Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7295

Search results for: biological treatment

7295 Removal of Protein from Chromium Tanning Bath by Biological Treatment Using Pseudomonas sp.

Authors: Amel Benhadji, Mourad Taleb Ahmed, Rachida Maachi


The challenge for the new millennium is to develop an industrial system that has minimal socio-ecological impacts, without compromising quality of life. Leather industry is one of these industries demanding environmentally friendly products. In this study, we investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This strain tested the efficiency of the batch biological treatment in the recovery of protein and hexavalent chromium from chromium tanning bath. We have compared suspended and fixed bacteria culture. The results showed the removal of the total protein of treatment and a decrease of hexavalent chromium concentration is during the treatment. The better efficiency of the biological treatment is obtained when using fixed culture of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: tanning wastewater, biological treatment, protein removal, hexavalent chromium

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7294 Mixed Treatment (Physical-Chemical and Biological) of Ouled Fayet Landfill Leachates

Authors: O. Balamane-Zizi, L. M. Rouidi, A. Boukhrissa, N. Daas, H. Ait-amar


The objective of this study was to test the possibility of a mixed treatment (physical-chemical and biological) of Ouled Fayet leachates which date of 10 years and has a large fraction of hard COD that can be reduced by coagulation-flocculation. Previous batch tests showed the possibility of applying the physical-chemical and biological treatments separately; the removal efficiencies obtained in this case were not interesting. We propose, therefore, to test the possibility of a combined treatment, in order to improve the quality of the leachates. Estimation of the treatment’s effectiveness was done by analysis of some pollution parameters such as COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals (particularly iron and nickel). The main results obtained after the combination of treatments, show reduction rate of about 63% for COD, 73% for suspended solids and 80% for iron and nickel. We also noted an improvement in the turbidity of treated leachates.

Keywords: landfill leachates, COD, physical-chemical treatment, biological treatment

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7293 Evaluation of Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Process for Mmabatho Waste Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Shohreh Azizi, Wag Nel


The rapid population growth in South Africa has increased the requirement of waste water treatment facilities. The aim of this study is to assess the potential use of Fluidized bed Bio Reactor for Mmabatho sewage treatment plant. The samples were collected from the Inlet and Outlet of reactor daily to analysis the pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) as per standard method APHA 2005. The studies were undertaken on a continue laboratory scale, and analytical data was collected before and after treatment. The reduction of 87.22 % COD, 89.80 BOD % was achieved. Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor remove Bod/COD removal as well as nutrient removal. The efforts also made to study the impact of the biological system if the domestic wastewater gets contaminated with any industrial contamination and the result shows that the biological system can tolerate high Total dissolved solids up to 6000 mg/L as well as high heavy metal concentration up to 4 mg/L. The data obtained through the experimental research are demonstrated that the FBBR may be used (<3 h total Hydraulic Retention Time) for secondary treatment in Mmabatho wastewater treatment plant.

Keywords: fluidized bed bioreactor, wastewater treatment plant, biological system, high TDS, heavy metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
7292 Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater Using Pseudomonas Strains

Authors: A. Benhadji, R. Maachi


Environmental protection has become a major economic development issues. Indeed, the environment has become both market growth factor and element of competition. It is now an integral part of all industrial strategies. Ecosystem protection is based on the reduction of the pollution load in the treatment of liquid waste. The physicochemical techniques are commonly used which a transfer of pollution is generally found. Alternative to physicochemical methods is the use of microorganisms for cleaning up the waste waters. The objective of this research is the evaluation of the effects of exogenous added Pseudomonas strains on pollutants biodegradation. The influence of the critical parameters such as inoculums concentration and duration treatment are studied. The results show that Pseudomonas putida is found to give a maximum reduction in chemical organic demand (COD) in 4 days of incubation. However, toward to protect biological pollution of environment, the treatment is achieved by electro coagulation process using aluminium electrodes. The results indicate that this process allows disinfecting the water and improving the electro coagulated sludge quality.

