Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 987

Search results for: wastewater reuse

987 MBR-RO System Operation in Quantitative and Qualitative Promotion of Waste Water Cleaning: Case Study of Shokohieyh Qoms’ Waste Water Cleaning

Authors: A. A. Hassani, M. Nasri Nasrabadi


According to population growth and increasing water needs of industrial and agricultural sections and lack of existing water sources, also increases of wastewater and new wastewater treatment plant construction’s high costs, it is inevitable to reuse wastewater with the approach of increasing wastewater treatment capacity and output sewage quality. In this regard, the first sewage reuse plan in industrial uses was designed with the approach of qualitative and quantitative improvement due to the increased organic load of the output sewage of Qom Shokohieh city’s’ in wastewater treatment plant. This research investigated qualitative factors COD, BOD, TSS, TDS, and input and output heavy metal of MBR-RO system and ability of increase wastewater acceptance capacity by existing in wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, experimental results of seven-month navigation system have been used from 07/01/2013 to 02/01/2014. Existing data analysis showed that MBR system is able to remove 93.2% COD, 94.4% BOD, 13.8% TDS, 98% heavy metals and RO system is able to remove 98.9% TDS. This study showed that MBR-RO integration system is able to increase the capacity of refinery by 30%.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, wastewater reuse, MBR, RO

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
986 Treated Wastewater Reuse in Algeria: Overview, Mobilization Potential and Challenges

Authors: Dairi Sabri, Mrad Dounia, Djebbar Yassine, Abida Habib


Food security, which may be ensured by important agricultural production, needs huge amounts of water for irrigation. Recognizing this, the Algerian government made enormous efforts to mobilize water resources. Every drop of water collected, regardless of its origin, is needed to strengthen agricultural production. The present irrigated area in Algeria is about 1 million hectares while the potential agricultural area all over the country exceeds 9 million ha. This clearly shows the need for non-conventional water resources in Algeria, especially treated wastewater reuse. The use of treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation is still at the experimental stage in Algeria. While 20 million hectares worldwide are irrigated with treated wastewater, only 2300 hectares in Algeria are irrigated on an experimental basis in the regions of Setif, Constantine, Mila Telemcen, Tougourt and Boumerdès. The volume of wastewater discharged nationwide is estimated to be around 750 million cubic meters and is expected to exceed 1.5 billion m3 in 2020. An ambitious program of providing treatment facilities has been initiated in this direction to increase the treatment capacity to 2.5 million m3 per day in 2030. In order to optimize the use of this resource, specific research actions interested in defining treated wastewater reuse opportunities and standards are undertaken. The objective of this study is basically to examine the different components of treated wastewater reuse, including standards, treatment processes, agricultural opportunities and potentials as well as technical and economic aspects governing the feasibility of this technology in Algeria based on Geographic Information System (GIS).

Keywords: wastewater reuse, integrated management, irrigation, GIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
985 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci


In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater reclamation

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
984 A Concept of Rational Water Management at Local Utilities: The Use of RO for Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment/Reuse

Authors: N. Matveev, A. Pervov


Local utilities often face problems of local industrial wastes, storm water disposal due to existing strict regulations. For many local industries, the problem of wastewater treatment and discharge into surface reservoirs can’t be solved through the use of conventional biological treatment techniques. Current discharge standards require very strict removal of a number of impurities such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphate, etc. To reach this level of removal, expensive reagents and sorbents are used. The modern concept of rational water resources management requires the development of new efficient techniques that provide wastewater treatment and reuse. As RO membranes simultaneously reject all dissolved impurities such as BOD, TDS, ammonia, phosphates etc., they become very attractive for the direct treatment of wastewater without biological stage. To treat wastewater, specially designed membrane "open channel" modules are used that do not possess "dead areas" that cause fouling or require pretreatment. A solution to RO concentrate disposal problem is presented that consists of reducing of initial wastewater volume by 100 times. Concentrate is withdrawn from membrane unit as sludge moisture. The efficient use of membrane RO techniques is connected with a salt balance in water system. Thus, to provide high ecological efficiency of developed techniques, all components of water supply and wastewater discharge systems should be accounted for.

