Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 428

Search results for: basal tear secretion

428 Effect of Smoking on Tear Break-Up Time and Basal Tear Secretion

Authors: Kalsoom Rani


Tobacco contains nicotine, which causes addiction to many toxic chemicals. In the world, people consume it in the form of smoke, chew, and sniffing, smoke of it is composed of almost 7000 active chemicals, which are very harmful to human health as well as for eye health, inhalation of tobacco smoke and fumes can accelerate and cause many blinding eye diseases. Dry eye and smoking have not been covered extensively in researches; more studies are required to unveil the relationship between smoking and dry eye. This study was conducted to determine the quantity and quality of tears in smokers. 60 subjects participated in the study, which was divided into two groups on the basis of consumption of cigarettes per day with age matched non smokers of 15-50 years. All participants have gone through a study based questioner, eye examination, and diagnostic 'Dry Eye Tests' for evaporative tears evaluation and measurement of basal tear secretion. Subjects were included in the criteria of 10 cigarettes per day with a minimum duration of 1 year; passive smokers for control groups were excluded. The study was carried out in a Medina Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan, ophthalmology department for the duration of 8 months. Mean values for tear break up time (TBUT), was reported 10sec with SD of +3.74 in controlled group, 5sec with SD + 2.32 in smokers and 4sec SD +3.77 heavy smokers in right eye (RE) and left eye (LE) 10.35sec with SD of +3.88 in controlled 5sec with SD + 2.3 in smokers and much reduced TBUT in heavy smokers was 3.85sec SD+2.20. Smoking has a very strong association with TRUT with a significance of P=.00 both eyes. Mean Schirmer-I value of the subjects was reported 12.6mm with SD + 8.37 in RE and 12.59mm with SD + 8.96 LE. The mean Schirmer-II test value was reported in the right, and left eye with a mean value for control was 20.23mm with SD + 8.93, 20.75mm with SD + 8.84 respectively, and in Smokers 9.90mm with SD + 5.74, and 10.07mm with SD + 6.98, and in heavy smokers 7.7mm, SD + 3.22 and 6.9, SD + 3.50 mm, association with smoking showed p=.001 in RE and .003 in LE. Smoking has deteriorated effect on both evaporative tear and aqueous tear secretion and causing symptoms of dry eye burning, itching, redness, and watering with epithelial cell damage.

Keywords: tear break-up time, basal tear secretion, smokers, dry eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
427 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material

Authors: Mirna Febriani


Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.

Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginate

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
426 Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Cornea and Tear Film Parameters in Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematous Patients

Authors: Mohamed Salah El-Din Mahmoud, Ahmed Hamed, Asmaa Anwar Mohamed


Purpose: To study the tear film parameters, total corneal thickness (CT), corneal epithelial thickness and, corneal power in Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients compared to age-matched controls using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Study participants were divided into 2 groups: Group A: 75 eyes of JSLE patients, Group B: 75 eyes of healthy controls. Tear meniscus height (TMH), tear meniscus depth (TMD), and tear meniscus area (TMA) were the lower tear meniscus parameters that were measured. The corneal power, CT, and epithelial thickness were all determined automatically. Results: In the JSLE group, the range of age was 10 to 15 years while the control group was 11 to 16 years. TMH, TMA, and TMD were 527.7±46.8, 0.059±0.015 and 343.3±59.9 respectively in JSLE group while 525.4±44.6, 0.058±0.011 and 340.6±58.0 respectively in control group without significant difference (p-value<0.001). The corneal power was 43.3±0.55 in the JSLE while 43.2±0.54 in the control group without significant difference (p-value= 0.407). CT was 551.1±13.5 in JSLE group while 551.2±15.3 in control group without significant difference (p-value= 0.982). Epithelial thickness was 52.66±1.35 in the JSLE group while 52.60±1.36 in the control group without significant difference (p-value= 0.765). Conclusion: We demonstrated no significant difference in tear meniscus dimensions, CT, epithelial thickness, and corneal power in the JSLE patients compared to age-matched controls using AS-OCT.

Keywords: tear film, ASOCT, JSLE, pachymetry, corneal thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
425 A Clinical Study of Correlation between Pterygium and Dry Eye

Authors: Megha Ramnik Kotecha


To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. Detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected with dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P<0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film unstability. On comparision of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight threatening complications.

Keywords: dry eye, pterygium, Schirmer's test, tear break up time (TBUT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
424 Estimation of Respiratory Parameters in Pressure Controlled Ventilation System with Double Lungs on Secretion Clearance

Authors: Qian Zhang, Dongkai Shen, Yan Shi


A new mechanical ventilator with automatic secretion clearance function can improve the secretion clearance safely and efficiently. However, in recent modeling studies on various mechanical ventilators, it was considered that human had one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs was never illustrated. In this paper, to expound the coupling effect of double lungs, a mathematical model of a ventilation system of a bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) controlled ventilator with secretion clearance was set up. Moreover, an experimental study about the mechanical ventilation system of double lungs on BiPAP ventilator was conducted to verify the mathematical model. Finally, the coupling effect of double lungs of the mathematical ventilation was studied by simulation and orthogonal experimental design. This paper adds to previous studies and can be referred to optimization methods in medical researches.