Keywords: tannery, pseudomonas, biological treatment, electrocoagulation process, sludge quality

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7291 Different Formula of Mixed Bacteria as a Bio-Treatment for Sewage Wastewater

Authors: E. Marei, A. Hammad, S. Ismail, A. El-Gindy


This study aims to investigate the ability of different formula of mixed bacteria as a biological treatments of wastewater after primary treatment as a bio-treatment and bio-removal and bio-adsorbent of different heavy metals in natural circumstances. The wastewater was collected from Sarpium forest site-Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. These treatments were mixture of free cells and mixture of immobilized cells of different bacteria. These different formulas of mixed bacteria were prepared under Lab. condition. The obtained data indicated that, as a result of wastewater bio-treatment, the removal rate was found to be 76.92 and 76.70% for biological oxygen demand, 79.78 and 71.07% for chemical oxygen demand, 32.45 and 36.84 % for ammonia nitrogen as well as 91.67 and 50.0% for phosphate after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. Moreover, the bio-removals of different heavy metals were found to reach 90.0 and 50. 0% for Cu ion, 98.0 and 98.5% for Fe ion, 97.0 and 99.3% for Mn ion, 90.0 and 90.0% Pb, 80.0% and 75.0% for Zn ion after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively. The results indicated that 13.86 and 17.43% of removal efficiency and reduction of total dissolved solids were achieved after 24 and 28 hrs with mixed free cells and mixed immobilized cells, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater bio-treatment , bio-sorption heavy metals, biological desalination, immobilized bacteria, free cell bacteria

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7290 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Sewage Treatment Plant in Oman: Samail Case Study

Authors: Azza Mohsin Al-Hashami, Reginald Victor


Treatment of wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove the pollutants from wastewater. This study evaluates of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (STP) in Samail, Oman. Samail STP has tertiary treatment using conventional activated sludge with surface aeration. The collection of wastewater is through a network with a total length of about 60 km and also by tankers for the areas outside the network. Treated wastewater from this STP is used for the irrigation of vegetation in the STP premises and as a backwash for sand filters. Some treated water is supplied to the Samail municipality, which uses it for the landscaping, road construction, and 'the Million Date Palms' project. In this study, homogenous samples were taken from eight different treatment stages along the treatment continuum for one year, at a frequency of once a month, to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters. All samples were analyzed using the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The spatial variations in water quality along the continuum are discussed. Despite these variations, the treated wastewater from Samail STP was of good quality, and most of the parameters are within class A category in Oman Standards for wastewater reuse and discharge.

Keywords: wastewater, STP, treatment, processes

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7289 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities

Authors: Zhichao Li


This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.

Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technology

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7288 Optimisation of Wastewater Treatment for Yeast Processing Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Shepherd Manhokwe, Sheron Shoko, Cuthbert Zvidzai


In the present study, the interactive effects of temperature and cultured bacteria on the performance of a biological treatment system of yeast processing wastewater were investigated. The main objective of this study was to investigate and optimize the operating parameters that reduce organic load and colour. Experiments were conducted based on a Central Composite Design (CCD) and analysed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Three dependent parameters were either directly measured or calculated as response. These parameters were total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal, colour reduction and total solids. COD removal efficiency of 26 % and decolourization efficiency of 44 % were recorded for the wastewater treatment. The optimized conditions for the biological treatment were found to be at 20 g/l cultured bacteria and 25 °C for COD reduction. For colour reduction optimum conditions were temperature of 30.35°C and bacterial formulation of 20g/l. Biological treatment of baker’s yeast processing effluent is a suitable process for the removal of organic load and colour from wastewater, especially when the operating parameters are optimized.

Keywords: COD reduction, optimisation, response surface methodology, yeast processing wastewater

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7287 Landfill Leachate and Settled Domestic Wastewater Co-Treatment Using Activated Carbon in Sequencing Batch Reactors

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Hamidi Abdul Aziz


Leachate is created while water penetrates through the waste in a landfill, carrying some forms of pollutants. In literature, for treatment of wastewater and leachate, different ways of biological treatment were used. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a kind of biological treatment. This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic waste water by SBR and powdered activated carbon augmented (PAC) SBR process. The response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) were employed. The independent variables were aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and the ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v)). To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, three dependent parameters, i.e. COD, color, and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N or NH4-N) were measured as responses. The findings of the study indicated that the PAC-SBR showed a higher performance in elimination of certain pollutants, in comparison with SBR. With the optimal conditions of aeration rate (0.6 L/min), leachate to waste water ratio (20%), and contact time (10.8 h) for the PAC-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, and COD were 72.8%, 98.5%, and 65.2%, respectively.

