Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 209

Search results for: chromium

209 Phytoremediation of Cr from Tannery Effluent by Vetiver Grass

Authors: Mingizem Gashaw Seid

Abstract:

Phytoremediation of chromium metal by vetiver grass was investigated in hydroponic system. The removal efficiency for organic load, nutrient and chromium were evaluated as a function of concentration of waste effluent (40 and 50% dilution with distilled water). Under this conditions 64.49-94.06 % of chromium was removed. This shows vetiver grass has potential for accumulation of chromium metal from tannery waste water stream.

Keywords: chromium, phytoremediation, tannery effluent, vetiver grass

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
208 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova

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Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: environment, cement, chromium, leaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
207 Recovery of Chromium(III) from Tannery Wastewater by Nanoparticles and Whiskers of Chitosan

Authors: El Montassir Dahmane, Nadia Eladlani, Aziz Ouahrouch, Mohammed Rhazi, Moha Taourirte

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The present study was aimed to approximate the optimal conditions to chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. Chitosan with an average molecular weight of 63 kDa and a 96% deacetylation degree was prepared according to our previous study. Chromium recovery is influenced by different parameters. In our search, we determined the appropriate range of pH to form chitosan–Cr(III), nanoparticles Cr(III), and whiskers– Cr(III) complex. We studied also the influence of chromium concentration and the nature of chitosan-based materials on the complexation process. Our main aim is to approximate the optimal conditions to remove chromium(III) from the tanning bath, recuperated from tannery wastewater of Marrakech in Morocco. A Perkin Elmer optima 2000 Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), was used to determine the quantity of chromium persistent in tannery wastewater after complexation phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report interested in the optimal conditions for chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. From our research, we found that in chromium solution, the appropriate range of pH to form complex is between 5.6 and 6.7. Also, the complexation of Cr(III) is depending on the nature of complexing ligand and chromium concentration. The obtained results reveal that nanoparticles present an excellent adsorption capacity regardless of chromium concentration. In addition, after a critical chromium concentration (250 mg/l), our ligand becomes saturated, that requires an increase of ligand mass for increasing chromium concentration in order to have a better adsorption capacity. Hence, in the same conditions, we used chitosan, its nanoparticles, whiskers, and chitosan based films to remove Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. The pH of this effluent was around 6, and its chromium concentration was 300 mg/l. The results expose that the sequence of complexing ligand in the effluent is the same in chromium solution, determined via our previous study. However, the adsorbed quantity is less due to the presence of other metallic ions in tannery wastewater. We conclude that the best complexing ligand-based chitosan is chitosan nanoaprticles whether it’s in chromium solution or in tannery wastewater. Nanoparticles are the best complexing ligand after 24 h of contact nanoparticles can remove 70% of chromium from this tannery wastewater.

Keywords: nanoparticles, whiskers, chitosan, chromium

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
206 Preparation of Chromium Nanoparticles on Carbon Substrate from Tannery Waste Solution by Chemical Method Compared to Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah, Said El Sheikh

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This work shows the preparation of chromium nanoparticles from tannery waste solution on glassy carbon by chemical method compared to electrokinetic process. The waste solution contains free and soluble fats, calcium, iron, magnesium and high sodium in addition to the chromium ions. Filtration helps removal of insoluble matters. Diethyl ether successfully extracted soluble fats. The method started by removing calcium as insoluble oxalate salts at hot conditions in a faint acidic medium. The filtrate contains iron, magnesium, chromium ions and sodium chloride in excess. Chromium was separated selectively as insoluble hydroxide sol-gel at pH 6.5, filtered and washed with distilled water. Part of the gel reacted with sulfuric acid to produce chromium sulfate solution having 15-25 g/L concentration. Electrokinetic deposition of chromium nanoparticles on a carbon cathode was carried out using platinum anode under different galvanostatic conditions. The chemical method involved impregnating the carbon specimens with chromium hydroxide gel followed by reduction using hydrazine hydrate or by thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 1250°C. Chromium grain size was characterized by TEM, FT-IR and SEM. Properties of the Cr grains were correlated to the conditions of the preparation process. Electrodeposition was found to control chromium particles to be more identical in size and shape as compared to the chemical method.