Keywords: reverse osmosis, stormwater treatment, open-channel module, wastewater reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
983 Approach for Evaluating Wastewater Reuse Options in Agriculture

Authors: Manal Elgallal, Louise Fletcher, Barbara Evans


Water scarcity is a growing concern in many arid and semi-arid countries. The increase of water scarcity threatens economic development and sustainability of human livelihoods as well as environment especially in developing countries. Globally, agriculture is the largest water consumption sector, accounting for approximately 70% of all freshwater extraction. Growing competition between the agricultural and higher economic value in urban and industrial uses of high-quality freshwater supplies, especially in regions where water scarcity major problems, will increase the pressure on this precious resource. In this circumstance, wastewater may provide reliable source of water for agriculture and enable freshwater to be exchanged for more economically valuable purposes. Concern regarding the risks from microbial and toxic components to human health and environment quality is a serious obstacle for wastewater reuse particularly in agriculture. Although powerful approaches and tools for microbial risk assessment and management for safe use of wastewater are now available, few studies have attempted to provide any mechanism to quantitatively assess and manage the environmental risks resulting from reusing wastewater. In seeking pragmatic solutions to sustainable wastewater reuse, there remains a lack of research incorporating both health and environmental risk assessment and management with economic analysis in order to quantitatively combine cost, benefits and risks to rank alternative reuse options. This study seeks to enhance effective reuse of wastewater for irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas, the outcome of the study is an evaluation approach that can be used to assess different reuse strategies and to determine the suitable scale at which treatment alternatives and interventions are possible, feasible and cost effective in order to optimise the trade-offs between risks to protect public health and the environment and preserving the substantial benefits.

Keywords: environmental risks, management, life cycle costs, waste water irrigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
982 Feasibility Study of Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Asmara, Eritrea

Authors: Hagos Gebrehiwet Bahta


Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea, is facing a sanitation challenge because the city discharges its wastewater to the environment without any kind of treatment. The aim of this research is to conduct a pre-feasibility study of using constructed wetlands in the peri-urban areas of Asmara for wastewater treatment and reuse. It was found that around 15,000 m³ of wastewater is used daily for agricultural activities, and products are sold in the city's markets, which are claimed to cause some health effects. In this study, three potential sites were investigated around Mai-Bela and an optimum location was selected on the basis of land availability, topography, and geotechnical information. Some types of local microphytes that can be used in constructed wetlands have been identified and documented for further studies. It was found that subsurface constructed wetlands can provide a sufficient pollutant removal with careful planning and design. Following the feasibility study, a preliminary design of screening, grit chamber and subsurface constructed wetland was prepared and cost estimation was done. In the cost estimation part, the filter media was found to be the most expensive part and consists of around 30% percent of the overall cost. The city wastewater drainage runs in two directions and the selected site is located in the southern sub-system, which only carries sewage (separate system). The wastewater analysis conducted particularly around this area (Sembel) indicates high heavy metal levels and organic concentrations, which reveals that there is a high level of industrial pollution in addition to the domestic sewage.

Keywords: agriculture, constructed wetland, Mai-Bela, wastewater reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
981 Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Membrane Distillation Bioreactor for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: Duong Cong Chinh, Shiao-Shing Chen, Le Quang Huy


