Search results for: petrochemical wastewater
958 Effect of Hydraulic Residence Time on Aromatic Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Using Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor
Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Narges Fallah, Mohsen Kian, Mehrzad Pakzadeh
Abstract:The petrochemical complex releases wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and could not be treated easily. Treatment of the wastewater from a petrochemical industry has been investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). For this purpose, a pilot-scale submerged MBR with a flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane was used for treatment of petrochemical wastewater according to Bandar Imam Petrochemical complex (BIPC) Aromatic plant. The testing system ran continuously (24-h) over 6 months. Trials on different membrane fluxes and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were conducted and the performance evaluation of the system was done. During the 167 days operation of the MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18, 12, 6, and 3 and at an infinite sludge retention time (SRT), the MBR effluent quality consistently met the requirement for discharge to the environment. A fluxes of 6.51 and 13.02 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) was sustainable and HRT of 6 and 12 h corresponding to these fluxes were applicable. Membrane permeability could be fully recovered after cleaning. In addition, there was no foaming issue in the process. It was concluded that it was feasible to treat the wastewater using submersed MBR technology.
Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), petrochemical wastewater, COD removal, biological treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 452
957 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR
Authors: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, A. W. Zularisam
Abstract:The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR, methaneProcedia PDF Downloads 288
956 Assessment of Different Industrial Wastewater Quality in the Most Common Industries in Kuwait
Authors: Mariam Aljumaa
Abstract:Industrial wastewater has been increased rapidly in the last decades, however, the generated wastewater is not treated properly on site before transfer it to the treatment plant. In this study, the most common industries (dairy, soft drinks, detergent, and petrochemical) has been studied in term of wastewater quality. The main aim of this study is to characterize and evaluate the quality of the most common industrial wastewater in Kuwait. Industrial wastewater samples were collected from detergents, dairy, beverage, and petrochemical factories. The collected wastewater samples were analyzed for temperature, EC, pH, DO, BOD, COD, TOC, TS, TSS, volatile suspended solids (VSS), total volatile solids (TVS), NO2, NO3, NH3, N, P, K, CaCO3, heavy metals, Total coliform, Fecal coliform, and E.coli bacteria. The results showed that petrochemical industry has the highest concentration of organic and nutrients, followed by detergents wastewater, then dairy, and finally, soft drink wastewater. Regarding the heavy metals, the results showed that dairy wastewater had the highest concentration, specifically in Zinc, Arsenic, and Cadmium. In term of biological analysis, the dairy industry had the highest concentration of total coliform, followed by soft drinks industry, then shampoo industry, and finally petrochemical industry.
Keywords: industrial wastewater, characterization, heavy metals, wastewater qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 17
955 Determination of Chemical and Adsorption Kinetics: An Investigation of a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Utilizing GAC
Authors: Leila Vafajoo, Feria Ghanaat, Alireza Mohmadi Kartalaei, Amin Ghalebi
Abstract:Petrochemical industries are playing an important role in producing wastewaters. Nowadays different methods are employed to treat these materials. The goal of the present research was to reduce the COD of a petrochemical wastewater via adsorption technique using a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) as adsorbent. In the current study, parameters of kinetic models as well as; adsorption isotherms were determined through utilizing the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The key parameters of KL= 0.0009 and qm= 33.33 for the former and nf=0.5 and Kf= 0.000004 for the latter isotherms resulted. Moreover, a correlation coefficient of above 90% for both cases proved logical use of such isotherms. On the other hand, pseudo-first and -second order kinetics equations were implemented. These resulted in coefficients of k1=0.005 and qe=2018 as well as; K2=0.009 and qe=1250; respectively. In addition, obtaining the correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.68 for these 1st and 2nd order kinetics; respectively indicated advantageous use of the former model. Furthermore, a significant experimental reduction of the petrochemical wastewater COD revealed that, using GAC for the process undertaken was an efficient mean of treatment. Ultimately, the current investigation paved down the road for predicting the system’s behavior on industrial scale.
Keywords: petrochemical wastewater, adsorption, granular activated carbon, equilibrium isotherm, kinetic modelProcedia PDF Downloads 305
954 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries
Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem
Abstract:This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.
Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution preventionProcedia PDF Downloads 380
953 Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry
Authors: S. W. Liu, J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang
Abstract:In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.