Keywords: chromium, electrodeposition, nanoparticles, tannery waste solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
205 Nickel and Chromium Distributions in Soil and Plant Influenced by Geogenic Sources

Authors: Mohamad Sakizadeh, Fatemeh Mehrabi Sharafabadi, Hadi Ghorbani

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Concentrations of Cr and Ni in 97 plant samples (belonged to eight different plant species) and the associated soil groups were considered in this study. The amounts of Ni in soil groups fluctuated between 26.8 and 36.8 mgkg⁻¹ whereas the related levels of chromium ranged from 67.7 to 94.3mgkg⁻¹. The index of geoaccumulation indicated that 87 percents of the studied soils for chromium and 98.8 percents for nickel are located in uncontaminated zone. The results of Mann-Whitney U-test proved that agricultural practices have not significantly influenced the values of Ni and Cr. In addition, tillage had also little impact on the Ni and Cr transfer in the surface soil. Ni showed higher accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer factor compared with that of chromium in the studied plants. There was a high similarity between the accumulation pattern of Cr and Fe in most of the plant species.

Keywords: bioconcentration factor, chromium, geoaccumulation index, nickel

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
204 Removal of Protein from Chromium Tanning Bath by Biological Treatment Using Pseudomonas sp.

Authors: Amel Benhadji, Mourad Taleb Ahmed, Rachida Maachi

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The challenge for the new millennium is to develop an industrial system that has minimal socio-ecological impacts, without compromising quality of life. Leather industry is one of these industries demanding environmentally friendly products. In this study, we investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This strain tested the efficiency of the batch biological treatment in the recovery of protein and hexavalent chromium from chromium tanning bath. We have compared suspended and fixed bacteria culture. The results showed the removal of the total protein of treatment and a decrease of hexavalent chromium concentration is during the treatment. The better efficiency of the biological treatment is obtained when using fixed culture of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: tanning wastewater, biological treatment, protein removal, hexavalent chromium

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
203 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira

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Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
202 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

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Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
201 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils

Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini

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Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel

Keywords: cadmium, chromium, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
200 Chromium Reduction Using Bacteria: Bioremediation Technologies

Authors: Baljeet Singh Saharan

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Bioremediation is the demand of the day. Tannery and textile effluents/waste waters have lots of pollution due to presence of hexavalent Chromium. Methodologies used in the present investigations include isolation, cultivation and purification of bacterial strain. Further characterization techniques and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. Efficient bacterial strain capable of reducing hexavalent chromium was obtained. The strain can be used for bioremediation of industrial effluents containing hexavalent Cr. A gram negative, rod shaped and yellowish pigment producing bacterial strain from tannery effluent was isolated using nutrient agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that isolate SA13A is associated with genus Luteimonas (99%). This isolate has been found to reduce 100% of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) (100 mg L-1) 100% in 16 h. Growth conditions were optimized for Cr (VI) reduction. Maximum reduction was observed at a temperature of 37 °C and pH 8.0. Additionally, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A showed resistance against various heavy metals like Cr+6, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ni+2 and Cd+2 . Hence, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A could be used as potent Cr (VI) reducing strain as well as significant bioremediator in heavy metal contaminated sites.

Keywords: bioremediation, chromium, eco-friendly, heavy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
199 Effects of Organic Chromium and Propylene Glycol on Milk Yield and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Early Lactation Dairy Cows

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, Ismail Bayram, Ibrahim Sadi Cetingul, Mustafa Kabu, Eyup Eren Gultepe