Keywords: double lungs, coupling effect, secretion clearance, orthogonal experimental design

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
423 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil


Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
422 Development and Comparative Analysis of a New C-H Split and Recombine Micromixer

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte


In the present study, a new passive micromixer based on SAR principle, combining the operation concepts of known Chain and H mixers, called C-H micromixer, is developed and studied. The efficiency and the pressure drop of the C-H mixer along with two known SAR passive mixers named Chain and Tear-drop were investigated numerically at Reynolds numbers up to 100, taking into account species transport. At the same time experimental tests of the Chain and Tear-drop mixers were carried out at low Reynolds number, in the 0.1≤Re≤4.2 range. Numerical and experimental results coincide considerably, which validate the numerical simulation approach. Results show that mixing efficiency of the Tear-drop mixer is good except at the middle range of Reynolds number but pressure drop is too high; conversely the Chain mixer has moderate pressure drop but relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle Re numbers. Whereas, the C-H mixer gives excellent mixing efficiency at all range of Re numbers. In addition, the C-H mixer shows respectively about 3 and 2 times lower pressure drop than the Tear-drop mixer and the Chain mixer.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
421 Reducing Waiting Time in Outpatient Services: Six Sigma and Technological Approach

Authors: Omkar More, Isha Saini, Gracy Mathai


To study whether there is any clinical correlation between pterygium and dry eye and to evaluate the status of the tear film in patients with pterygium. Methods: 100 eyes with pterygium were compared with 100 control eyes without pterygium. Patients between 20 – 70 years were included in the study. A detailed history was taken and Schirmer’s test and TBUT were performed on all to evaluate the status of dry eye. Schirmer’s test ˂ 10 mm and TBUT ˂10 seconds was considered abnormal. Results: Maximum number (52) of patients affected by dry eye in both the groups were in the age group 31-40 years which statistically showed age as a significant factor of association for both pterygium and dry eye (P < 0.01).Schirmer’s test was slightly reduced in patients with pterygium(18.73±5.69 mm). TBUT was significantly reduced in the case group (12.26±2.24sec).TBUT decreased maximally in 51-60 yrs age group (13.00±2.77sec) with pterygium showing a tear film instability. On comparison of pterygia and controls with normal and abnormal tear film, Odd’s Ratio was 1.14 showing a risk of dry eye in pterygia patients to be 1.14 times higher than controls. Conclusion: Whether tear dysfunction is a precursor to pterygium growth or pterygium causes tear dysfunction is still not clear. Research and clinical evidence, however, suggest that there is a relationship between the two. This study is, therefore, undertaken to investigate the correlation between pterygium and dry eye. The patients with pterygia were compared with normals to evaluate their status regarding dryness. A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms and functional evidence of tear instability. Schirmer’s test and TBUT should routinely be used in the outpatient department to diagnose dry eye in patients with pterygium and these patients should be promptly treated to prevent any sight-threatening complications.

Keywords: footfall, nursing assessment, quality improvement, six sigma

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
420 Evaluation of the Weight-Based and Fat-Based Indices in Relation to Basal Metabolic Rate-to-Weight Ratio

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma


Basal metabolic rate is questioned as a risk factor for weight gain. The relations between basal metabolic rate and body composition have not been cleared yet. The impact of fat mass on basal metabolic rate is also uncertain. Within this context, indices based upon total body mass as well as total body fat mass are available. In this study, the aim is to investigate the potential clinical utility of these indices in the adult population. 287 individuals, aged from 18 to 79 years, were included into the scope of the study. Based upon body mass index values, 10 underweight, 88 normal, 88 overweight, 81 obese, and 20 morbid obese individuals participated. Anthropometric measurements including height (m), and weight (kg) were performed. Body mass index, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index I, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II, basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio were calculated. Total body fat mass (kg), fat percent (%), basal metabolic rate, metabolic age, visceral adiposity, fat mass of upper as well as lower extremities and trunk, obesity degree were measured by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical evaluations were performed by statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0. Scatterplots of individual measurements for the parameters concerning correlations were drawn. Linear regression lines were displayed. The statistical significance degree was accepted as p < 0.05. The strong correlations between body mass index and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index I as well as diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II were obtained (p < 0.001). A much stronger correlation was detected between basal metabolic rate and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index I in comparison with that calculated for basal metabolic rate and body mass index (p < 0.001). Upon consideration of the associations between basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio and these three indices, the best association was observed between basal metabolic rate-to-weight and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II. In a similar manner, this index was highly correlated with fat percent (p < 0.001). Being independent of the indices, a strong correlation was found between fat percent and basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio (p < 0.001). Visceral adiposity was much strongly correlated with metabolic age when compared to that with chronological age (p < 0.001). In conclusion, all three indices were associated with metabolic age, but not with chronological age. Diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index II values were highly correlated with body mass index values throughout all ranges starting with underweight going towards morbid obesity. This index is the best in terms of its association with basal metabolic rate-to-weight ratio, which can be interpreted as basal metabolic rate unit.

