Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 778

Search results for: biomass

778 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian

Abstract:

Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
777 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy

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Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, availability, bioenergy, accessibility, biomass potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
776 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna

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There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.

Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
775 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

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The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: biomass fuels, temperature, advanced downdraft gasifier, tar, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
774 Root Biomass Growth in Different Growth Stages of Wheat and Barley Cultivars

Authors: H. Akman, A. Topal

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This work was conducted in greenhouse conditions in order to investigate root biomass growth of two bread wheat, two durum wheat and two barley cultivars that were grown in irrigated and dry lands, respectively. This work was planned with four replications at a Completely Randomized Block Design in 2011-2012 growing season. In the study, root biomass growth was evaluated at stages of stem elongation, complete of anthesis and full grain maturity. Results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars grown at dry and irrigated lands in all growth stages in terms of root biomass (P < 0.01). According to research results, all of growth stages, dry typed-bread and durum wheats generally had higher root biomass than irrigated typed-cultivars, furthermore that dry typed-barley cultivar, had higher root biomass at GS 31 and GS 69, however lower at GS 92 than Larende. In all cultivars, root biomass increased between GS 31 and GS 69 so that dry typed-cultivars had more root biomass increase than irrigated typed-cultivars. Root biomass of bread wheat increased between GS 69 and GS 92, however root biomass of barley and durum wheat decreased.

Keywords: bread and durum wheat, barley, root biomass, different growth stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
773 Research Facility Assessment for Biomass Combustion in Moving Grate Furnaces

Authors: Francesco Gallucci, Mariangela Salerno, Ettore Guerriero, Manfredi Amalfi, Giancarlo Chiatti, Fulvio Palmieri

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The paper deals with the experimental activities on a biomass combustion test-bed. More in detail, experimental campaigns have been devoted to investigate the operation of a biomass moving grate furnace. A research-oriented facility based on a moving grate furnace (350kW) has been set up in order to perform experimental activities in a wide range of test configurations. The paper reports the description of the complete biomass-plant and the assessment of the system operation. As the first step, the chemical and physical properties of the used wooden biomass have been preliminarily investigated. Once the biomass fuel has been characterized, investigations have been devoted to point out the operation of the furnace. It has been operated at full load, highlighting the influence of biomass combustion parameters on particulate matter and gaseous emission.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, experimental, pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
772 Removal of Tar Contents in Syngas by Using Different Fuel from Downdraft Biomass Gasification System

Authors: Muhammad Awais, Wei Li, Anjum Munir

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Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass ingredients into a combustible gas which can be used in electricity generation. Regardless of their applications in many fields, biomass gasification technology is still facing many cleaning issues of syngas. Tar production in biomass gasification process is one of the biggest challenges for this technology. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the tar contents in syngas produced from wood chips, corn cobs, coconut shells and mixture of corn cobs and wood chips as biomass fuel and tar removal efficiency of different cleaning units integrated with gassifier. Performance of different cleaning units, i.e., cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was tested under two biomass fuels. Results of this study indicate that wood chips produced less tar of 1736 mg/Nm³ as compared to corn cobs which produced tor 2489 mg/Nm³. It is also observed that coconut shells produced a high amount of tar. It was observed that when wood chips were used as a fuel, syngas tar contents were reduced from 6600 to 112 mg/Nm³ while in case of corn cob, they were reduced from 7500 mg/Nm³ to 220 mg/Nm³. Overall tar removal efficiencies of cyclone separator, wet scrubber, biomass filter, and auxiliary filter was 72%, 63%, 74%, 35% respectively.

Keywords: biomass, gasification, tar, cleaning system, biomass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
771 Application of Biomass Ashes as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in the Cement Mortar Production

Authors: S. Šupić, M. Malešev, V. Radonjanin, M. Radeka, M. Laban

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The production of low cost and environmentally friendly products represents an important step for developing countries. Biomass is one of the largest renewable energy sources, and Serbia is among the top European countries in terms of the amount of available and unused biomass. Substituting cement with the ashes obtained by the combustion of biomass would reduce the negative impact of concrete industry on the environment and would provide a waste valorization by the reuse of this type of by-product in mortars and concretes manufacture. The study contains data on physical properties, chemical characteristics and pozzolanic properties of obtained biomass ashes: wheat straw ash and mixture of wheat and soya straw ash in Serbia, which were, later, used as supplementary cementitious materials in preparation of mortars. Experimental research of influence of biomass ashes on physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars was conducted. The results indicate that the biomass ashes can be successfully used in mortars as substitutes of cement without compromising their physical and mechanical performances.

Keywords: biomass, ash, cementitious material, mortar

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
770 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

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Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
769 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng

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Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical water

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
768 Analyzing the Effects of Real Income and Biomass Energy Consumption on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Empirical Evidence from the Panel of Biomass-Consuming Countries

Authors: Eyup Dogan

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This empirical aims to analyze the impacts of real income and biomass energy consumption on the level of emissions in the EKC model for the panel of biomass-consuming countries over the period 1980-2011. Because we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity across countries for the analyzed data, we use panel estimation methods robust to cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. The CADF and the CIPS panel unit root tests indicate that carbon emissions, real income and biomass energy consumption are stationary at the first-differences. The LM bootstrap panel cointegration test shows that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. Results from the panel group-mean DOLS and the panel group-mean FMOLS estimators show that increase in biomass energy consumption decreases CO2 emissions and the EKC hypothesis is validated. Therefore, countries are advised to boost their production and increase the use of biomass energy for lower level of emissions.

