perspectives that challenge conventional gender norms. The results of such socio-political debates could have significant ramifications for the policies and infrastructures of public and private institutions nationwide, including within the addiction treatment field. Despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in addiction treatment programs. Inpatient addiction treatment centers were originally designed to treat heterosexual cisgender populations and, as such, feature gender segregated housing, bathrooms, and counseling sessions. Such heteronormative structural barriers, combined with exposures to stigmatic al attitudes, may dissuade transgender populations from benefiting from the addiction treatment they so direly need. A literature review is performed to explore the mechanisms by which gender segregation alienates transgender populations within inpatient addiction treatment. The constituent parts of the current debate on the rights of transgender individuals in public accommodations are situated the context of inpatient addiction treatment facilities. Minority Stress Theory is used as a theoretical framework for understanding substance abuse issues among transgender populations as a maladaptive behavioral response for coping with chronic stressors related to gender minority status and intersecting identities. The findings include that despite having disproportionately high rates of substance use disorder compared to the general population, transgender individuals experience significant barriers to engaging in and benefiting from addiction treatment. These barriers are present in the form of anticipated or real interpersonal stigma and discrimination by service providers and structural stigma in the form of policy and programmatic components in addiction treatment that marginalize transgender populations. Transphobic manifestations within addiction treatment may dissuade transgender individuals from seeking help, if not reinforce a lifetime of stigmatic experience, potentially exacerbating their substance use issues. Conclusive recommendations for social workers and addiction treatment professionals include: (1) dismantling institutional policies around gender segregation that alienate transgender individuals, (2) developing policies that provide full protections for transgender clients against discrimination based on their gender identity, and (3) implementing trans-affirmative cultural competency training requirements for all staff. Directions for future research are provided.

Keywords: addiction treatment, gender segregation, stigma, transgender

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98 Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Game Playing, Internet Addiction and Perceived Stress Levels in University Students

Authors: Sevim Ugur, Cemile Kutmec Yilmaz, Omer Us, Sevdenur Koksaldi

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Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of digital game playing and Internet addiction on perceived stress levels in university students. Method: The descriptive study was conducted through face-to-face interview method with a total of 364 university students studying at Aksaray University between November 15 and December 30, 2017. The research data were collected using personal information form, a questionnaire to determine the characteristics of playing digital game, the Internet addiction scale and the perceived stress scale. In the evaluation of the data, Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-group comparison of the sample with non-normal distribution, Kruskal-Wallis H-test was used in the comparison of more than two groups, and the Spearman correlation test was used to determine the relationship between Internet addiction and the perceived stress level. Results: It was determined that the mean age of the students participated in the study was 20.13 ± 1.7 years, 67.6% was female, 35.7% was sophomore, and 62.1% had an income 500 TL or less. It was found that 83.5% of the students use the Internet every day and 70.6% uses the Internet for 5 hours or less per day. Of the students, 12.4% prefers digital games instead of spending time outdoors, 8% plays a game as the first activity in leisure time, 12.4% plays all day, 15.7% feels anger when he/she is prevented from playing, 14.8% prefers playing games to get away from his/her problems, 23.4% had his/her school achievement affected negatively because of game playing, and 8% argues with family members due to the time spent for gaming. Students who play games on the computer for a long time were found to feel back pain (30.8%), headache (28.6%), insomnia (26.9%), dryness and pain in the eyes (26.6%), pain in the wrist (21.2%), feeling excessive tension and anger (16.2%), humpback (12.9), vision loss (9.6%) and pain in the wrist and fingers (7.4%). In our study, students' Internet addiction scale mean score was found to be 45.47 ± 16.1 and mean perceived stress scale score was 28.56 ± 2.7. A significant and negative correlation (p=0.037) was found between the total score of the Internet addiction scale and the total score of the perceived stress scale (r=-0.110). Conclusion: It was found in the study that Internet addiction and perceived stress of the students were at a moderate level and that there was a negative correlation between Internet addiction and perceived stress levels. Internet addiction was found to increase with the increasing perceived stress levels of students, and students were found to have health problems such as back pain, dryness in the eyes, pain, insomnia, headache, and humpback. Therefore, it is recommended to inform students about different coping methods other than spending time on the Internet to cope with the stress they perceive.