Keywords: basal metabolic rate, body mass index, children, diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
419 Case Study: Hybrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall System Built on Basal Reinforced Raft

Authors: S. Kaymakçı, D. Gündoğdu, H. Özçelik


The truck park of a warehouse for a chain of supermarket was going to be constructed on a poor ground. Rather than using a piled foundation, the client was convinced that a ground improvement using a reinforced foundation raft also known as “basal reinforcement” shall work. The retaining structures supporting the truck park area were designed using a hybrid structure made up of the Terramesh® Wall System and MacGrid™ high strength geogrids. The total wall surface area is nearly 2740 sq.m , reaching a maximum height of 13.00 meters. The area is located in the first degree seismic zone of Turkey and the design seismic acceleration is high. The design of walls has been carried out using pseudo-static method (limit equilibrium) taking into consideration different loading conditions using Eurocode 7. For each standard approach stability analysis in seismic condition were performed. The paper presents the detailed design of the reinforced soil structure, basal reinforcement and the construction methods; advantages of using such system for the project are discussed.

Keywords: basal reinforcement, geogrid, reinforced soil raft, reinforced soil wall, soil reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
418 Minimize Wear and Tear in Y12 Aircraft Tyres

Authors: N. D. Hiripitiya, H. V. H. De Soysa, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage


This research was related to identify the reasons which lead for early wear and tear of aircraft tyres. Further this research focused to rectify those issues in tyres with some modifications. The aircraft tyres of Y12 aircraft was selected for the study as due to Y12 aircraft fly frequently. Self-structured questionnaire was prepared and it was distributed among Y12 aircraft technicians. Based on their feedback several issues were identified related to tyre wear and tear. One of the reasons was uneven tyre wearing. But it could rectify after interchanging the tyre sides after completion of 50 landings. Several modifications were done in order to rectify all the identified issues. Several devices were constructed in order to enhance the life time of the Y12 aircraft tyre. Mechanical properties were measured for the worn-out tyres. The properties were compared with the control tyre sample. It was found that there was an average increment of tensile strength by 38.14 % of control tyre, when compared with the worn-out tyres which were completed 50 number of landings. The suggested modifications are in the process of implementation. It is confident that above mentioned solutions will lead to increase the life span of tyres in Y12 aircraft.

Keywords: aircraft, devices, enhance life span, modifications for tyre wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
417 Effect of Bacillus subtilis Pb6 on Growth and Gut Microflora in Clostridium perfringens Challenged Broilers

Authors: A. Khalique, T. Naseem, N. Haque, Z. Rasool


The objective of current study was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT) as a probiotic in broilers. The corn-soybean based diet was divided into four treatment groups; T1 (basal diet with no probiotic and no Clostridium perfringens); T2 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens without probiotic); T3 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.05% probiotic); T4 (basal diet challenged with C. perfringens having 0.1% probiotic). Every treatment group had four replicates with 24 birds each. Body weight and feed intake were measured on weekly basis, while ileal bacterial count was recorded on day-28 following Clostridium perfringens challenge. The 0.1% probiotic treatment showed 7.2% increase in average feed intake (P=0.05) and 8% increase in body weight compared to T2. In 0.1% treatment body weight was 5% higher than T3 (P=0.02). It was also observed that 0.1% treatment had improved feed conversion ratio (1.77) on 6th week. No effect of treatment was observed on mortality and ileal bacterial count. The current study indicated that 0.1% use of probiotic had positive response in C. perfringens challenged broilers.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis PB6, antibiotic growth promoters, Clostridium perfringens, broilers

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
416 Effect of Weave on Cotton Fabric to Improve the Durable Press Finish Rating

Authors: Mayur Kudale, Priyanka Panchal


Cellulose fibres, mainly cotton, are the most important kind of fibre used for manufacturing shirting fabric. However, to overcome its main disadvantage, that is it gets wrinkled after washing, is to use special kind of finish which is resin finish. This finish provides a resistance against shrinkage along with improved wet and dry wrinkle recovery to cellulosic textiles. The Durable Press (DP) finish uses a mechanism of cross-linking with polymers or resin to inhibit the easy movement of the cellulose chains. The purpose of these experimentations on the weave is to observe and compare the variations in properties after DP finish without adverse effect on strength of the fabric. In this work, we have prepared three types of fabric weaves viz. Plain, Twill and Sateen with their construction parameters intact. To get the projected results, this work uses three types of variables viz. concentration of Resin, Temperature and Time. Resultant of these variables is only change in weave or construction on DP finish which further opens the possibilities of improvement of DP either of mentioned weaves. The combined effect of such various parametric resin finish methodology will give the best method to improve the DP. However, the DP finish can cause a side effect of reduction in elasticity and flexibility of cellulosic fibres. The natural cellulose could loss abrasion resistance along with tear and tensile strength by applying DP finish. In this work, it is taken care that the tear strength of fabric will not drop below certain limit otherwise the fabric will tear down easily. In this work, it is found that there is a significant drop in tearing and tensile strength with the improvement of DP finish. Later on, it is also found that the twill weave has more percentage drop in tearing strength as compared to plain and sateen weave. There is major kind of observations obtained after this work. First, the mixing of cotton should be done properly to achieve the higher DP rating in plain weave. Second, the careful combination of warp, weft and fabric construction must be decided to avoid the high drop in tear and tensile strength in a twill weave. Third, the sateen weave has a good sheen and DP rating hence it can be used in shirting of gents and ladies dress materials. This concludes that to achieve higher DP ratings, use plain weave construction than twill and sateen because it has the lowest tear and tensile strength drop.