Keywords: co-treatment, landfill Leachate, wastewater, sequencing batch reactor, activate carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
7286 Performance Evaluation of Pilot Rotating Biological Contactor for Decentralised Management of Domestic Sewage in Delhi

Authors: T. R. Sreekrishnan, Mukesh Khare, Dinesh Upadhyay


In a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), the biological film responsible for removal of pollutants is formed on the surface of discs. Evaluation studies of a pilot RBC designed to treat sewage of 150 persons with BOD Loading Rate: 8.2–26.7 g/m2/d, Discharge: 57.6 – 115.2 m3/day, HRT 1.25 – 2.5 hrs, at STP Yamuna Vihar Delhi. Removal of organic materials through use of fixed film reactors such as RBC is accomplished by means of a biological film on the fixed media. May and June in Delhi are dry summer months where the ambient temperature is in the range of 35oC to 45oC. July is a wet monsoon month that receives occasional precipitation, cloud cover, high humidity, with ambient temperature in the range of 30oC to 35oC. The organic and inorganic loads to the RBC employed in this study are actual city sewage conditions. Average in fluent BOD concentrations have been 330 mg/l, 245 mg/l and 160 mg/l and the average COD concentrations have been 670 mg/l, 500 mg/l, and 275 mg/l. The city sewage also has high concentration of ammonia, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS). pH of the city sewage is near neutral. Overall, the substrate conditions of city sewage are conducive for biological treatment though aerobic process. The presentation is a part of the ongoing collaborative research initiative between IIT Delhi and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany which is going on for last 15 years or so in the treatment of sewage waste of Delhi using semi-decentralized treatment system based on Rotating Biological Contactor.

Keywords: Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), COD, BOD, HRT, STP

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7285 Influence of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Quantitative Characteristics of Sweet Wormwood

Authors: Anahita Yarahmadi, Nazanin Mahboobi, Nahid Sadat Rahmatpour Nori, Mohammad Hossein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Mohammad Javad Shakori


This research aimed at considering biological fertilizer effect and chemical fertilizer on the quantitative characteristics of Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.), an experiment was carried out in factorial design in completely randomized design with 4 replications in an experimental greenhouse which was located in Tehran. Experimental treatment involved chemical fertilizers (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) in4 levels and biological fertilizers in 4 levels (control, Nitroxin, Bio-phosphorus and Vemricompost). Results showed that using biological fertilizers and increasing different levels of chemical fertilizers (N, P) had significant effects on all the characteristics. Considering means comparison showed that biological fertilizers lead to significant enhancement on all the characteristics and among biological fertilizers, Vermicompost treatment has the most effect. Considering means comparison tables of different levels of chemical fertilizer have been found that (N80P80) had the most increase on characteristics.

Keywords: Artemisia annua L, bio-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, vermicompost

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7284 UF as Pretreatment of RO for Tertiary Treatment of Biologically Treated Distillery Spentwash

Authors: Pinki Sharma, Himanshu Joshi


Distillery spentwash contains high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), color, total dissolved solids (TDS) and other contaminants even after biological treatment. The effluent can’t be discharged as such in the surface water bodies or land without further treatment. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment plants have been installed in many of the distilleries at tertiary level. But at most of the places these plants are not properly working due to high concentration of organic matter and other contaminants in biologically treated spentwash. To make the membrane treatment proven and reliable technology, proper pre-treatment is mandatory. In the present study, ultra-filtration (UF) as pre-treatment of RO at tertiary stage was performed. Operating parameters namely initial pH (pHo: 2–10), trans-membrane pressure (TMP: 4-20 bars) and temperature (T: 15- 43°C) used for conducting experiments with UF system. Experiments were optimized at different operating parameters in terms of COD, color, TDS and TOC removal by using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. The results showed that removal of COD, color and TDS by 62%, 93.5% and 75.5%, with UF, respectively at optimized conditions with increased permeate flux from 17.5 l/m2/h (RO) to 38 l/m2/h (UF-RO). The performance of the RO system was greatly improved both in term of pollutant removal as well as water recovery.