Membrane distillation (MD) is actually claimed to be a cost-effective separation process when waste heat, alternative energy sources, or wastewater are used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a thermophilic anaerobic granular bioreactor is integrated with membrane distillation (ThAnMDB) was investigated. In this study, the laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor (1.2 litter) was set-up. The bioreactor was maintained at temperature 55 ± 2°C, hydraulic retention time = 0.5 days, organic loading rates of 7 and 10 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m³/day. Side-stream direct contact membrane distillation with the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane area was 150 cm². The temperature of the distillate was kept at 25°C. Results show that distillate flux was 19.6 LMH (Liters per square meter per hour) on the first day and gradually decreased to 6.9 LMH after 10 days, and the membrane was not wet. Notably, by directly using the heat from the thermophilic anaerobic for MD separation process, all distilled water from wastewater was reuse as fresh water (electrical conductivity < 120 µs/cm). The ThAnMDB system showed its high pollutant removal performance: chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 99.6 to 99.9%, NH₄⁺ from 60 to 95%, and PO₄³⁻ complete removal. In addition, methane yield was from 0.28 to 0.34 lit CH₄/gram COD removal (80 – 97% of the theoretical) demonstrated that the ThAnMDB system was quite stable. The achievement of the ThAnMDB is not only in removing pollutants and reusing wastewater but also in absolutely unnecessarily adding alkaline to the anaerobic bioreactor system.

Keywords: high rate anaerobic digestion, membrane distillation, thermophilic anaerobic, wastewater reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
980 The Energy Efficient Water Reuse by Combination of Nano-Filtration and Capacitive Deionization Processes

Authors: Youngmin Kim, Jae-Hwan Ahn, Seog-Ku Kim, Hye-Cheol Oh, Bokjin Lee, Hee-Jun Kang


The high energy consuming processes such as advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis are used as a reuse process. This study aims at developing an energy efficient reuse process by combination of nanofiltration (NF) and capacitive deionization processes (CDI) processes. Lab scale experiments were conducted by using effluents from a wastewater treatment plant located at Koyang city in Korea. Commercial NF membrane (NE4040-70, Toray Ltd.) and CDI module (E40, Siontech INC.) were tested in series. The pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated on the basis of Korean water quality criteria for water reuse. In addition, the energy consumptions were also calculated. As a result, the hybrid process showed lower energy consumption than conventional reverse osmosis process even though its effluent did meet the Korean standard. Consequently, this study suggests that the hybrid process is feasible for the energy efficient water reuse.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, energy efficient process, nanofiltration, water reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
979 Assessment of Water Reuse Potential in a Metal Finishing Factory

Authors: Efe Gumuslu, Guclu Insel, Gülten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tuğba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatoş Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Ökmen Yildirim, Özge Erturan, Betül Kirci


Although water reclamation and reuse are inseparable parts of sustainable production concept all around the world, current levels of reuse constitute only a small fraction of the total volume of industrial effluents. Nowadays, within the perspective of serious climate change, wastewater reclamation and reuse practices should be considered as a requirement. Industrial sector is one of the largest users of water sources. The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 predicts that global water demand for manufacturing will increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 which is much larger than any other sector. Metal finishing industry is one of the industries that requires high amount of water during the manufacturing. Therefore, actions regarding the improvement of wastewater treatment and reuse should be undertaken on both economic and environmental sustainability grounds. Process wastewater can be reused for more purposes if the appropriate treatment systems are installed to treat the wastewater to the required quality level. Recent studies showed that membrane separation techniques may help in solving the problem of attaining a suitable quality of water that allows being recycled back to the process. The metal finishing factory where this study is conducted is one of the biggest white-goods manufacturers in Turkey. The sheet metal parts used in the cookers production have to be exposed to surface pre-treatment processes composed of degreasing, rinsing, nanoceramics coating and deionization rinsing processes, consecutively. The wastewater generating processes in the factory are enamel coating, painting and styrofoam processes. In the factory, the main source of water is the well water. While some part of the well water is directly used in the processes after passing through resin treatment, some portion of it is directed to the reverse osmosis treatment to obtain required water quality for enamel coating and painting processes. In addition to these processes another important source of water that can be considered as a potential water source is rainwater (3660 tons/year). In this study, process profiles as well as pollution profiles were assessed by a detailed quantitative and qualitative characterization of the wastewater sources generated in the factory. Based on the preliminary results the main water sources that can be considered for reuse in the processes were determined as painting and styrofoam processes.