Keywords: concentration of resin, cross-linking, durable press (DP) finish, sheen, tear and tensile strength, weave

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
415 Plastic Deformation of Mg-Gd Solid Solutions between 4K and 298K

Authors: Anna Kula, Raja K. Mishra, Marek Niewczas


Deformation behavior of Mg-Gd solid solutions have been studied by a combination of measurements of mechanical response, texture and dislocation substructure. Increase in Gd content strongly influences the work-hardening behavior and flow characteristics in tension and compression. Adiabatic instabilities have been observed in all alloys at 4K under both tension and compression. The frequency and the amplitude of adiabatic stress oscillations increase with Gd content. Profuse mechanical twinning has been observed under compression, resulting in a texture dominated by basal component parallel to the compression axis. Under tension, twining is less active and the texture evolution is affected mostly by slip. Increasing Gd concentration leads to the reduction of the tension and compression asymmetry due to weakening of the texture and stabilizing more homogenous twinning and slip, involving basal and non-basal slip systems.

Keywords: Mg-Gd alloys, mechanical properties, work hardening, twinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
414 The Role of the STAT3 Signaling for Melatonergic Synthetic Pathway in the Rat Pineal Gland

Authors: Simona Moravcova, Jiri Novotny, Zdenka Bendova


The pineal gland of the vertebrate brain is a circumventricular organ which serves as a major neuroendocrine gland with the primary function of rhythmic secretion of neurohormone melatonin under the control of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Soon after the onset of the darkness, the activity of the key rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), raises due to the increased release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons terminating on the parenchymal cells where it binds to β-adrenergic receptors. Melatonin codes the length of the night, and it is well recognized for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, to our knowledge, less is known about the effect of the immune system on the melatonin biosynthesis and the precise role of the STAT3 in the signaling pathway leading to the expression of AANAT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the essential component in the outer surface membrane of gram-negative bacteria and acts as a strong stimulator of natural and innate immunity. STAT3 acts as an important factor in immune response. Here we investigated the effect of LPS on the components of the melatonergic synthetic pathway in the pineal gland. The experiments were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The changes in AANAT activity were determined by radioenzymatic assay. PCR analyses were carried out to detect aa-nat, icer, spi-3 and stat3 gene expression. From our results, it is apparent that the high basal level of phosphorylated forms of STAT3 can be elevated after systemic as well as in vitro administration of LPS. Our experiments have shown that LPS reduces melatonin synthesis, nevertheless, the activity of AANAT was increased. Moreover, the basal level of phosphorylated STAT3 counteracts β-adrenergic receptor-mediated aa-nat gene expression and sustains its own and spi-3 gene expression. In conclusion, LPS can affect immunomodulators such as melatonin in the pineal gland.

Keywords: AANAT, lipopolysaccharide, pineal gland, rat, STAT3

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
413 Bioconversion of Capsaicin Using the Optimized Culture Broth of Lipase Producing Bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Authors: Doostishoar Farzad, Forootanfar Hamid, Hasan-Bikdashti Morvarid, Faramarzi Mohammad Ali, Ameri Atefe


Introduction: Chili peppers and related plants in the family of capsaicum produce a mixture of capsaicins represent anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, and chemopreventive properties. Vanillylamine, the main product of capsaicin hydrolysis is applied as a precursor for manufacturing of natural vanillin (a famous flavor). It is also used in the production of synthetic capsaicins harboring a wide variety of physiological and biological activities such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects as well as enhancing of adrenal catecholamine secretion, analgesic, and antioxidative activities. The ability of some lipases, such as Novozym 677 BG and Novozym 435 and also some proteases e.g. trypsine and penicillin acylase, in capsaicin hydrolysis and green synthesis of vanillylamine has been investigated. In the present study the optimized culture broth of a newly isolated lipase-producing bacterial strain (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) applied for the hydrolysis of capsaicin. Materials and methods: In order to compare hydrolytic activity of optimized and basal culture broth through capsaicin 2 mL of each culture broth (as sources of lipase) was introduced to capsaicin solution (500 mg/L) and then the reaction mixture (total volume of 3 mL) was incubated at 40 °C and 120 rpm. Samples were taken every 2 h and analyzed for vanillylamine formation using HPLC. Same reaction mixture containing boiled supernatant (to inactivate lipase) designed as blank and each experiment was done in triplicate. Results: 215 mg/L of vanillylamine was produced after the treatment of capsaicin using the optimized medium for 18 h, while only 61 mg/L of vanillylamine was detected in presence of the basal medium under the same conditions. No capsaicin conversion was observed in the blank sample, in which lipase activity was suppressed by boiling of the sample for 10 min. Conclusion: The application of optimized broth culture for the hydrolysis of capsaicin led to a 43% conversion of that pungent compound to vanillylamine.