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This study was conducted to determine the effects of organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol on milk yield and some blood parameters related with liver fatty acid metabolism in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used as study material. Cows assigned to three groups as control (C), chromium (Cr) and chromium+propylene glycol (CP). Live weight, parity and body condition score were used as covariates for statistical analyses. The study began at calving and finished at 3 weeks after calving. All cows were consumed same diet. Organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol were orally administrated to cows in treatment groups shortly after the morning milking. Blood samples were collected from all cows on 0 (calving), 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th, 21th days after calving. Then, samples were analyzed for BHBA (Betahydroxybutiric acids), NEFA (Non Esterified Fatty Acids), urea, total protein (TP) and glucose concentrations. Weekly milk yields were calculated from daily milk data on farm. Organic chromium treatment had no significant differences on serum biochemical parameters and milk yields. However, administration of organic chromium and propylene glycol combination decreased serum urea and total protein concentration, helped to protection from subclinical metabolic diseases via decreasing serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations. Also, this combination decreased serum glucose levels of cows. Neither only chromium nor chromium and propylene glycol combination did not affect milk yield throughout the study. These findings were suggested that orally administrations of chromium and propylene glycol combination improved liver glucose and fatty acid metabolism, decreased serum parameters which are representing subclinical diseases in early lactation dairy cows.

Keywords: chromium, early lactation dairy cows, propylene glycol, milk yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
198 A Review: Role of Chromium in Broiler

Authors: Naveed Zahra, Zahid Kamran, Shakeel Ahmad

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Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effect of heat stress results in reduction in the productive performance of poultry with high incidences of mortality. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry production through dietary manipulation. Supplementation with Chromium (Cr) might have some positive effects on some aspect of blood parameters and broilers performance. Chromium (Cr) the element whose trivalent Cr (III) organic state is present in trace amounts in animal feed and water is found to be a key element in evading heat stress and thus cutting down the heavy expenditure on air conditioning in broiler sheds. Chromium, along with other essential minerals is lost due to increased excretion during heat stress and thus its inclusion in broiler diet is kind of mandatory in areas of hot climate. Chromium picolinate in broiler diet has shown a hike in growth rate including muscle gain with body fat reduction under environmental stress. Fat reduction is probably linked to the ability of chromium to increase the sensitivity of the insulin receptors on tissues and thus the uptake of sugar from blood increases which decreases the amount of glucose to be converted to amino acids and stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Organic chromium has also shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation rate and antioxidant levels. So, the immune competency, muscle gain and fat reduction along with evasion of heat stress are good enough signs that indicate the fruitful inclusion of dietary chromium for broiler. This promising element may bring the much needed break in the local poultry industry. The task is now to set the exact dose of the element in the diet that would be useful enough and still not toxic to broiler. In conclusion there is a growing body of evidence which suggest that chromium may be an essential trace element for livestock and poultry. The nutritional requirement for chromium may vary with different species and physiological state within a species.

Keywords: broiler, chromium, heat stress, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
197 Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric

Authors: J. R. Mudakavi, K. Puttanna

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Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Keywords: activated carbon fabric, hexavalent chromium, adsorption, drinking water

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
196 Arundo Donax (Giant Reed) Phytoremediation Function of Chromium (Cr) Removal

Authors: Sadeg Abdurahman, Claudio Stockle, James Harsh, Marc Beutel, Usama Zaher

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Pollution of the environment is a phenomenon which has taken a big part of importance of the world governments since the second half of the last century, this takes dangerous environmental, economic and social ranges dimensions especially after industrial advancement in industrialized country and good industrial expansion supported with modern technology and as chromium is known to be used in tannery factories. Chromium is considered a harm element to the environment due to its danger and transference through food, air, and water to the plants, animals and people. In this study the capacity of Arundo donax against chromium pollution was conducted. A. donax plants were grown-up under greenhouse conditions in pots contain nursery soil and feeding by Cr synthetic wastewater (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 ) for four weeks. Leaves, roots and stems dry matter production, color degree values, chlorophyll, growth parameters, and morphological characters were measured. The high Cr concentration was in roots was 1.15 mg kg-1 . Similarly, Cr concentration in stem was 0.469 mg kg-1 at 2.0 mg L-1 supplied Cr. In case of leaves, the maximum Cr concentration was 0.345 mg kg-1 at 2.0 g L-1 supplied Cr. The bioaccumulation and translocation factors was calculated. The macrophyte A. donax L. may be considered to be the most promising plant species in remediation of Cr-contaminated soil and wastewater due to its deeper root system as well as has higher efficiency to absorb chromium and other heavy metals as well.