Keywords: cases analysis, corrosion, failure, petrochemical industryProcedia PDF Downloads 174
952 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen
Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki
Abstract:Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.
Keywords: biomass, microalgae, treatment, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 342
951 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae
Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel
Abstract:Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.
Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growthProcedia PDF Downloads 395
950 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement
Authors: Harold Jideofor
Abstract:Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste waterProcedia PDF Downloads 355
949 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized
Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim
Abstract:This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.
Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regenerationProcedia PDF Downloads 213
948 Development of Model for Effective Sub- District Municipality Wastewater Management
Authors: Vitool Suksankavanich
Abstract:This preliminary research aimed to explore the development of wastewater management of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality, Samutprakan Province, in order to establish appropriate model for effective wastewater management that fit to the context of the area. The research posed three questions: [i] to what extent the promotion of social responsibility awareness built among the local community resulted in effectiveness of the local wastewater management; [ii] did the waste disposal management of Bang Pu Industrial Estate contribute to the overall environmental quality of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality; and [iii] did the relationship between the community and the industrial factories have any effect on the wastewater management. The in- depth interview revealed main obstacles occurred in the process of wastewater management in the area. The fieldwork also contributed to a product of an appropriate model of effective wastewater management.
Keywords: legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, social responsibility, wastewater managementProcedia PDF Downloads 348
947 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai
Abstract:This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.
Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorptionProcedia PDF Downloads 370
946 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone
Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran
Abstract:The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.
Keywords: adsorption, filtration, synthetic wastewater, TDS removal, COD removalProcedia PDF Downloads 377
945 An Industrial Wastewater Management Using Cloud Based IoT System
Authors: Kaarthik K., Harshini S., Karthika M., Kripanandhini T.
Abstract:Water is an essential part of living organisms. Major water pollution is caused due to contamination of industrial wastewater in the river. The most important step in bringing wastewater contaminants down to levels that are safe for nature is wastewater treatment. The contamination of river water harms both humans who consume it and the aquatic life that lives there. We introduce a new cloud-based industrial IoT paradigm in this work for real-time control and monitoring of wastewater. The proposed system prevents prohibited entry of industrial wastewater into the plant by monitoring temperature, hydrogen power (pH), CO₂ and turbidity factors from the wastewater input that the wastewater treatment facility will process. Real-time sensor values are collected and uploaded to the cloud by the system using an IoT Wi-Fi Module. By doing so, we can prevent the contamination of industrial wastewater entering the river earlier, and the necessary actions will be taken by the users. The proposed system's results are 90% efficient, preventing water pollution due to industry and protecting human lives.
Keywords: sensors, pH, CO₂, temperature, turbidityProcedia PDF Downloads 10
944 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment
Authors: Deniz Sahin
Abstract:This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultraﬁltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.
Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 118
943 Assessment of Physical, Chemical and Radionuclides Concentrations in Pharamasucal Industrial Wastewater Effluents in Amman, Jordan
Authors: Mohammad Salem Abdullah Alhwaiti
Abstract:This study was conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and radionuclide concentrations of pharmaceutical industrial wastewater effluents. Fourteen wastewater samples were collected from pharmaceutical industries. The results showed a marked reduction in the levels of TH, Mg, and Ca concentration in wastewater limit for properties and criteria for discharge of wastewater to streams or wadies or water bodies in the effluent, whereas TSS and TDS showed higher concentration allowable for discharge of wastewater to streams or wadies or water bodies. The gross α activity in all the wastewater samples ranged between (0.086-0.234 Bq/L) lowered the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO), whereas gross β activity in few samples ranged between (2.565-4.800 Bq/L), indicating the higher limit set by WHO. Gamma spectroscopy revealed that K-40, Cr-51, Co-60, I-131, Cs-137, and U-238 activity are ≤0.114 Bq/L, ≤0.062 Bq/L, ≤0.00815Bq/L, ≤0.00792Bq/L, ≤0.00956 Bq/L, and ≤0.151 Bq/L, respectively, indicating lowest concentrations of these radionuclides in the pharmaceutical industrial wastewater effluents.
Keywords: pharmaceutical wastewater, gross α/β activity, radionuclides, JordanProcedia PDF Downloads 16
942 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran
Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani
Abstract:In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.