Keywords: Capsaicin, green synthesis, lipase, stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
412 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.

Keywords: broiler chickens, Echinacea purporea, gene expression, lipopolysaccharide

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
411 Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Isa Brown Pullet Chicks Fed Diets Containing Turmeric and Clove

Authors: Ayoola Doris Ayodele, Grace Oluwatoyin Tayo, Martha Dupe Olumide, Opeyemi Arinola Ajayi, Ayodeji Taofeek Ayo-Bello


Antibiotics have been widely used in animal nutrition to improve growth performance and health worldwide for many decades. However, there are rising concerns on the negative impact of dependence on antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) to improve animal performance despite its tremendous use. The need to improve performance in poultry production creates demand for natural alternative sources. Phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that could be incorporated into animal feed to enhance livestock productivity. The effect of Turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove as feed additive was evaluated on performance and intestinal morphology of egg type chickens. 504- fifteen day old Isa brown chicks were weighed and randomly distributed to nine dietary treatments by a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (test ingredient x inclusion level) in a completely randomized design, with four replicates of 14 birds each. The birds were fed Chick starter diet containing (2800 kcal/kg ME; 20.8% CP). Dietary treatments were Group 1 (T1- basal diet with 0% Turmeric inclusion), (T2- basal diet with 1% Turmeric inclusion), (T3- basal diet with 2% Turmeric inclusion). Group 2 (T4- basal diet with 0% clove inclusion), (T5- basal diet with 1% clove inclusion), (T6- basal diet with 2% clove inclusion). Group 3, turmeric + clove combination on 1:1 ratio weight for weight (T7- basal diet with 0% turmeric + 0% clove inclusion), (T8- basal diet with 0.5% turmeric + 0.5 clove% inclusion), (T9- basal diet with 1% turmeric + 1% clove inclusion). Performance parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment. The experiment spanned from day 15 to 56. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with significance of P≤ 0.05. Significant differences (P>0.05) were not observed in final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and FCR among birds fed with diets containing across the treatments. However, birds fed with test ingredients showed higher numerical values in final body weight and weight gain when compared to the birds without additive. Birds on T8 had the highest final body weight value of 617.33 g and low values in all the control treatments (T1 -588 g, T4- 572 g and T7 -584 g). At day 56, intestinal samples were taken from the jejunum and ileum to evaluate the villus height, crypt depth and villus: crypt depth ratio. Addition of turmeric, clove and turmeric + clove in the diet produced significant (P< 0.05) effect on Jejunum and ileum of birds. Therefore, Turmeric and clove can be used as feed additives for pullet birds because they have a positive effect on growth performance and intestinal morphology of pullet chicks.

Keywords: clove, intestinal morphology, isa brown chicks, performance, turmeric

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
410 Essential Oil Blend Containing Capsaicin, Carvacrol, and Cinnamaldehyde in Broiler Production Performance and Intestinal Morphometrics

Authors: Marianne D. M. Rendon, Sonia P. Acda, Veneranda A. Magpantay, Norma N. Fajardo, Amado A. Angeles


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of supplementing broiler starter diet with different levels of an essential oil blend (EOB) containing capsaicin, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on the performance of broilers. A total of 300 day-old straight-run Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatments after 7-day group brooding following a completely randomized design (CRD). Birds assigned in treatment 1 were given starter basal diet while those in treatments 2 and 3 were given starter basal diet with 400 mg/kg antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) and 150 mg/kg EOB, respectively, until the 28th day. Basal finisher feed were given for all the treatments until harvest. Following 37 d feeding, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, livability and jejunal villi height were determined. Results showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance. However, villi height and crypt depth was significantly lower for birds fed EOB.

Keywords: broiler, capsaicin, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, essential oil

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409 Treatment of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear Using Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Polydeoxyribonucleotides in a Rabbit Model

Authors: Sang Chul Lee, Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate regenerative effects of ultrasound (US)-guided injection with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and/or polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injection in a chronic traumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear (FTRCTT) in a rabbit model. Material and Methods: Rabbits (n = 32) were allocated into 4 groups. After a 5-mm sized FTRCTT just proximal to the insertion site on the subscapularis tendon was created by excision, the wound was immediately covered by silicone tube to prevent natural healing. After 6 weeks, 4 injections (0.2 mL normal saline, G1; 0.2 mL PDRN, G2; 0.2 mL UCB-MSCs, G3; and 0.2 mL UCB-MSCs with 0.2ml PDRN, G4) were injected into FTRCTT under US guidance. We evaluated gross morphologic changes on all rabbits after sacrifice. Masson’s trichrome, anti-type 1 collagen antibody, bromodeoxyuridine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule stain were performed to evaluate histological changes. Motion analysis was also performed. Results: The gross morphologic mean tendon tear size in G3 and 4 was significantly smaller than that of G1 and 2 (p < .05). However, there were no significant differences in tendon tear size between G3 and 4. In G4, newly regenerated collagen type 1 fibers, proliferating cells activity, angiogenesis, walking distance, fast walking time, and mean walking speed were greater than in the other three groups on histological examination and motion analysis. Conclusion: Co-injection of UCB-MSCs and PDRN was more effective than UCB-MSCs injection alone in histological and motion analysis in a rabbit model of chronic traumatic FTRCTT. However, there was no significant difference in gross morphologic change of tendon tear between UCB-MSCs with/without PDRN injection. The results of this study regarding the combination of UCB-MSCs and PDRN are worth additional investigations.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cell, umbilical cord, polydeoxyribonucleotides, shoulder, rotator cuff, ultrasonography, injections