Keywords: Arundo donax, Chromium pollution, heavy metals, phytoremediation, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
195 Study the Effect of Sensitization on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 304 Stainless Steel Joints

Authors: Viranshu Kumar, Hitesh Arora, Pradeep Joshi

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SS 304 is Austenitic stainless steel with Chromium and Nickel as basic constituents. It has excellent corrosion resistance properties and very good weldability. Austenitic stainless steels have superior mechanical properties at high temperatures and are used extensively in a range of applications. SS 304L has wide applications in various industries viz. Nuclear, Pharmaceutical, marine, chemical etc. due to its excellent applications and ease of joining this material has become very popular for fabrication as well as weld surfacing. Austenitic stainless steels have a tendency to form chromium depleted zones at the grain boundaries during welding and heat treatment, where chromium combines with available carbon in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, to produce an area depleted in chromium, and thus becomes susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This phenomenon is known as sensitization.

Keywords: sensitization, SS 304, GTAW, mechanical properties, carbideprecipitationHAZ, microstructure, micro hardness, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
194 Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose, HbA1C and Lipid Variables in Individuals with Newly Onset Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

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Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It influences glucose metabolism by potentiating the action as taking part in insulin signal amplification mechanism. A placebo-controlled single blind, prospective study was carried out to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile in newly onset patients with type-2 diabetes. Total 40 newly onset type-2 diabetics were selected and after one month stabilization further randomly divided into two groups viz. study group and placebo group. The study group received 9 gm brewer’s yeast (42 μ Cr) daily and the other placebo group received yeast devoid of chromium for 3 months. Subjects were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile were analyzed at beginning and completion of the study. Results revealed that fasting blood glucose level significantly reduced in the subjects consuming yeast supplemented with chromium (197.65±6.68 to 103.68±6.64 mg/dl; p<0.001). HbA1C values improved significantly from 9.51±0.26% to 6.86±0.28%; p<0.001 indicating better glycaemic control. In experimental group total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels were also significantly reduced from 199.66±3.11 to 189.26±3.01 mg/dl; p<0.02, 144.94±8.31 to 126.01±8.26; p<0.05 and 119.19±1.71 to 99.58±1.10; p<0.001 respectively. These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: type-2 diabetes, chromium, glucose, HbA1C

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
193 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary

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The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: camel calves, chromium, haematological, immune response

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
192 Optimization of Bioremediation Process to Remove Hexavalent Chromium from Tannery Effluent

Authors: Satish Babu Rajulapati

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The removal of toxic and heavy metal contaminants from wastewater streams and industrial effluents is one of the most important environmental issues being faced world over. In the present study three bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of chromium were isolated from the soil and wastewater sample collected from the tanneries located in Warangal, Telangana state. The bacterial species were identified as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and pseudomonas sp. Preliminary studies were carried out with the three bacterial species at various operating parameters such as pH and temperature. The results indicate that pseudomonas sp. is the efficient one in the uptake of Cr(VI). Further, detailed investigation of Pseudomonas sp. have been carried out to determine the efficiency of removal of Cr(VI). The various parameters influencing the biosorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, temperature, initial chromium concentration, innoculum size and incubation time have been studied. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the removal of Cr(VI). Maximum Cr(VI) removal was found to be 85.72% Cr(VI) atpH 7, temperature 35 °C, initial concentration 67mg/l, inoculums size 9 %(v/v) and time 60 hrs.