Keywords: El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio, treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 152
941 Monitoring and Evaluation of the Reverse Osmosis Reject Wastewater from the Sulaibiya Wastewater Treatment Plant in Kuwait
Authors: Mishari Khajah, Mohd. Elmuntasir Ahmed, Abdullah Al-Matouq, Farah Al-Ajeel, Fatemah Dashti, Ahmed Shishter
Abstract:The overall aim of this study was to monitor and evaluate the effluent quality of a reverse osmosis (RO) reject wastewater from the biggest wastewater treatment plant in the world that is using RO and ultrafiltration membranes in their processes to reclaim water for indirect potable water reuse from municipal wastewaters. The RO reject wastewater or brine included various contaminants that could harm the human health and the environment such as trace organics, organic matters, heavy metals, nutrients and pathogens. Unfortunately, there are no legally binding regulatory guidelines for brine management in Kuwait as many countries around the world. This study monitors and evaluate the RO reject wastewater (brine) generated from the Sulaibiya Wastewater Treatment Plant. Samples were collected and analyzed about 37 parameters for one-year period, twice a month, and compare it to Kuwait Environment Public Authority, KEPA. Results showed that the heavy metals parameters were above KEPA standards, which needs to be treated.
Keywords: domestic wastewater, management, potable water, RO reject wastewater, Sulaibiya wastewater treatment plantProcedia PDF Downloads 11
940 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals
Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan
Abstract:Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.
Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 208
939 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH
Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa
Abstract:As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.
Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pHProcedia PDF Downloads 330
938 Investigating the Causes of Human Error-Induced Incidents in the Maintenance Operations of Petrochemical Industry by Using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
Authors: Omid Kalatpour, Mohammadreza Ajdari
Abstract:This article studied the possible causes of human error-induced incidents in the petrochemical industry maintenance activities by using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The purpose of the study was anticipating and identifying these causes and proposing corrective and preventive actions. Maintenance department in a petrochemical company was selected for research. A checklist of human error-induced incidents was developed based on four HFACS main levels and nineteen sub-groups. Hierarchical task analysis (HTA) technique was used to identify maintenance activities and tasks. The main causes of possible incidents were identified by checklist and recorded. Corrective and preventive actions were defined depending on priority. Analyzing the worksheets of 444 activities in four levels of HFACS showed 37.6% of the causes were at the level of unsafe actions, 27.5% at the level of unsafe supervision, 20.9% at the level of preconditions for unsafe acts and 14% of the causes were at the level of organizational effects. The HFACS sub-groups showed errors (24.36%) inadequate supervision (14.89%) and violations (13.26%) with the most frequency. According to findings of this study, increasing the training effectiveness of operators and supervision improvement respectively are the most important measures in decreasing the human error-induced incidents in petrochemical industry maintenance.
Keywords: human error, petrochemical industry, maintenance, HFACSProcedia PDF Downloads 147
937 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants
Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen
Abstract:This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.
Keywords: wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, constructionProcedia PDF Downloads 550
936 MBR-RO System Operation in Quantitative and Qualitative Promotion of Waste Water Cleaning: Case Study of Shokohieyh Qoms’ Waste Water Cleaning
Authors: A. A. Hassani, M. Nasri Nasrabadi
Abstract:According to population growth and increasing water needs of industrial and agricultural sections and lack of existing water sources, also increases of wastewater and new wastewater treatment plant construction’s high costs, it is inevitable to reuse wastewater with the approach of increasing wastewater treatment capacity and output sewage quality. In this regard, the first sewage reuse plan in industrial uses was designed with the approach of qualitative and quantitative improvement due to the increased organic load of the output sewage of Qom Shokohieh city’s’ in wastewater treatment plant. This research investigated qualitative factors COD, BOD, TSS, TDS, and input and output heavy metal of MBR-RO system and ability of increase wastewater acceptance capacity by existing in wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, experimental results of seven-month navigation system have been used from 07/01/2013 to 02/01/2014. Existing data analysis showed that MBR system is able to remove 93.2% COD, 94.4% BOD, 13.8% TDS, 98% heavy metals and RO system is able to remove 98.9% TDS. This study showed that MBR-RO integration system is able to increase the capacity of refinery by 30%.