Keywords: enamel coating, painting, reuse, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
978 Water Resources Crisis in Saudi Arabia, Challenges and Possible Management Options: An Analytic Review

Authors: A. A. Ghanim


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is heading towards a severe and rapidly expanding water crisis, which can have negative impacts on the country’s environment and economy. Of the total water consumption in KSA, the agricultural sector accounts for nearly 87% of the total water use and, therefore, any attempt that overlooks this sector will not help in improving the sustainability of the country’s water resources. KSA Vision 2030 gives priority of water use in the agriculture sector for the regions that have natural renewable water resources. It means that there is little concern for making reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes in any region in general and in water-scarce regions in particular. The use of treated wastewater is very limited in Saudi Arabia, but it has very considerable potential for future expansion due its numerous beneficial uses. This study reviews the current situation of water resources in Saudi Arabia, providing more highlights on agriculture and wastewater reuse. The reviewed study is proposing some corrective measures for development and better management of water resources in the Kingdom. Suggestions also include consideration of treated water as an alternative source for irrigation in some regions of the country. The study concluded that a sustainable solution for the water crisis in KSA requires implementation of multiple measures in an integrated manner. The integrated solution plan should focus on two main directions: first, improving the current management practices of the existing water resources; second, developing new water supplies from both conventional and non-conventional sources.

Keywords: Saudia Arabia, water resources, water crises, wastewater reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
977 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Sewage Treatment Plant in Oman: Samail Case Study

Authors: Azza Mohsin Al-Hashami, Reginald Victor


Treatment of wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove the pollutants from wastewater. This study evaluates of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (STP) in Samail, Oman. Samail STP has tertiary treatment using conventional activated sludge with surface aeration. The collection of wastewater is through a network with a total length of about 60 km and also by tankers for the areas outside the network. Treated wastewater from this STP is used for the irrigation of vegetation in the STP premises and as a backwash for sand filters. Some treated water is supplied to the Samail municipality, which uses it for the landscaping, road construction, and 'the Million Date Palms' project. In this study, homogenous samples were taken from eight different treatment stages along the treatment continuum for one year, at a frequency of once a month, to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters. All samples were analyzed using the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The spatial variations in water quality along the continuum are discussed. Despite these variations, the treated wastewater from Samail STP was of good quality, and most of the parameters are within class A category in Oman Standards for wastewater reuse and discharge.

Keywords: wastewater, STP, treatment, processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
976 Quality Characteristics of Treated Wastewater of 'Industrial Area Foggia'

Authors: Grazia Disciglio, Annalisa Tarantino, Emanuele Tarantino


The production system of Foggia province (Apulia, Southern Italy) is characterized by the presence of numerous agro-food industries whose activities include the processing of vegetables products that release large quantities of wastewater. The reuse in agriculture of these wastewaters offers the opportunity to reduce the costs of their disposal and minimizing their environmental impact. In addition, in this area, which suffers from water shortage, the use of agro-industrial wastewater is essential in the very intensive irrigation cropping systems. The present investigation was carried out in years 2009 and 2010 to monitor the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the industrial wastewater (IWW) from the secondary treatment plant of the 'Industrial Area of Foggia'. The treatment plant released on average about 567,000 m3y-1 of IWW, which distribution was not uniform over the year. The monthly values were about 250,000 m3 from November to June and about 90,000 m3 from July to October. The obtained results revealed that IWW was characterized by low values of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Sodium Absorption Rate (SAR). An occasional presence of heavy metal and high concentration of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen and microbial organisms (Escherichia coli and Salmonella) were observed. Due to the presence of this pathogenic microorganisms and sometimes of heavy metals, which may raise sanitary and environmental problems in order to the possible irrigation reuse of this IWW, a tertiary treatment of wastewater based on filtration and disinfection in line are recommended. Researches on the reuse of treated IWW on crops (olive, artichoke, industrial tomatoes, fennel, lettuce etc.) did not show significant differences among the irrigated plots for most of the soil and yield characteristics.