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408 Effect of Graded Level of Nano Selenium Supplementation on the Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Raj Kishore Swain, Kamdev Sethy, Sumanta Kumar Mishra


Selenium is an essential trace element for the chicken with a variety of biological functions like growth, fertility, immune system, hormone metabolism, and antioxidant defense systems. Selenium deficiency in chicken causes exudative diathesis, pancreatic dystrophy and nutritional muscle dystrophy of the gizzard, heart and skeletal muscle. Additionally, insufficient immunity, lowering of production ability, decreased feathering of chickens and increased embryo mortality may occur due to selenium deficiency. Nano elemental selenium, which is bright red, highly stable, soluble and of nano meter size in the redox state of zero, has high bioavailability and low toxicity due to the greater surface area, high surface activity, high catalytic efficiency and strong adsorbing ability. To assess the effect of dietary nano-Se on performance and expression of gene in Vencobb broiler birds in comparison to its inorganic form (sodium selenite), four hundred fifty day-old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 9 dietary treatment groups with two replicates with 25 chicks per replicate. The dietary treatments were: T1 (Control group): Basal diet; T2: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of inorganic Se; T3: Basal diet with 0.01875 ppm of nano-Se; T4: Basal diet with 0.0375 ppm of nano-Se; T5: Basal diet with 0.075 ppm of nano-Se, T6: Basal diet with 0.15 ppm of nano-Se, T7: Basal diet with 0.3 ppm of nano-Se, T8: Basal diet with 0.60 ppm of nano-Se, T9: Basal diet with 1.20 ppm of nano-Se. Nano selenium was synthesized by mixing sodium selenite with reduced glutathione and bovine serum albumin. The experiment was carried out in two phases: starter phase (0-3 wks), finisher phase (4-5 wk) in deep litter system. The body weight at the 5th week was best observed in T4. The best feed conversion ratio at the end of 5th week was observed in T4. Erythrocytic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all the nano selenium treated groups at 5th week. The antibody titers (log2) against Ranikhet diseases vaccine immunization of 5th-week broiler birds were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the treatments T4 to T7. The selenium levels in liver, breast, kidney, brain, and gizzard were significantly (P < 0.05) increased with increasing dietary nano-Se indicating higher bioavailability of nano-Se compared to inorganic Se. The real time polymer chain reaction analysis showed an increase in the expression of antioxidative gene in T4 and T7 group. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of nano-selenium at 0.0375 ppm over and above the basal level can improve the body weight, antioxidant enzyme activity, Se bioavailability and expression of the antioxidative gene in broiler birds.

Keywords: chicken, growth, immunity, nano selenium

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407 Regulation of PKA-Dependent Calcineurin as a Switch in Cell Secretion

Authors: Hani M. M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo


This study will investigate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent calcineurin (Cn), known as protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B) as well, regulation of chloride ion (Cl⁻) secretion and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules in immune cells such as cytokines. THP-1-derived monocytes, primary human monocytes and the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) were used in this study. The 16HBE14o- cells were chosen as positive control. Hence, to further confirm the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium binding protein (S100A10), annexin A2 (AnxA2) and calcineurin A subunit (CnA) in all three cell types, cell lysate was probed against corresponding primary antibodies by immunoblotting. Western blot analyses show the expression of CFTR, AnxA2, CnA and S100A10 in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes. In conclusion, CFTR, S100A10, CnA and AnxA2 are expressed in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes and regulate Cl⁻ secretion. Also, they may play a role in the pro-inflammatory molecules release. The ongoing work will confirm interaction between these proteins in the cell lines.

Keywords: annexin A2, calcineurin, CFTR, chloride, monocytes, pro-inflammatory molecules, S100A10

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406 Effect of Fatty Acids in Feed on Levels of Antibody Titers and CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte against Newcastle Disease Virus of Vaccinated Broiler Chicken