Keywords: bio-digested distillery spentwash, reverse osmosis, response surface methodology, ultra-filtration

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7283 INNPT Nano Particles Material Technology as Enhancement Technology for Biological WWTP Performance and Capacity

Authors: Medhat Gad


Wastewater treatment became a big issue in this decade due to shortage of water resources, growth of population and modern live requirements. Reuse of treated wastewater in industrial and agriculture sectors has a big demand to substitute the shortage of clean water supply as well as to save the eco system from dangerous pollutants in insufficient treated wastewater In last decades, most of wastewater treatment plants are built using primary or secondary biological treatment technology which almost does not provide enough treatment and removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. those plants which built ten to 15 years ago also now suffering from overflow which decrease the treatment efficiency of the plant. Discharging treated wastewater which contains phosphorus and nitrogen to water reservoirs and irrigation canals destroy ecosystem and aquatic life. Using chemical material to enhance treatment efficiency for domestic wastewater but it leads to huge amount of sludge which cost a lot of money. To enhance wastewater treatment, we used INNPT nano material which consists of calcium, aluminum and iron oxides and compounds plus silica, sodium and magnesium. INNPT nano material used with a dose of 100 mg/l to upgrade SBR treatment plant in Cairo Egypt -which has three treatment tanks each with a capacity of 2500 cubic meters per day - to tertiary treatment level by removing Phosphorus, Nitrogen and increase dissolved oxygen in final effluent. The results showed that the treatment retention time decreased from 9 hours in SBR system to one hour using INNPT nano material with improvement in effluent quality while increasing plant capacity to 20 k cubic meters per day. Nitrogen removal efficiency achieved 77%, while phosphorus removal efficiency achieved 90% and COD removal efficiency was 93% which all comply with tertiary treatment limits according to Egyptian law.

Keywords: INNPT technology, nanomaterial, tertiary wastewater treatment, capacity extending

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7282 Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems Treating Domestic and Hospital Effluents

Authors: Thobela Conco, Sheena Kumari, Chika Nnadozie, Mahmoud Nasr, Thor A. Stenström, Mushal Ali, Arshad Ismail, Faizal Bux


The discharge of antibiotics and its residues into the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP’s) create a conducive environment for the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This presents a risk of potential dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes into the environment. It is, therefore, necessary to study the level of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG’s) among bacterial pathogens that proliferate in biological wastewater treatment systems. In the current study, metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequences of samples collected from the influents, secondary effluents and post chlorinated effluents of three wastewater treatment plants treating domestic and hospital effluents in Durban, South Africa, were analyzed for profiling of ARG’s among bacterial pathogens. Results show that a variety of ARG’s, mostly, aminoglycoside, β-lactamases, tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes were harbored by diverse bacterial genera found at different stages of treatment. A significant variation in diversity of pathogen and ARGs between the treatment plant was observed; however, treated final effluent samples from all three plants showed a significant reduction in bacterial pathogens and detected ARG’s. Both pre- and post-chlorinated samples showed the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGE’s), indicating the inefficiency of chlorination to remove of ARG’s integrated with MGE’s. In conclusion, the study showed the wastewater treatment plant efficiently caused the reduction and removal of certain ARG’s, even though the initial focus was the removal of biological nutrients.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants

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7281 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak


A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
7280 Total Dissolved Solids and Total Iron in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: M. Y. Saleh, G. M. ELanany, M. H. Elzahar, M. Z. Elshikhipy


Industrial wastewater discharge, which carries high concentrations of dissolved solids and iron, could be treated by high rate activated sludge stage of the multiple-stage sludge treatment plant, a system which is characterized by high treatment efficiency, optimal prices, and small areas compared with conventional activated sludge treatment plants. A pilot plant with an influent industrial discharge flow of 135 L/h was designed following the activated sludge system to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of dosages 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L alum salt to the aeration tank. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and iron (Fe) in industrial discharge flow had an average range of 140000 TDS and 4.5 mg/L iron. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using a dosage of 200 mg/L alum succeeded to improve the removal efficiency of TDS and total iron to 48.15% and 68.11% respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, activated sludge, TDS, total iron

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7279 Treatment of Septic Tank Effluent Using Moving Bed Biological Reactor

Authors: Fares Almomani, Majeda Khraisheh, Rahul Bhosale, Anand Kumar, Ujjal Gosh