Keywords: agroindustrial wastewater, irrigation, microbiological characteristic, physico-chemical characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
975 Study Technical Possibilities of Agricultural Reuse of by-Products from Treatment Plant of Boumerdes, Algeria

Authors: Kadir Mokrane, Souag Doudja


In Algeria, one of the Mediterranean countries, water resources are limited and unevenly distributed in space and in time. Boumerdes, coastal town of Algeria, known for its farming and fishing activities. The region is also known for its semi-arid climate and a large water deficit. In order to preserve the quality of water bodies and to reduce withdrawals in the natural environment, it is necessary to seek alternative supplies. The reuse of treated wastewater seems to be a good alternative, especially for irrigation. In the framework of sustainable development, it is imperative to rationalize the use of water resources conventional and unconventional. That is why the re-use agricultural of by-products of the treatment is an alternative expected to preserve the environment and promotion of the agricultural sector. The present work aims, to search for the possibility of reuse of treated wastewater, and sludge resulting from treatment plant of the city of Boumerdes in agriculture, through the analysis of physical, chemical and bacteriological on the samples, and the continuous monitoring of the evolution of several elements during the period of study extended over 12 months, and then, the comparison of these test results to standards and guidelines established in the framework of irrigation and land application.

Keywords: treated water, sewage sludge, recycling, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
974 Role of Organic Wastewater Constituents in Iron Redox Cycling for Ferric Sludge Reuse in the Fenton-Based Treatment

Authors: J. Bolobajev, M. Trapido, A. Goi


The practical application of the Fenton-based treatment method for organic compounds-contaminated water purification is limited mainly because of the large amount of ferric sludge formed during the treatment, where ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is used as the activator of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation processes. Reuse of ferric sludge collected from clarifiers to substitute Fe(II) salts allows reducing the total cost of Fenton-type treatment technologies and minimizing the accumulation of hazardous ferric waste. Dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) from the sludge to liquid phase at acidic pH and autocatalytic transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by phenolic compounds (tannic acid, lignin, phenol, catechol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone) added or present as water/wastewater constituents were found to be essentially involved in the Fenton-based oxidation mechanism. Observed enhanced formation of highly reactive species, hydroxyl radicals, resulted in a substantial organic contaminant degradation increase. Sludge reuse at acidic pH and in the presence of ferric iron reductants is a novel strategy in the Fenton-based treatment application for organic compounds-contaminated water purification.

Keywords: ferric sludge recycling, ferric iron reductant, water treatment, organic pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
973 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki


Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, microalgae, treatment, wastewater

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972 Ultrafiltration Process Intensification for Municipal Wastewater Reuse: Water Quality, Optimization of Operating Conditions and Fouling Management

Authors: J. Yang, M. Monnot, T. Eljaddi, L. Simonian, L. Ercolei, P. Moulin


The application of membrane technology to wastewater treatment has expanded rapidly under increasing stringent legislation and environmental protection requirements. At the same time, the water resource is becoming precious, and water reuse has gained popularity. Particularly, ultrafiltration (UF) is a very promising technology for water reuse as it can retain organic matters, suspended solids, colloids, and microorganisms. Nevertheless, few studies dealing with operating optimization of UF as a tertiary treatment for water reuse on a semi-industrial scale appear in the literature. Therefore, this study aims to explore the permeate water quality and to optimize operating parameters (maximizing productivity and minimizing irreversible fouling) through the operation of a UF pilot plant under real conditions. The fully automatic semi-industrial UF pilot plant with periodic classic backwashes (CB) and air backwashes (AB) was set up to filtrate the secondary effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in France. In this plant, the secondary treatment consists of a conventional activated sludge process followed by a sedimentation tank. The UF process was thus defined as a tertiary treatment and was operated under constant flux. It is important to note that a combination of CB and chlorinated AB was used for better fouling management. The 200 kDa hollow fiber membrane was used in the UF module, with an initial permeability (for WWTP outlet water) of 600 L·m-2·h⁻¹·bar⁻¹ and a total filtration surface of 9 m². Fifteen filtration conditions with different fluxes, filtration times, and air backwash frequencies were operated for more than 40 hours of each to observe their hydraulic filtration performances. Through comparison, the best sustainable condition was flux at 60 L·h⁻¹·m⁻², filtration time at 60 min, and backwash frequency of 1 AB every 3 CBs. The optimized condition stands out from the others with > 92% water recovery rates, better irreversible fouling control, stable permeability variation, efficient backwash reversibility (80% for CB and 150% for AB), and no chemical washing occurrence in 40h’s filtration. For all tested conditions, the permeate water quality met the water reuse guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), French standards, and the regulation of the European Parliament adopted in May 2020, setting minimum requirements for water reuse in agriculture. In permeate: the total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, and turbidity were decreased to < 2 mg·L-1, ≤ 10 mg·L⁻¹, < 0.5 NTU respectively; the Escherichia coli and Enterococci were > 5 log removal reduction, the other required microorganisms’ analysis were below the detection limits. Additionally, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was measured in raw wastewater of WWTP, UF feed, and UF permeate in November 2020. As a result, the raw wastewater was tested positive above the detection limit but below the quantification limit. Interestingly, the UF feed and UF permeate were tested negative to SARS-CoV-2 by these PCR assays. In summary, this work confirms the great interest in UF as intensified tertiary treatment for water reuse and gives operational indications for future industrial-scale production of reclaimed water.