Keywords: digital game, internet addiction, student, stress level

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97 The Influence of Carbamazepine on the Activity of CYP3A4 in Patients with Alcoholism

Authors: Mikhail S. Zastrozhin, Valery V. Smirnov, Dmitry A. Sychev, Ludmila M. Savchenko, Evgeny A. Bryun, Mark O. Nechaev

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Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 takes part in the biotransformation of medical drugs. The activity of CYP isoenzymes depends on genetic (polymorphisms of genes which encoded it) and phenotypic factors (a kind of food, a concomitant drug therapy). The aim of the study was to evaluate a carbamazepine effect on the CYP3A4 activity in patients with alcohol addiction. The study included 25 men with alcohol dependence, who received haloperidol during the exacerbation of the addiction. CYP3A4 activity was assessed by urinary 6-beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratios measured by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The study modeled a graph and an equation of the logarithmic regression, that reflects the dependence of CYP3A4 activity on a dose of carbamazepine: y = 5,5 * 9,1 * 10-5 * x2. The study statistically significant demonstrates the effect of carbamazepine on CYP2D6 isozyme activity in patients with alcohol addiction.

Keywords: CYP3A4, biotransformation, carbamazepine, alcohol abuse

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96 Binge Eating among Women Who Suffer from Psychological Abuse in Their Relationship: The Moderating Role of Defense Mechanisms

Authors: Orly Yona Drori, Shirley Ben Shlomo

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Objectives: The participants will be able to recognize the predictors of binge eating addiction among women who suffer from psychological abuse in their relationships and will recognize the role of woman's defense mechanisms in moderating the association between psychological abuse and binge eating addiction. Methods: A convenience sample of 380 Israeli women in relationships were located via the Internet, and after consenting to participate in the study, they completed a series of structured questionnaires (The Yale Food Addiction Scale; The Defense Style Questionnaire; psychological maltreatment of women by their male partners; level of differentiation of self; sociodemographic questionnaire). Results: The higher the level of differentiation and mature defense mechanisms, the less addictive a woman is. However, the level of addiction among women who experience psychological abuse within their intimate relations is higher than women who do not experience psychological abuse in their relationship. Among women who experienced psychological abuse in their relations, the defense mechanisms moderate the association between psychological abuse within intimate relations and the extent of the addiction to binge eating. Conclusions: The study contributes to the therapy of women with binge eating addictions, as it raises awareness of therapeutic-related content that could strengthen women and help them to cope with situations in their lives without the need to binge. One of the significant variables for therapeutic work is the level of differentiation of the self. In addition, identifying the types of defense mechanisms might help to match treatment to the woman's emotional needs. The current study found also that it is important to identify the environmental systems by which the addict is surrounded, such as whether woman is in an abusive relationship. Finally the study leads to the recognition that binge eating, which is usually treated with an emphasis on nutritional behavior change, is an addiction, and as such, it requires a combination of mental, nutritional and behavioral therapy. In view of this approach, it is recommended that treating a woman who is addicted to binge eating should involve a multi-disciplinary team comprised of physicians, clinical dietitians, and clinical psychotherapists.

Keywords: binge eating, defence mechanism, food addiction, psychological abuse

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95 Effect of Internet Addiction on Dietary Behavior and Lifestyle Characteristics among University Students

Authors: Hafsa Kamran, Asma Afreen, Zaheer Ahmed

Abstract:

Internet addiction, an emerging mental health disorder from last two decades, is manifested by the inability in the controlled use of internet leading to academics, social, physiological and/or psychological difficulties. The present study aimed to assess the levels of internet addiction among university students in Lahore and to explore the effects of internet addiction on their dietary behavior and lifestyle. It was an analytical cross-sectional study. Data was collected from October to December 2016 from students of four universities selected through two-stage sampling method. The numbers of participants were 500 and 13 questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete information. Levels of Internet Addiction (IA) were calculated using Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). Data was also collected on students’ demographics, lifestyle factors and dietary behavior using self-reported questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Chi-square test was applied to evaluate the relationship between variables. Results of the study revealed that 10% of the population had severe internet addiction while moderate Internet Addiction was present in 42%. High prevalence was found among males (11% vs. 8%), private sector university students (p = 0.008) and engineering students (p = 0.000). The lifestyle habits of internet addicts were significantly of poorer quality than normal users (p = 0.05). Internet addiction was found associated with lesser physically activity (p = 0.025), had shorter duration of physical activity (p = 0.016), had more disorganized sleep pattern (p = 0.023), had less duration of sleep (p = 0.019), reported being more tired and sleepy in class (p = 0.033) and spending more time on internet as compared to normal users. Severe and moderate internet addicts also found to be more overweight and obese than normal users (p = 0.000). The dietary behavior of internet addicts was significantly poorer than normal users. Internet addicts were found to skip breakfast more than a normal user (p = 0.039). Common reasons for meal skipping were lack of time and snacking between meals (p = 0.000). They also had increased meal size (p = 0.05) and habit of snacking while using the internet (p = 0.027). Fast food (p = 0.016) and fried items (p = 0.05) were most consumed snacks, while carbonated beverages (p = 0.019) were most consumed beverages among internet addicts. Internet Addicts were found to consume less than recommended daily servings of dairy (p = 0.008) and fruits (p = 0.000) and more servings of meat group (p = 0.025) than their no internet addict counterparts. In conclusion, in this study, it was demonstrated that internet addicts have unhealthy dietary behavior and inappropriate lifestyle habits. University students should be educated regarding the importance of balanced diet and healthy lifestyle, which are critical for effectual primary prevention of numerous chronic degenerative diseases. Furthermore, it is necessary to raise awareness concerning adverse effects of internet addiction among youth and their parents.