Septic tanks (STs) are very commonly used wastewater collection systems in the world especially in rural areas. In this study, the use of moving bed biological reactors (MBBR) for the treatment of septic tanks effluents (STE) was studied. The study was included treating septic tank effluent from one house hold using MBBRs. Significant ammonia removal rate was observed in all the reactors throughout the 180 days of operation suggesting that the MBBRs were successful in reducing the concentration of ammonia from septic tank effluent. The average ammonia removal rate at 25◦C for the reactor operated at hydraulic retention time of 5.7 hr (R1) was 0.540 kg-N/m3and for the reactor operated at hydraulic retention time of 13.3hr (R2) was 0.279 kg-N/m3. Ammonia removal rates were decreased to 0.3208 kg-N/m3 for R1 and 0.212 kg-N/m3 for R3 as the temperature of reactor was decreased to 8 ◦C. A strong correlation exists between theta model and the rates of ammonia removal for the reactors operated in continuous flow. The average ϴ values for the continuous flow reactors during the temperature change from 8°C to 20 °C were found to be 1.053±0.051. MBBR technology can be successfully used as a polishing treatment for septic tank effluent.

Keywords: septic tanks, wastewater treatment, morphology, moving biological reactors, nitrification

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7278 Textile Wastewater Ecotoxicity Abatement after Aerobic Granular Sludge Treatment and Advanced Oxidation Process

Authors: Ana M. T. Mata, Alexiane Ligneul


Textile effluents are usually heavily loaded with organic carbon and color compounds, the latter being azo dyes in an estimated 70% of the case effluent posing a major challenge in environmental protection. In this study, the ecotoxicity of simulated textile effluent after biological treatment with anaerobic and aerobic phase (aerobic granular sludge, AGS) and after advanced oxidation processes (AOP) namely ozonation and UV irradiation as post-treatment, were tested to evaluate the fitness of this treatments for ecotoxicity abatement. AGS treatment achieved an 80% removal in both COD and color. AOP was applied with the intention to mineralize the metabolites resulting from biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Red 14, especially the stable aromatic amine (4-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4A1NS). The ecotoxicity evaluation was based on growth inhibition of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata following OECD TG 201 except regarding the medium, MBL medium was used instead. Five replicate control cultures and samples were performed with an average STD of 2.7% regarding specific algae growth rate determination. It was found that untreated textile effluent holds an inhibition of specific growth rate of 82%. AGS treatment by itself is able to lower ecotoxicity to 53%. This is probably due to the high color removal of the treatment. AOP post-treatment with Ozone and UV irradiation improves the ecotoxicity abatment to 49 and 43% inhibition respectively, less significantly than previously thought. Since over 85% of 4A1NS was removed by either of the AOP (followed by HPLC), an individual ecotoxicity test of 4A1NS was performed showing that 4A1NS does not inhibit algae growth (0% inhibition). It was concluded that AGS treatment is able by itself to achieve a significant ecotoxicity abatement of textile effluent. The cost-benefit of AOP as a post-treatment have to be better accessed since their application resulted in an improvement of only 10% regarding ecotoxicity effluent removal. It was also found that the 4A1NS amine had no apparent effect on ecotoxicity. Further studies will be conducted to study where ecotoxicity is coming from after AGS biological treatment and how to eliminate it.

Keywords: textile wastewate, ecotoxicity, aerobic granular sludge, AOP

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7277 Trichoderma spp Consortium and Its Efficacy as Biological Control Agent of Ganoderma Disease of Oil Palm (Elaies guineensis Jacquin)

Authors: Habu Musa, Nusaibah Binti Syd Ali


Oil palm industries particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia are being devastated by Ganoderma disease caused by Ganoderma spp. To date, this disease has been causing serious oil palm yield losses and collapse of oil palm trees, thus affecting its contribution to the producer’s economy. Research on sustainable and eco-friendly remedy to counter Ganoderma disease is on the upsurge to avoid the current control measures via synthetic fungicides. Trichoderma species have been the most studied and valued microbes as biological control agents in an effort to combat a wide range of plant diseases sustainably. Therefore, in this current study, the potential of Trichoderma spp. (Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens) as a consortium approach was evaluated as biological control agents against Ganoderma disease on oil palm. The consortium of Trichoderma spp. applied found to be the most effective treatment in suppressing Ganoderma disease with 83.03% and 89.16% from the foliar and bole symptoms respectively. Besides, it exhibited tremendous enhancement in the oil palm seedling vegetative growth parameters. Also, it had highly induced significant activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and total phenolic content was recorded in the consortium treatment compared to the control treatment. Disease development was slower in the seedlings treated with consortium of Trichoderma spp. compared to the positive control, which exhibited with the highest percentage of disease severity.