Keywords: semi-industrial UF pilot plant, water reuse, fouling management, coronavirus

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
971 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed


Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

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970 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel


Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
969 A Review on Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse

Authors: Fatema Akram, Mohammad G. Rasul, M. Masud K. Khan, M. Sharif I. I. Amir


Australia is a country of some 7,700 million square kilometres with a population of about 22.6 million. At present water security is a major challenge for Australia. In some areas the use of water resources is approaching and in some parts it is exceeding the limits of sustainability. A focal point of proposed national water conservation programs is the recycling of both urban storm-water and treated wastewater. But till now it is not widely practiced in Australia, and particularly storm-water is neglected. In Australia, only 4% of storm-water and rainwater is recycled, whereas less than 1% of reclaimed wastewater is reused within urban areas. Therefore, accurately monitoring, assessing and predicting the availability, quality and use of this precious resource are required for better management. As storm-water is usually of better quality than untreated sewage or industrial discharge, it has better public acceptance for recycling and reuse, particularly for non-potable use such as irrigation, watering lawns, gardens, etc. Existing storm-water recycling practice is far behind of research and no robust technologies developed for this purpose. Therefore, there is a clear need for using modern technologies for assessing feasibility of storm-water harvesting and reuse. Numerical modelling has, in recent times, become a popular tool for doing this job. It includes complex hydrological and hydraulic processes of the study area. The hydrologic model computes storm-water quantity to design the system components, and the hydraulic model helps to route the flow through storm-water infrastructures. Nowadays water quality module is incorporated with these models. Integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) with these models provides extra advantage of managing spatial information. However for the overall management of a storm-water harvesting project, Decision Support System (DSS) plays an important role incorporating database with model and GIS for the proper management of temporal information. Additionally DSS includes evaluation tools and Graphical user interface. This research aims to critically review and discuss all the aspects of storm-water harvesting and reuse such as available guidelines of storm-water harvesting and reuse, public acceptance of water reuse, the scopes and recommendation for future studies. In addition to these, this paper identifies, understand and address the importance of modern technologies capable of proper management of storm-water harvesting and reuse.

Keywords: storm-water management, storm-water harvesting and reuse, numerical modelling, geographic information system, decision support system, database

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
968 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor


Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
967 System Dynamics Projections of Environmental Issues for Domestic Water and Wastewater Scenarios in Urban Area of India

Authors: Isha Sharawat, R. P. Dahiya, T. R. Sreekrishnan


One of the environmental challenges in India is urban wastewater management as regulations and infrastructural development has not kept pace with the urbanization and growing population. The quality of life of people is also improving with the rapid growth of the gross domestic product. This has contributed to the enhancement in the per capita water requirement and consumption. More domestic water consumption generates more wastewater. The scarcity of potable water is making the situation quite serious, and water supply has to be regulated in most parts of the country during summer. This requires elaborate and concerted efforts to efficiently manage the water resources and supply systems. In this article, a system dynamics modelling approach is used for estimating the water demand and wastewater generation in a district headquarter city of North India. Projections are made till the year 2035. System dynamics is a software tool used for formulation of policies. On the basis of the estimates, policy scenarios are developed for sustainable development of water resources in conformity with the growing population. Mitigation option curtailing the water demand and wastewater generation include population stabilization, water reuse and recycle and water pricing. The model is validated quantitatively, and sensitivity analysis tests are carried out to examine the robustness of the model.