Keywords: Staphylococcus sp, chromium, RSM, optimization, Cr(IV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
191 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani

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The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
190 Vitrification and Devitrification of Chromium Containing Tannery Ash

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Kaimakamis, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vourlias, Konstantinos Chrysafis, Philomela Komninou, Theodoros Karakostas

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Tannery industry produces high quantities of chromium containing waste which also have high organic content. Processing of this waste is important since the organic content is above the disposal limits and the containing trivalent chromium could be potentially oxidized to hexavalent in the environment. This work aims to fabricate new vitreous and glass ceramic materials which could incorporate the tannery waste in stabilized form either for safe disposal or for the production of useful materials. Tannery waste was incinerated at 500oC in anoxic conditions so most of the organic content would be removed and the chromium remained trivalent. Glass forming agents SiO2, Na2O and CaO were mixed with the resulting ash in different proportions with decreasing ash content. Considering the low solubility of Cr in silicate melts, the mixtures were melted at 1400oC and/or 1500oC for 2h and then casted on a refractory steel plate. The resulting vitreous products were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM). XRD reveals the existence of Cr2O3 (eskolaite) crystallites embedded in a glassy amorphous matrix. Such crystallites are not formed under a certain proportion of the waste in the ash-vitrified material. Reduction of the ash proportion increases chromium content in the silicate matrix. From these glassy products, glass-ceramics were produced via different regimes of thermal treatment.

Keywords: chromium containing tannery ash, glass ceramic materials, thermal processing, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
189 The Study of the Absorption and Translocation of Chromium by Lygeum spartum in the Mining Region of Djebel Hamimat and Soil-Plant Interaction

Authors: H. Khomri, A. Bentellis

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Since century of the Development Activities extraction and a dispersed mineral processing Toxic metals and much more contaminated vast areas occupied by what they natural outcrops. New types of metalliferous habitats are so appeared. A species that is Lygeum spartum attracted our curiosity because apart from its valuable role in desertification, it is apparently able to exclude antimony and other metals can be. This species, green leaf blades which are provided as cattle feed, would be a good subject for phytoremediation of mineral soils. The study of absorption and translocation of chromium by the Lygeum spartum in the mining region of Djebel Hamimat and the interaction soil-plant, revealed that soils of this species living in this region are alkaline, calcareous majority in their fine texture medium and saline in their minority. They have normal levels of organic matter. They are moderately rich in nitrogen. They contain total chromium content reaches a maximum of 66,80 mg Kg^(-1) and a total absence of soluble chromium. The results of the analysis of variance of the difference between bare soils and soils appear Lygeum spartum made a significant difference only for the silt and organic matter. But for the other variables analyzed this difference is not significant. Thus, this plant has only one action on the amendment, only the levels of silt and organic matter in soils. The results of the multiple regression of the chromium content of the roots according to all soil variables studied did appear that among the studied variables included in the model, only the electrical conductivity and clay occur in the explanation of contents chromium in roots. The chromium content of the aerial parts analyzed by regression based on all studied soil variables allows us to see only the variables: electrical conductivity and content of chromium in the root portion involved in the explanation of the content chromium in the aerial part.

Keywords: absorption, translocation, analysis of variance, chrome, Lygeum spartum, multiple regression, the soil variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
188 Phytoremediation of Chromium Using Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Cicer arietinum

Authors: Swarna Shikha, Pammi Gauba

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Heavy metal pollution in water bodies and soil is a major and ever increasing environmental issue nowadays, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide appropriate solutions. By using specially selected and engineered metal-accumulating plants for environmental clean-up is an emerging technology called as phytoremediation. The aim of this study was to find the effect of phytoextraction of Chromium in hydroponics culture by using Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Cicer arietinum. The plants were allowed to grow in static hydroponic culture at 0, 50, 250, 500 and 750 ppm concentrations of Chromium dichromate. The germination percentage was determined. It was found that the germination percentage of the seeds decreased with an increase in the concentration of the heavy metals. The maximum permissible limit of Cr for Vigna radiate and Cicer arietinum was 500 ppm and toxicity was observed whereas at even at 750 ppm no toxicity was observed in Vigna mungo. The main aim of our experiment was to study the impact of Chromium on all the three selected plants.