Keywords: biological control, ganoderma disease, trichoderma, disease severity

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7276 Stability Analysis of SEIR Epidemic Model with Treatment Function

Authors: Sasiporn Rattanasupha, Settapat Chinviriyasit


The treatment function adopts a continuous and differentiable function which can describe the effect of delayed treatment when the number of infected individuals increases and the medical condition is limited. In this paper, the SEIR epidemic model with treatment function is studied to investigate the dynamics of the model due to the effect of treatment. It is assumed that the treatment rate is proportional to the number of infective patients. The stability of the model is analyzed. The model is simulated to illustrate the analytical results and to investigate the effects of treatment on the spread of infection.

Keywords: basic reproduction number, local stability, SEIR epidemic model, treatment function

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7275 Mathematical Modeling of Activated Sludge Process: Identification and Optimization of Key Design Parameters

Authors: Ujwal Kishor Zore, Shankar Balajirao Kausley, Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit


There are some important design parameters of activated sludge process (ASP) for wastewater treatment and they must be optimally defined to have the optimized plant working. To know them, developing a mathematical model is a way out as it is nearly commensurate the real world works. In this study, a mathematical model was developed for ASP, solved under activated sludge model no 1 (ASM 1) conditions and MATLAB tool was used to solve the mathematical equations. For its real-life validation, the developed model was tested for the inputs from the municipal wastewater treatment plant and the results were quite promising. Additionally, the most cardinal assumptions required to design the treatment plant are discussed in this paper. With the need for computerization and digitalization surging in every aspect of engineering, this mathematical model developed might prove to be a boon to many biological wastewater treatment plants as now they can in no time know the design parameters which are required for a particular type of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: waste water treatment, activated sludge process, mathematical modeling, optimization

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7274 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh


This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

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7273 Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation as a Pretreatment Option for Biodegradability Enhancement of Industrial Effluent

Authors: Sushma Yadav, Anil K. Saroha


Complex industrial effluent generated from chemical industry is contaminated with toxic and hazardous organic compounds and not amenable to direct biological treatment. To effectively remove many toxic organic pollutants has made it evident that new, compact and more efficient systems are needed. Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) is a promising treatment technology for the abatement of organic pollutants in wastewater. A lot of information is available on using CWAO for the treatment of synthetic solution containing single organic pollutant. But the real industrial effluents containing multi-component mixture of organic compounds were less studied. The main objective of this study is to use the CWAO process for converting the organics into compounds more amenable to biological treatment; complete oxidation may be too expensive. Therefore efforts were made in the present study to explore the potential of alumina based Platinum (Pt) catalyst for the treatment of industrial organic raffinate containing toxic constituents like ammoniacal nitrogen, pyridine etc. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area. CWAO experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and (30 °C - 70 °C) temperature conditions and the results were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. The biodegradability test was performed by BOD/COD ratio for checking the toxicity of the industrial wastewater as well as for the treated water. The BOD/COD ratio of treated water was significantly increased and signified that the toxicity of the organics was decreased while the biodegradability was increased, indicating the more amenability towards biological treatment.

Keywords: alumina based pt catalyst, BOD/COD ratio, catalytic wet air oxidation, COD removal efficiency, industrial organic raffinate

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7272 A Concept of Rational Water Management at Local Utilities: The Use of RO for Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment/Reuse

Authors: N. Matveev, A. Pervov


Local utilities often face problems of local industrial wastes, storm water disposal due to existing strict regulations. For many local industries, the problem of wastewater treatment and discharge into surface reservoirs can’t be solved through the use of conventional biological treatment techniques. Current discharge standards require very strict removal of a number of impurities such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphate, etc. To reach this level of removal, expensive reagents and sorbents are used. The modern concept of rational water resources management requires the development of new efficient techniques that provide wastewater treatment and reuse. As RO membranes simultaneously reject all dissolved impurities such as BOD, TDS, ammonia, phosphates etc., they become very attractive for the direct treatment of wastewater without biological stage. To treat wastewater, specially designed membrane "open channel" modules are used that do not possess "dead areas" that cause fouling or require pretreatment. A solution to RO concentrate disposal problem is presented that consists of reducing of initial wastewater volume by 100 times. Concentrate is withdrawn from membrane unit as sludge moisture. The efficient use of membrane RO techniques is connected with a salt balance in water system. Thus, to provide high ecological efficiency of developed techniques, all components of water supply and wastewater discharge systems should be accounted for.