Keywords: system dynamics, wastewater, water pricing, water recycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
966 Comparison of Presented Definitions and Aspects of Authenticity and Integrity in Adaptive Reuse

Authors: Golnaz Salehi Mourkani


Two conception of Integrity and authenticity, in texts have just applied respectively for adaptive reuse and conservation, which in comparison with word “Integrity” in texts related to adaptive reuse is much more seen than Authenticity, which is often applied with conservation. According to Stove, H. (2007) in some cases, this conception have used with this form “integrity/authenticity” in texts, that cause to infer one conception of both. In this article, with referring to definitions and comparison of aspects specialized to both concept of “Authenticity and Integrity” through literature review, it was attempted to examine common and distinctive aspects of each one, then with this method we can reach their differences in adaptive reuse.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, integrity, authenticity, conservation

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965 Dairy Wastewater Remediation Using Electrochemical Oxidation on Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

Authors: Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum’h, Abeer Albsoul, Khalideh Alrawashdeh, Dina Al Tarazi


Treated wastewater reuse has been considered recently as one of the successful management strategies to overcome water shortage in countries suffering from water scarcity. The non-readily biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater cannot be destructed by conventional treatment methods. This paper deals with the electrochemical treatment of dairy wastewater using a promising non-conventional Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) anode. During the electrochemical process, different operating parameters were investigated, such as electrolysis time, current density, supporting electrolyte, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity as well as absorbance/color. The experimental work revealed that electrochemical oxidation carried out with no added electrolyte has significantly reduced the COD, turbidity, and color (absorbance) by 72%, 76%, and 78% respectively. Results also showed that raising the current density from 5.1 mA/cm² to 7.7 mA/cm² has boosted COD, and color removal to 82.5%, and 83% respectively. However, the current density did not show any significant effect on the turbidity. Interestingly, it was observed that adding Na₂SO₄ and FeCl₃ as supporting electrolytes brought the COD removal to 91% and 97% respectively. Likewise, turbidity and color removal has been enhanced by the addition of the same supporting electrolytes.

Keywords: boron doped-diamond anode, dairy wastewater, electrochemical oxidation, supporting electrolytes

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964 Characterization of Brewery Wastewater Composition

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo, Sheena Kumari, Feroz M. Swalaha, Faizal Bux


With the competing demand on water resources and water reuse, discharge of industrial effluents into the aquatic environment has become an important issue. Much attention has been placed on the impact of industrial wastewater on water bodies worldwide due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic matter in the receiving water bodies. The scope of the present work is to assess the physic-chemical composition of the wastewater produced from one of the brewery industry in South Africa. This is to estimate the environmental impact of its discharge into the receiving water bodies or the municipal treatment plant. The parameters monitored for the quantitative analysis of brewery wastewater include biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, ammonia, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, and alkalinity content. In average, the COD concentration of the brewery effluent was 5340.97 mg/l with average pH values of 4.0 to 6.7. The BOD and the solids content of the wastewater from the brewery industry were high. This means that the effluent is very rich in organic content and its discharge into the water bodies or the municipal treatment plant could cause environmental pollution or damage the treatment plant. In addition, there were variations in the wastewater composition throughout the monitoring period. This might be as a result of different activities that take place during the production process, as well as the effects of the peak period of beer production on the water usage.