Keywords: dietary behavior, internet addiction, lifestyle, university students

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94 Examination of Relationship between Internet Addiction and Cyber Bullying in Adolescents

Authors: Adem Peker, Yüksel Eroğlu, İsmail Ay

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As the information and communication technologies have become embedded in everyday life of adolescents, both their possible benefits and risks to adolescents are being identified. The information and communication technologies provide opportunities for adolescents to connect with peers and to access to information. However, as with other social connections, users of information and communication devices have the potential to meet and interact with in harmful ways. One emerging example of such interaction is cyber bullying. Cyber bullying occurs when someone uses the information and communication technologies to harass or embarrass another person. Cyber bullying can take the form of malicious text messages and e-mails, spreading rumours, and excluding people from online groups. Cyber bullying has been linked to psychological problems for cyber bullies and victims. Therefore, it is important to determine how internet addiction contributes to cyber bullying. Building on this question, this study takes a closer look at the relationship between internet addiction and cyber bullying. For this purpose, in this study, based on descriptive relational model, it was hypothesized that loss of control, excessive desire to stay online, and negativity in social relationships, which are dimensions of internet addiction, would be associated positively with cyber bullying and victimization. Participants were 383 high school students (176 girls and 207 boys; mean age, 15.7 years). Internet addiction was measured by using Internet Addiction Scale. The Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale was utilized to measure cyber bullying and victimization. The scales were administered to the students in groups in the classrooms. In this study, stepwise regression analyses were utilized to examine the relationships between dimensions of internet addiction and cyber bullying and victimization. Before applying stepwise regression analysis, assumptions of regression were verified. According to stepwise regression analysis, cyber bullying was predicted by loss of control (β=.26, p<.001) and negativity in social relationships (β=.13, p<.001). These variables accounted for 9 % of the total variance, with the loss of control explaining the higher percentage (8 %). On the other hand, cyber victimization was predicted by loss of control (β=.19, p<.001) and negativity in social relationships (β=.12, p<.001). These variables altogether accounted for 8 % of the variance in cyber victimization, with the best predictor loss of control (7 % of the total variance). The results of this study demonstrated that, as expected, loss of control and negativity in social relationships predicted cyber bullying and victimization positively. However, excessive desire to stay online did not emerge a significant predictor of both cyberbullying and victimization. Consequently, this study would enhance our understanding of the predictors of cyber bullying and victimization since the results proposed that internet addiction is related with cyber bullying and victimization.

Keywords: cyber bullying, internet addiction, adolescents, regression

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93 Screening for Internet Addiction among Medical Students in a Saudi Community

Authors: Nawaf A. Alqahtani, Ali M. Alqahtani, Khalid A. Alqahtani, Huda S. Abdullfattah, Ebtehal A. Alessa, Khalid S. Al Gelban, Ossama A. Mostafa

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Background: The internet is an exciting medium that is becoming an essential part of everyday life. Although the internet is fully observed in Saudi Arabia, young people may be vulnerable to problematic internet use, possibly leading to addiction. Aim of study: To explore the magnitude of internet addiction (IA) among medical students associated risk factors and its impact on students' academic achievement. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 on 571 medical students (293 males and 278 females) at the College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. Data Collection was done through using the Arabic version of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale and a checklist of demographic characteristics. Results: Age of participants ranged from 19 to 26 years (Mean+SD: 21.9+1.5 years). Internet access was available to 97.4% of students at home and to 80.2% of students at their mobile phones. The most frequently accessed websites by medical students were the social media (90.7%), scientific website (50.4%) and the news websites (31.3%). IA was mild in 47.8% of medical students while 5.8% had moderate IA. None of the students had severe IA. Prevalence of IA was significantly higher among female medical students (p=0.002), availability of internet at home (p=0.022), and availability of internet at the students' mobile phone (p=0.041). The mean General Point Average (GPA) was highest among students with mild IA (4.0+0.6), compared with 3.6+0.6 among those with moderate addiction, and 3.9+0.6 among those who did not show IA. Differences in mean GPA according to grade of IA were statistically significant ((P=0.001). Conclusions: Prevalence of IA is high among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Risk factors for IA include female gender, availability of internet at home or at the mobile phone. IA has a significant impact on students' GPA. Periodic screening of medical students for IA and raising their awareness toward the possible risk of IA are recommended.