Keywords: phytoremediation, phytoextraction metal-accumulation, heavy metals, pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
187 Using Pyrolitic Carbon Black Obtained from Scrap Tires as an Adsorbent for Chromium (III) Removal from Water

Authors: Mercedeh Malekzadeh

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Scrap tires are the source of wastes that cause the environmental problems. The major components of these tires are rubber and carbon black. These components can be used again for different applications by utilizing physical and chemical processes. Pyrolysis is a way that converts rubber portion of scrap tires to oil and gas and the carbon black recovers to pyrolytic carbon black. This pyrolytic carbon black can be used to reinforce rubber and metal, coating preparation, electronic thermal manager and so on. The porous structure of this carbon black also makes it as a suitable choice for heavy metals removal from water. In this work, the application of base treated pyrolytic carbon black was studied as an adsorbent for chromium (III) removal from water in a batch process. Pyrolytic carbon blacks in two natural and base treated forms were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis x-ray. The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration of chromium (III) and pH were considered on the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity was 19.76 mg/g. Maximum adsorption was seen after 120 min at pH=3. The equilibrium data were considered and better fitted to Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetic was evaluated and confirmed with the pseudo second order kinetic. Results have shown that the base treated pyrolytic carbon black obtained from scrap tires can be used as a cheap adsorbent for removal of chromium (III) from the water.

Keywords: chromium (III), pyrolytic carbon, scrap tire, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
186 Molecular and Electronic Structure of Chromium (III) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes

Authors: Salem El-Tohami Ashoor

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Here we show that the reduction of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl2] (1) where (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3) and in presence of NaCp (2) (Cp= C5H5 = cyclopentadien), with a center coordination η5 interaction between Cp as co-ligand and chromium metal center, this was optimization by using density functional theory (DFT) and then was comparing with experimental data, also other possibility of Cp interacted with ion metal were tested like η1 ,η2 ,η3 and η4 under optimization system. These were carried out under investigation of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and comparing together. Other methods, explicitly including electron correlation, are necessary for more accurate calculations; MB3LYP ( Becke)( Lee–Yang–Parr ) level of theory often being used to obtain more exact results. These complexes were estimated of electronic energy for molecular system, because it accounts for all electron correlation interactions. The optimised of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp= C5H5) was found to be thermally more stable than others of chromium cyclopentadienyl. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.

Keywords: Chromium(III) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO

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185 Biosorption of Chromium (VI) Ions Using Polyaniline Coated Maize Tassels

Authors: F. Chigondo, G. Chitabati

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Hexavalent chromium is toxic and is widely used in many industries hence efficient and economical methods must be explored to remove the chromium(VI) from the environment. The removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions onto polyaniline coated maize tassel was studied in batch mode at varying initial metal concentrations, adsorbent doses, pH and contact times. The residual Cr (VI) concentrations before and after adsorption were analyzed by Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. FTIR analysis of the polyaniline coated maize tassel showed the presence of C=C, C=N, C-H, C-N and N-H groups. Adsorption conditions were deduced to be pH of 2, adsorbent dosage 1g/L, Cr(VI) initial concentration of 40mg/L contact time of 150 minutes and agitation speed of 140rpm. Data obtained fitted best to the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.972) compared to the Freundlich isotherm (R2 0.671. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 125mg/L. Correlation coefficients for pseudo first order and pseudo second order were 0.952 and 0.971 respectively. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The studied polyaniline coated maize tassel can therefore be used as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) ion from aqueous solution.

Keywords: polyaniline-coated, maize tassels, adsorption, hexavalent chromium

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184 Isolation and Characterization of Chromium Tolerant Staphylococcus aureus from Industrial Wastewater and Their Potential Use to Bioremediate Environmental Chromium