Authors: Alaa A. Shamaun Al-Abboodi, Yunis A. A. Bapeer


400 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) randomly divided to 2 main groups, 1st main group (GA) was feeding basal diet with medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at rate of 0.15% and divided to four subgroups, 3 subgroups vaccinated with different routes with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and non-vaccinated group. The 2nd main group (GB) feeding basal diet without MCFA and divided the same as 1st main group. The parameters used in this study included: ND antibody titers at 1, 10, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and values of CD4 and CD8 at 1, 20, 30 and 42 days of age. This experiment detected increase in ND antibodies titers in (G1, G2, G3) groups were fed on basal diet MCFA comparing to groups were fed without adding MCFA (G5, G6, G7) and control groups (G4, G8). The results of cellular immune response (CD4 and CD8) T-cells in broiler chicks indicated that there was obviously significant relationship between dietary Fatty Acid (FA) versus the diet without FA on the level of CD4 parameter, for the entire experimental period. The effect of different ages was statistically significant in creating different values of CD4 level, whereas the CD4 level decreases markedly with age. However, analyzing the data of different vaccination methods, oculonasal method of vaccination led to the highest value of CD4 compared with the oral, S/C and control groups. There were statistical differences in CD8 values due to supplementation of FA versus the basal diet and due to the effect of different age periods. As for the age effect, the CD8 value at 20 days of age was significantly higher than at 42 and 30 days.

Keywords: broiler, CD4 and CD8, fatty acids, Newcastle Disease

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405 Regeneration of Plantlets via Direct Somatic Embryogenesis from Different Explants of Murraya koenigii

Authors: Nisha Khatik, Ramesh Joshi


An in vitro plant regeneration system was developed via direct somatic embryogenesis from different seedling explants of an important medicinal plant Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng. Cotyledons (COT), Hypocotyle (HYP)(10 to 15 mm) and Root (RT) segments (10 to 20 mm) were excised from 60 days old seedlings as explants. The somatic embryos induction was achieved on MS basal medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP 1.33 to 8.40 µM and TDZ 1.08 to 9.82 µM. The globular embryos originated from cut ends and entire surface of the root, hypocotyle explants and margins of cotyledons within 30-40days. The percentage of somatic embryos induction per explant was significantly higher in HYP explants (94.21±5.77%) in the MS basal medium supplemented with 6.20 µM BAP and 8.64 µM TDZ. The highest rate of conversion of torpedo, heart and cotyledonary stages from globular stage was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 8.64 µM TDZ. The matured somatic embryos were transferred to the MS basal medium without PGRs. Highest 88% of the matured embryos were germinated on transfer to the PGR free medium where they grew for a further 3-4 weeks. Out of seventy six hardened plants seventy (92%) plantlets were found healthy under field conditions.

Keywords: Murraya koenigii, somatic embryogenesis, thidiazuron, regeneration, rutaceae

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404 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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403 A Case Report on Neonatal Conjunctivitis in Pugs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado


Neonatal conjunctivitis, or ophthalmia, is an infection of the conjunctiva or cornea before opening the eyelids. It is believed that immunodeficiency contributes to the development of the condition. This study aims at reporting a case of ophthalmia neonatorum in a dog, in addition to its diagnosis and treatment. A litter of five pug neonates was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with complaints of ocular secretion. The neonates were five days old. The clinical examination revealed that three newborns presented swelling in the ocular region and a purulent secretion in the medial corner of the eye that was exerting pressure on the ocular globes, which are compatible with the description of this disease. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical signs and bacterial culture of the secretion, which revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus sp. The laboratory assays did not reveal any alterations. The treatment was instituted gently, opening the eyelids early and cleaning the purulent ocular secretion with saline solution. An ophthalmic ointment with retinol, amino acids, methionine, and chloramphenicol (Epitezan®) was prescribed four times a day for seven days. Blood plasma (2 mL/100 g) was administered subcutaneously because bacterial infections in neonates may represent a failure in the transference of passive immunity. A more thorough cleaning of the environment was also recommended. Neonatal conjunctivitis has a simple diagnosis and treatment. If not treated early, it can evolve to adherence of the eyelids to the cornea, ulceration, and perforation of the cornea. Therefore, the prognosis is favorable as long as the condition is diagnosed early, and the treatment is instituted quickly.

Keywords: ophthalmia neonatorum, neonatal infection, puppy, newborn

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402 Numerical Analysis of Fluid Mixing in Three Split and Recombine Micromixers at Different Inlets Volume Ratio

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, M. Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte


Numerical simulation were carried out to study the mixing of miscible liquid at different inlets volume ratio (1 to 3) within two existing mixers namely Chain, Tear-drop and one new “C-H” mixer. The new passive C-H micromixer is developed based on split and recombine principles, combining the operation concepts of known Chain mixer and H mixer. The mixing performances of the three micromixers were predicted by a preliminary numerical analysis of the flow patterns inside the channel in terms of the segregation or distribution of path lines. Afterward, the efficiency and the pressure drop were investigated numerically, taking into account species transport. All numerical calculations were computed at a wide range of Reynolds number from 1 to 100. Among the presented three micromixers, tear-drop provides fairly good efficiency except in the middle range of Re numbers but has high-pressure drop. In addition, inlets flow ratio has a significant influence on efficiency, especially at the Re number range of 10 to 50, Moreover maximum increase of efficiency is almost 10% when inlets flow ratio is increased by 1. Chain mixer presents relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle range of Re numbers (5≤Re≤50) but has reasonable pressure drop. Furthermore, Chain mixer shows almost no dependence on inlets flow ratio. Whereas, C-H mixer poses excellent mixing efficiency (more than 93%) for all range of Re numbers and causes the lowest pressure drop, On top of that efficiency has slight dependency on inlets flow ratio. In addition, C-H mixer shows respectively about three and two times lower pressure drop than Tear-drop and Chain mixers.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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401 Basal Cell Carcinoma: Epidemiological Analysis of a 5-Year Period in a Brazilian City with a High Level of Solar Radiation