Keywords: industrial wastewater, wastewater reuse, MBR, ROProcedia PDF Downloads 207
935 Integrating Wearable Devices in Real-Time Computer Applications of Petrochemical Systems
Authors: Paul B Stone, Subhashini Ganapathy, Mary E. Fendley, Layla Akilan
Abstract:As notifications become more common through mobile devices, it is important to understand the impact of wearable devices on the improved user experience of man-machine interfaces. This study examined the use of a wearable device for a real-time system using a computer-simulated petrochemical system. The key research question was to determine how using the information provided by the wearable device can improve human performance through measures of situational awareness and decision making. Results indicate that there was a reduction in response time when using the watch, and there was no difference in situational awareness. Perception of using the watch was positive, with 83% of users finding value in using the watch and receiving haptic feedback.
Keywords: computer applications, haptic feedback, petrochemical systems, situational awareness, wearable technologyProcedia PDF Downloads 143
934 Kinetic Evaluation of Biodegradability of Paint Shop Wastewater of a Bus Production Factory
Authors: Didem Güven, Oytun Hanhan, Elif Ceren Aksoy, Emine Ubay Çokgör
Abstract:This paper presents a biological treatability study ofpaintshopwastewaterof a bus factory by an anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor.A lab scale 14L SBR system was implementedto investigate carbon and nitrogen removal performance frompaint shop waste streams combined with domestic and process wastewater of a bus production factory in Istanbul (Turkey).The wastewater collected from decanters of the paint boots and pre-treatmentplant was usedforthefeeding of SBR. The reactor was operated with a total hydraulic retention time of 24 hrs, and a total sludge age of 18.7 days. Initially the efficiency and stability of the reactor were studied when fed with main wastewater stream to simulate the current wastewater treatment plant. Removal efficiency of 57% nitrogen and 90% COD were obtained. Once the paint shop wastewater was introduced to mainstream feeding with a ratio of 1:5, nitrification completely, carbon removal were partially inhibited. SBR system was successful to handle even at very high COD concentrations of paint shop wastewater after feeding of 2 months, with an average effluent COD of 100 mg/L. For the determination of kinetic parameters, respirometric analysis was also conducted with/without paint shop wastewater addition. Model simulation indicated lower maximum specific growth and hydrolysis rates when paint shop wastewater was mixed with the mainstream wastewater of the factory.
Keywords: biological treatability, nitrogen removal, paint shop wastewater, sequencing batch reactorProcedia PDF Downloads 231
933 Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane
Authors: Livinus A. Obasi, Augustine N. Ajah
Abstract:Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.
Keywords: bioelectricity, COD, microbial fuel cell, sanitary wastewater, wheat starchProcedia PDF Downloads 195
932 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation
Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath
Abstract:Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.
Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, CODProcedia PDF Downloads 410
931 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Sewage Treatment Plant in Oman: Samail Case Study
Authors: Azza Mohsin Al-Hashami, Reginald Victor
Abstract:Treatment of wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove the pollutants from wastewater. This study evaluates of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (STP) in Samail, Oman. Samail STP has tertiary treatment using conventional activated sludge with surface aeration. The collection of wastewater is through a network with a total length of about 60 km and also by tankers for the areas outside the network. Treated wastewater from this STP is used for the irrigation of vegetation in the STP premises and as a backwash for sand filters. Some treated water is supplied to the Samail municipality, which uses it for the landscaping, road construction, and 'the Million Date Palms' project. In this study, homogenous samples were taken from eight different treatment stages along the treatment continuum for one year, at a frequency of once a month, to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters. All samples were analyzed using the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The spatial variations in water quality along the continuum are discussed. Despite these variations, the treated wastewater from Samail STP was of good quality, and most of the parameters are within class A category in Oman Standards for wastewater reuse and discharge.
Keywords: wastewater, STP, treatment, processesProcedia PDF Downloads 75
930 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji
Abstract:The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.
Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetableProcedia PDF Downloads 308
929 Removal of Chloro-Compounds from Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation
Authors: Chhaya Sharma, Dushyant Kumar
Abstract:The present work deals with the treatment of wastewater generated by paper industry by using aluminium as anode material. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of chloropenolics have been carried out by using primary clarifier effluent with the help of gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Sixteen chlorophenolics compounds have been identified and estimated. Results indicated that among 16 identified compounds, 7 are 100% removed and overall 66% reduction in chorophenolics compounds have been detected. Moreover, during the treatment, the biodegradability index of wastewater significantly increases, along with 70 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand and 99 % in color.
Keywords: aluminium anode, chlorophenolics, electrocoagulation, pollution load, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 274