Keywords: reverse osmosis, stormwater treatment, open-channel module, wastewater reuse

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7271 Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Antibiotic Production Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

Authors: Ahmed Y. Kutbi, C. Russell. J. Baird, M. McNaughtan, Francis Wayman


Wastewaters from antibiotic production facilities are characterized with high concentrations of dissolved organic substances. Subsequently, it challenges wastewater treatment plant operator to achieve successful biological treatment and to meet regulatory emission levels. Of the dissolved organic substances, this research is investigating the fate of organic nitrogenous compounds (i.e., Chitin) in an antibiotic production wastewater treatment plant located in Irvine, Scotland and its impact on the WWTP removal performance. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in WWTP effluents are of significance because 1) its potential to cause eutrophication in receiving waters, 2) the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by products in drinking waters and 3) limits WWTPs ability to achieve very low total nitrogen (TN) emissions limits (5 – 25 mg/l). The latter point is where the knowledge gap lays between the operator and the regulator in setting viable TN emission levels. The samples collected from Irvine site at the different stages of the treatment were analyzed for TN and DON. Results showed that the average TN in the WWTP influents and effluents are 798 and 261 mg/l respectively, in other words, the plant achieved 67 % removal of TN. DON Represented 51% of the influents TN, while the effluents accounted 26 % of the TN concentrations. Therefore, an ongoing investigation is carried out to identify DON constituents in WWTP effluent and evaluate its impact on the WWTP performance and its potential bioavailability for algae in receiving waters, which is, in this case, Irvine Bay.

Keywords: biological wastewater treatment plant, dissolved organic nitrogen, bio-availability, Irvine Bay

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7270 Obtaining High Purity Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone: Effect of Chemical and Thermal Treatments

Authors: Hernandez Pardo Diego F., Guiza Arguello Viviana R., Coy Echeverria Ana, Viejo Abrante Fernando


The biological hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone arouses great interest in its application as a material for bone regeneration due to its better bioactive behavior in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite. For this reason, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chemical and thermal treatments in obtaining biological bovine hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity. Two different chemical reagents were evaluated (NaOH and HCl) with the aim to remove the organic matrix of the bovine cortical bone. On the other hand, for analyzing the effect of thermal treatment temperature was ranged between 500 and 1000°C for a holding time of 4 hours. To accomplish the above, the materials before and after the chemical and thermal treatments were characterized by elemental compositional analysis (CHN), infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results allowed to establish that NaOH is more effective in the removal of the organic matrix of the bone when compared to HCl, whereas a thermal treatment at 700ºC for 4 hours was enough to obtain biological hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity.

Keywords: bovine bone, hydroxyapatite, biomaterials, thermal treatment

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7269 Investigation in Gassy Ozone Influence on Flaxes Made from Biologically Activated Whole Wheat Grains Quality Parameters

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Jelena Zagorska, Elina Zvezdina


The aim of the current research was to investigate the gassy ozone effect on quality parameters of flaxes made form whole biologically activated wheat grains. The research was accomplished on in year 2012 harvested wheat grains variety ′Zentos′. Grains were washed, wetted; grain biological activation was performed in the climatic chamber up to 24 hours. After biological activation grains was compressed; than flaxes was dried in convective drier till constant moisture content 9±1%. For grain treatment gassy ozone concentration as 0.0002% and treatment time – 6 min was used. In the processed flaxes the content of A and G tocopherol decrease by 23% and by 9%; content of B2 and B6 vitamins – by 11% and by 10%; elaidic acid – by 46%, oleic acid – by 29%; arginine (by 80%), glutamine (by 74%), asparagine and serine (by 68%), valine (by 62%), cysteine (by 54%) and tyrosine (by 47%).

Keywords: gassy ozone, flaxes, biologically activated grains, quality parameters, treatment

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7268 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed


The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

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7267 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor


Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

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7266 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz


In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

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