Keywords: Brewery wastewater, environmental pollution, industrial effluents, physic-chemical composition

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963 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem


This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

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962 Temporal Effects on Chemical Composition of Treated Wastewater and Borehole Water Used for Irrigation in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Pholosho M. Kgopa, Phatu W. Mashela, Alen Manyevere


Increasing incidents of drought spells in most Sub-Saharan Africa call for using alternative sources of water for irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. A study was conducted to investigate chemical composition of borehole and treated wastewater from different sampling disposal sites at University of Limpopo Experimental Farm (ULEF). A 4 × 5 factorial experiment, with the borehole as a reference sampling site and three other sampling sites along the wastewater disposal system was conducted over five months. Water samples were collected at four sites namely, (a) exit from Pond 16 into the furrow, (b) entry into night-dam, (c) exit from night dam to irrigated fields and (d) exit from borehole to irrigated fields. Water samples were collected in the middle of each month, starting from July to November 2016. Samples were analysed for pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, B, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and As. The site × time interactions were highly significant for Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As variables, but not for Na and K. Sampling site was highly significant on all variables, with sampling period not significant for K and Na. Relative to water from the borehole, Na concentration in wastewater samples from the night-dam exit, night-dam entry and Pond16 exit were lower by 69, 34 and 55%, respectively. Relative to borehole water, Al was higher in wastewater sampling sites. In conclusion, both sampling site and period affected the chemical composition of treated wastewater.

Keywords: irrigation water quality, spatial effects, temporal effects, water reuse, water scarcity

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961 INNPT Nano Particles Material Technology as Enhancement Technology for Biological WWTP Performance and Capacity

Authors: Medhat Gad


Wastewater treatment became a big issue in this decade due to shortage of water resources, growth of population and modern live requirements. Reuse of treated wastewater in industrial and agriculture sectors has a big demand to substitute the shortage of clean water supply as well as to save the eco system from dangerous pollutants in insufficient treated wastewater In last decades, most of wastewater treatment plants are built using primary or secondary biological treatment technology which almost does not provide enough treatment and removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. those plants which built ten to 15 years ago also now suffering from overflow which decrease the treatment efficiency of the plant. Discharging treated wastewater which contains phosphorus and nitrogen to water reservoirs and irrigation canals destroy ecosystem and aquatic life. Using chemical material to enhance treatment efficiency for domestic wastewater but it leads to huge amount of sludge which cost a lot of money. To enhance wastewater treatment, we used INNPT nano material which consists of calcium, aluminum and iron oxides and compounds plus silica, sodium and magnesium. INNPT nano material used with a dose of 100 mg/l to upgrade SBR treatment plant in Cairo Egypt -which has three treatment tanks each with a capacity of 2500 cubic meters per day - to tertiary treatment level by removing Phosphorus, Nitrogen and increase dissolved oxygen in final effluent. The results showed that the treatment retention time decreased from 9 hours in SBR system to one hour using INNPT nano material with improvement in effluent quality while increasing plant capacity to 20 k cubic meters per day. Nitrogen removal efficiency achieved 77%, while phosphorus removal efficiency achieved 90% and COD removal efficiency was 93% which all comply with tertiary treatment limits according to Egyptian law.

Keywords: INNPT technology, nanomaterial, tertiary wastewater treatment, capacity extending

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960 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim


This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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959 Development of Model for Effective Sub- District Municipality Wastewater Management

Authors: Vitool Suksankavanich


This preliminary research aimed to explore the development of wastewater management of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality, Samutprakan Province, in order to establish appropriate model for effective wastewater management that fit to the context of the area. The research posed three questions: [i] to what extent the promotion of social responsibility awareness built among the local community resulted in effectiveness of the local wastewater management; [ii] did the waste disposal management of Bang Pu Industrial Estate contribute to the overall environmental quality of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality; and [iii] did the relationship between the community and the industrial factories have any effect on the wastewater management. The in- depth interview revealed main obstacles occurred in the process of wastewater management in the area. The fieldwork also contributed to a product of an appropriate model of effective wastewater management.

Keywords: legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, social responsibility, wastewater management

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958 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai


This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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