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool

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Isolation and characterization of chromium tolerant Staphylococcus aureus from industrial wastewater and their potential use to bioremediate environmental chromium. Objectives: Chromium with its great economic importance in industrial use is major metal pollutant of the environment. Chromium are used in different industries for various applications such as textile, dyeing and pigmentation, wood preservation, manufacturing pulp and paper, chrome plating, steel and tanning. The release of untreated chromium in industrial effluents causes serious threat to environment and human health, therefore, the current study designed to isolate chromium tolerant Staphylococcus aureus for removal of chromium prior to their final discharge into the environment due to its cost effective and beneficial advantage over physical and chemical methods. Methods: Wastewater samples were collected from discharge point of different industries. Heavy metal analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and microbiological analysis such as total viable count, total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were conducted. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through gram’s staining, biomeriux vitek 2 microbial identification system and 16S rRNA gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Optimum growth conditions with respect to temperature, pH, salt concentrations and effect of chromium on the growth of bacteria, resistance to other heavy metal ions, minimum inhibitory concentration and chromium uptake ability of Staphylococcus aureus strain K1 was determined by spectrophotometer. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was also determined by disc diffusion method. Furthermore, chromium uptake ability was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope equipped with Oxford Energy Dipersive X-ray (EDX) micro analysis system. Results: The results presented that optimum temperature was 35ᵒC, pH was 8.0 and salt concentration was 0.5% for growth of Staphylococcus aureus K1. The maximum uptake ability of chromium by bacteria was 20mM than other heavy metal ions. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was vancomycin and methicillin sensitive. Non hemolytic activity on blood agar and negative coagulase reaction showed that it was non-pathogenic. Furthermore, the growth of bacteria decreases in the presence of chromium and maximum chromium uptake by bacteria observed at optimum growth conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the presence of chromium uptake by Staphylococcus aureus K1. Conclusion: The study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus K1 have the potential to bio-remediate chromium toxicity from wastewater. Gradually, this biological treatment becomes more important due to its advantage over physical and chemical methods to protect environment and human health.

Keywords: wastewater, staphylococcus, chromium, bioremediation

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183 The Method for Synthesis of Chromium Oxide Nano Particles as Increasing Color Intensity on Industrial Ceramics

Authors: Bagher Aziz Kalantari, Javad Rafiei, Mohamad Reza Talei Bavil Olyai

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Disclosed is a method of preparing a pigmentary chromium oxide nano particles having 50 percent particle size less than about 100nm. According to the disclosed method, a substantially dry solid composition of potassium dichromate and carbon active is heated in CO2 atmosphere to a temperature of about 600ºc for 1hr. Thereafter, the solid Cr2O3 product was washed twice with distilled water. The other aim of this study is to assess both the colouring performance and the potential of nano-pigments in the ceramic tile decoration. The rationable consists in nano-pigment application in several ceramics, including a comparison of colour performance with conventional micro-pigments.

Keywords: green chromium oxide, nano particles, colour performances, particle size

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182 Characterization of Single-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes Forest Decorated with Chromium

Authors: Ana Paula Mousinho, Ronaldo D. Mansano, Nelson Ordonez

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Carbon nanotubes are one of the main elements in nanotechnologies; their applications are in microelectronics, nano-electronics devices (photonics, spintronic), chemical sensors, structural material and currently in clean energy devices (supercapacitors and fuel cells). The use of magnetic particle decorated carbon nanotubes increases the applications in magnetic devices, magnetic memory, and magnetic oriented drug delivery. In this work, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) forest decorated with chromium were deposited at room temperature by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition (HDPCVD) system. The CNTs forest was obtained using pure methane plasmas and chromium, as precursor material (seed) and for decorating the CNTs. Magnetron sputtering deposited the chromium on silicon wafers before the CNTs' growth. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction characterized the single-walled CNTs forest decorated with chromium. In general, the CNTs' spectra show a unique emission band, but due to the presence of the chromium, the spectra obtained in this work showed many bands that are related to the CNTs with different diameters. The CNTs obtained by the HDPCVD system are highly aligned and showed metallic features, and they can be used as photonic material, due to the unique structural and electrical properties. The results of this work proved the possibility of obtaining the controlled deposition of aligned single-walled CNTs forest films decorated with chromium by high-density plasma chemical vapor deposition system.