Authors: Maria E. V. Amarante, Carolina L. Cerdeira, Julia V. Cortes, Fiorita G. L. Mundim


Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent type of skin cancer in humans. It arises from the basal cells of the epidermis and cutaneous appendages. The role of sunlight exposure as a risk factor for BCC is very well defined due to its power to influence genetic mutations, in addition to having a suppressor effect on the skin immune system. Despite showing low metastasis and mortality rates, the tumor is locally infiltrative, aggressive, and destructive. Considering the high prevalence rate of this carcinoma and the importance of early detection, a retrospective study was carried out in order to correlate the clinical data available on BBC, characterize it epidemiologically, and thus enable effective prevention measures for the population. Data on the period from January 2015 to December 2019 were collected from the medical records of patients registered at one pathology service located in the southeast region of Brazil, known as SVO, which delivers skin biopsy results. The study was aimed at correlating the variables, sex, age, and subtypes found. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test at a nominal significance level of 5% in order to verify the independence between the variables of interest. Fisher's exact test was applied in cases where the absolute frequency in the cells of the contingency table was less than or equal to five. The statistical analysis was performed using the R® software. Ninety-three basal cell carcinoma were analyzed, and its frequency in the 31-to 45-year-old age group was 5.8 times higher in men than in women, whereas, from 46 to 59 years, the frequency was found 2.4 times higher in women than in men. Between the ages of 46 to 59 years, it should be noted that the sclerodermiform subtype appears more than the solid one, with a difference of 7.26 percentage points. Reversely, the solid form appears more frequently in individuals aged 60 years or more, with a difference of 8.57 percentage points. Among women, the frequency of the solid subtype was 9.93 percentage points higher than the sclerodermiform frequency. In males, the same percentage difference is observed, but sclerodermiform is the most prevalent subtype. It is concluded in this study that, in general, there is a predominance of basal cell carcinoma in females and in individuals aged 60 years and over, which demonstrates the tendency of this tumor. However, when rarely found in younger individuals, the male gender prevailed. The most prevalent subtype was the solid one. It is worth mentioning that the sclerodermiform subtype, which is more aggressive, was seen more frequently in males and in the 46-to 59-year-old range.

Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, epidemiology, sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma, skin cancer, solar radiation, solid basal cell carcinoma

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400 Stability Analysis of Two-delay Differential Equation for Parkinson's Disease Models with Positive Feedback

Authors: M. A. Sohaly, M. A. Elfouly


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a heterogeneous movement disorder that often appears in the elderly. PD is induced by a loss of dopamine secretion. Some drugs increase the secretion of dopamine. In this paper, we will simply study the stability of PD models as a nonlinear delay differential equation. After a period of taking drugs, these act as positive feedback and increase the tremors of patients, and then, the differential equation has positive coefficients and the system is unstable under these conditions. We will present a set of suggested modifications to make the system more compatible with the biodynamic system. When giving a set of numerical examples, this research paper is concerned with the mathematical analysis, and no clinical data have been used.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, stability, simulation, two delay differential equation

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399 lncRNA Gene Expression Profiling Analysis by TCGA RNA-Seq Data of Breast Cancer

Authors: Xiaoping Su, Gabriel G. Malouf


Introduction: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified in 4 subgroups using transcriptional profiling. The role of lncRNA expression in human breast cancer biology, prognosis, and molecular classification remains unknown. Methods and results: Using an integrative comprehensive analysis of lncRNA, mRNA and DNA methylation in 900 breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, we unraveled the molecular portraits of 1,700 expressed lncRNA. Some of those lncRNAs (i.e, HOTAIR) are previously reported and others are novel (i.e, HOTAIRM1, MAPT-AS1). The lncRNA classification correlated well with the PAM50 classification for basal-like, Her-2 enriched and luminal B subgroups, in contrast to the luminal A subgroup which behaved differently. Importantly, estrogen receptor (ESR1) expression was associated with distinct lncRNA networks in lncRNA clusters III and IV. Gene set enrichment analysis for cis- and trans-acting lncRNA showed enrichment for breast cancer signatures driven by breast cancer master regulators. Almost two third of those lncRNA were marked by enhancer chromatin modifications (i.e., H3K27ac), suggesting that lncRNA expression may result in increased activity of neighboring genes. Differential analysis of gene expression profiling data showed that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 was significantly down-regulated in basal-like subtype, and DNA methylation profiling data showed that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 was highly methylated in basal-like subtype. Thus, our integrative analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation strongly suggested that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 should be a tumor suppressor in basal-like subtype. Conclusion and significance: Our study depicts the first lncRNA molecular portrait of breast cancer and shows that lncRNA HOTAIRM1 might be a novel tumor suppressor.

Keywords: lncRNA profiling, breast cancer, HOTAIRM1, tumor suppressor

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