Keywords: internet addiction, medical students, risk factors, Saudi Arabia

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92 Patterns of Problem Behavior of Out-Of-School Adolescents and Gender Difference in South Korea

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee, Minji Je

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Objectives: The adolescents not attending school are named out-of-school adolescents. They are more vulnerable to health management and are likely to be exposed to a number of risk factors. This study was conducted to investigate the problem behavior of out-of-school adolescents and analyze the difference caused by gender. Methods: In this study, the problem behaviors of out-of-school adolescents, the vulnerable class, were defined in 8 types and based on this definition, the survey on run away from home, drop out, prostitution, violence, internet game addiction, theft, drug addiction, and smoking was conducted. The study was conducted in a total of 507 out-of-school adolescents, including 342 males, and 165 females. The type, frequency and start time of the 8 problem behaviors were identified. The collected data were analyzed with chi-square test and t-test using SPSS statistics 22. Results: Among the problem behaviors of the subjects, violence ( =17.41, p < .001), internet game addiction ( =16.14, p < .001), theft ( =22.48, p < .001), drug addiction ( =4.17, p=.041), and smoking ( =3.90, p=.048) were more significantly high in male out-of-school adolescents than female out-of-school adolescents. In addition, the frequency of the problem behavior was higher in male out-of-school adolescents with statistical significance than in female out-of-school adolescents (t=5.08, p= < .001). In terms of the start time of the problem behavior, only internet game addiction was higher in male out-of-school adolescents with the statistical significance than in female out-of-school adolescents ( =6.22, p=.032). No statistically significant difference was found in other problem behaviors (p > .05). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that gender difference in problem behaviors of out-of-school adolescents exists, and its frequency and difference of types were identified. When the social countermeasures were provided for those adolescents, a distinguished approach is required depending on the patterns of problem behavior and gender. When preparing policy alternatives and interventions for out-of-school adolescents, it is required to reflect the results of this study.

Keywords: addictive behavior, adolescent, gender, problem behavior

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91 Anxiety Sensitivity and Coping Motives Predict Substance Use Craving and Relapse

Authors: Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem

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Introduction: Substance use disorder is conceptualized as a chronic relapsing condition where relapse is usually defined as the return to problematic substance use following treatment. An issue of great importance is the identification of the predictors of relapse and the development of treatments that may help prevent relapse. One of the strongest predictors of relapse is craving. The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives on craving. Materials and method: Participants (n=74) were male opiate users recruited from a semi-private clinic providing de-toxification and treatment services for substance users. Anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, coping motives and craving were assessed using relevant questionnaires. The addiction severity index was used to assess addiction severity. Results: All patients were methadone maintained and one year after detoxification, 36 patients (48.64%) relapsed. Stress and anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, addiction severity and coping motives predicted craving and relapse. Anxiety sensitivity specifically predicted early relapse. Conclusion: Substance use is a severe mental disorder, with high relapse rates. Substance users high in anxiety sensitivity are particularly prone to relapse during the first six months of treatment. Addiction severity and coping motives need to be taken into account when providing interventional services for substance users. Findings imply the significance of additional psychological attention to methadone maintained patients to prevent craving and relapse.

Keywords: anxiety sensitivity, coping motives, relapse, substance use craving

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90 The Influence of Mobile Phone Addiction on Academic Performance among Teenagers in Shah Alam, Malaysia

Authors: Jamaluddin Abd Rashid, Aris Abdul Rahman

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Mobile phones have become the most popular way to communicate with other individuals and it has created an unspoken social dependency. Making phone calls, instant messaging, playing online games and accessing the Internet are among the features added to a mobile phone, attracting teenagers to spend more hours fixated on their gadgets. As such, this study attempted to examine the frequency of time spent on mobile phones and how this influenced academic performance. A quantitative methodology was applied in this study, where face to face survey through the distribution of questionnaires was facilitated onto a group of 200 secondary school students from the Shah Alam community in Selangor,Malaysia. Both genders, male and females were assessed equally to find out if there exists a correlation between genders when measuring higher or lower frequency of attachment to mobile phones. It can also be seen that 100% correspondents have a mobile phone in their possession. The adolescents uses mobile phones daily, which shows students being somewhat addicted, as they tend to feel that it is necessary to use a mobile phone. The main findings of this research found out that, students that are mobile phone addictive received a lower grade in schools. Mobile phone addiction does affect academic performance negatively. As this study discusses the modern-day phenomenon, it is hoped that the findings and discussion could add to present literary works and help future researchers understand the relationship between mobile phone addiction and academic performance.

Keywords: academic performance, mobile phone addiction, social media, student

Procedia PDF Downloads 193