Keywords: CNTs forest, high density plasma deposition, high-aligned CNTs, nanomaterials

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181 Environmental Performance of Different Lab Scale Chromium Removal Processes

Authors: Chiao-Cheng Huang, Pei-Te Chiueh, Ya-Hsuan Liou

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Chromium-contaminated wastewater from electroplating industrial activity has been a long-standing environmental issue, as it can degrade surface water quality and is harmful to soil ecosystems. The traditional method of treating chromium-contaminated wastewater has been to use chemical coagulation processes. However, this method consumes large amounts of chemicals such as sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium bicarbonate in order to remove chromium. However, a series of new methods for treating chromium-containing wastewater have been developed. This study aimed to compare the environmental impact of four different lab scale chromium removal processes: 1.) chemical coagulation process (the most common and traditional method), in which sodium metabisulfite was used as reductant, 2.) electrochemical process using two steel sheets as electrodes, 3.) reduction by iron-copper bimetallic powder, and 4.) photocatalysis process by TiO2. Each process was run in the lab, and was able to achieve 100% removal of chromium in solution. Then a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted based on the experimental data obtained from four different case studies to identify the environmentally preferable alternative to treat chromium wastewater. The model used for calculating the environmental impact was TRACi, and the system scope includes the production phase and use phase of chemicals and electricity consumed by the chromium removal processes, as well as the final disposal of chromium containing sludge. The functional unit chosen in this study was the removal of 1 mg of chromium. Solution volume of each case study was adjusted to 1 L in advance and the chemicals and energy consumed were proportionally adjusted. The emissions and resources consumed were identified and characterized into 15 categories of midpoint impacts. The impact assessment results show that the human ecotoxicity category accounts for 55 % of environmental impact in Case 1, which can be attributed to the sulfuric acid used for pH adjustment. In Case 2, production of steel sheet electrodes is an energy-intensive process, thus contributed to 20 % of environmental impact. In Case 3, sodium bicarbonate is used as an anti-corrosion additive, which results mainly in 1.02E-05 Comparative Toxicity Unit (CTU) in the human toxicity category and 0.54E-05 (CTU) in acidification of air. In Case 4, electricity consumption for power supply of UV lamp gives 5.25E-05 (CTU) in human toxicity category, 1.15E-05 (kg Neq) in eutrophication. In conclusion, Case 3 and Case 4 have higher environmental impacts than Case 1 and Case 2, which can be attributed mostly to higher energy and chemical consumption, leading to high impacts in the global warming and ecotoxicity categories.

Keywords: chromium, lab scale, life cycle assessment, wastewater

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180 Making of Alloy Steel by Direct Alloying with Mineral Oxides during Electro-Slag Remelting

Authors: Vishwas Goel, Kapil Surve, Somnath Basu

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In-situ alloying in steel during the electro-slag remelting (ESR) process has already been achieved by the addition of necessary ferroalloys into the electro-slag remelting mold. However, the use of commercially available ferroalloys during ESR processing is often found to be financially less favorable, in comparison with the conventional alloying techniques. However, a process of alloying steel with elements like chromium and manganese using the electro-slag remelting route is under development without any ferrochrome addition. The process utilizes in-situ reduction of refined mineral chromite (Cr₂O₃) and resultant enrichment of chromium in the steel ingot produced. It was established in course of this work that this process can become more advantageous over conventional alloying techniques, both economically and environmentally, for applications which inherently demand the use of the electro-slag remelting process, such as manufacturing of superalloys. A key advantage is the lower overall CO₂ footprint of this process relative to the conventional route of production, storage, and the addition of ferrochrome. In addition to experimentally validating the feasibility of the envisaged reactions, a mathematical model to simulate the reduction of chromium (III) oxide and transfer to chromium to the molten steel droplets was also developed as part of the current work. The developed model helps to correlate the amount of chromite input and the magnitude of chromium alloying that can be achieved through this process. Experiments are in progress to validate the predictions made by this model and to fine-tune its parameters.

Keywords: alloying element, chromite, electro-slag remelting, ferrochrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 66