Keywords: biomass energy, CO2 emissions, EKC model, heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
767 Allometric Models for Biomass Estimation in Savanna Woodland Area, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Jibrin, Aishetu Abdulkadir

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The development of allometric models is crucial to accurate forest biomass/carbon stock assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a set of biomass prediction models that will enable the determination of total tree aboveground biomass for savannah woodland area in Niger State, Nigeria. Based on the data collected through biometric measurements of 1816 trees and destructive sampling of 36 trees, five species specific and one site specific models were developed. The sample size was distributed equally between the five most dominant species in the study site (Vitellaria paradoxa, Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia biglobosa, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Pterocarpus erinaceous). Firstly, the equations were developed for five individual species. Secondly these five species were mixed and were used to develop an allometric equation of mixed species. Overall, there was a strong positive relationship between total tree biomass and the stem diameter. The coefficient of determination (R2 values) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99 P < 0.001 were realised for the models; with considerable low standard error of the estimates (SEE) which confirms that the total tree above ground biomass has a significant relationship with the dbh. The F-test value for the biomass prediction models were also significant at p < 0.001 which indicates that the biomass prediction models are valid. This study recommends that for improved biomass estimates in the study site, the site specific biomass models should preferably be used instead of using generic models.

Keywords: allometriy, biomass, carbon stock , model, regression equation, woodland, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
766 Atmospheric Fluid Bed Gasification of Different Biomass Fuels

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

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This paper shortly describes biomass types and growing amount in the Czech Republic. The considerable part of this paper deals with energy parameters of the most frequent utilizing biomass types and results of their gasification testing. There was chosen sixteen the most exploited "Czech" woody plants and grasses. There were determinated raw, element and biochemical analysis, basic calorimetric values, ash composition and ash characteristic temperatures. After that, each biofuel was tested by fluid bed gasification. The essential part of this paper yields results of chosen biomass types gasification experiments. Partly, there are described an operating conditions in detail with accentuation of individual fuels particularities partly, there is summarized gas composition and impurities content. The essential difference was determined mainly between woody plants and grasses both from point of view of the operating conditions and gas quality. The woody plants was evaluated as more suitable fuels for fluid bed gasifiers. This results will be able to significantly help with decision which energy plants are suitable for growing or with optimal biomass-treatment technology selection.

Keywords: biomass growing, biomass types, gasification, biomass fuels

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
765 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

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The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.

Keywords: biomass, downdraft gasifier, power generation, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
764 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

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In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipids

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
763 Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy in Environmental Control

Authors: Subir Kundu, Sukhendra Singh, Sumedha Ojha, Kanika Kundu

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The continuous decline of petroleum and natural gas reserves and non linear rise of oil price has brought about a realisation of the need for a change in our perpetual dependence on the fossil fuel. A day to day increased consumption of crude and petroleum products has made a considerable impact on our foreign exchange reserves. Hence, an alternate resource for the conversion of energy (both liquid and gas) is essential for the substitution of conventional fuels. Biomass is the alternate solution for the present scenario. Biomass can be converted into both liquid as well as gaseous fuels and other feedstocks for the industries.

Keywords: bioenergy, biomass conversion, biorefining, efficient utilisation of night soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
762 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut

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Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production.

Keywords: mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
761 Carbon Storage in Natural Mangrove Biomass: Its Destruction and Potential Impact on Climate Change in the UAE

Authors: Hedaya Ali Al Ameri, Alya A. Arabi

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Measuring the level of carbon storage in mangroves’ biomass has a potential impact in the climate change of UAE. Carbon dioxide is one of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a main reason for global warming. Deforestation is a key source of the increase in carbon dioxide whereas forests such as mangroves assist in removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere by storing them in its biomass and soil. By using Kauffman and Donato methodology, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stored in UAE’s natural mangroves were quantified. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) released to the atmosphere was then estimated in case of mangroves deforestation in the UAE. The results show that the mean total biomass of mangroves in the UAE ranged from 15.75 Mg/ha to 3098.69 Mg/ha. The estimated CO2eq released upon deforestation in the UAE was found to have a minimal effect on the temperature increase and thus global warming.

Keywords: carbon stored in biomass, mangrove deforestation, temperature change, United Arab Emirate

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
760 Enzymatic Saccharification of Dilute Alkaline Pre-treated Microalgal (Tetraselmis suecica) Biomass for Biobutanol Production

Authors: M. A. Kassim, R. Potumarthi, A. Tanksale, S. C. Srivatsa, S. Bhattacharya

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Enzymatic saccharification of biomass for reducing sugar production is one of the crucial processes in biofuel production through biochemical conversion. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of dilute potassium hydroxide (KOH) pre-treated Tetraselmis suecica biomass was carried out by using cellulase enzyme obtained from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. Initially, the pre-treatment conditions were optimised by changing alkali reagent concentration, retention time for reaction, and temperature. The T. suecica biomass after pre-treatment was also characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra and Scanning Electron Microscope. These analyses revealed that the functional group such as acetyl and hydroxyl groups, structure and surface of T. suecica biomass were changed through pre-treatment, which is favourable for enzymatic saccharification process. Comparison of enzymatic saccharification of untreated and pre-treated microalgal biomass indicated that higher level of reducing sugar can be obtained from pre-treated T. suecica. Enzymatic saccharification of pre-treated T. suecica biomass was optimised by changing temperature, pH, and enzyme concentration to solid ratio ([E]/[S]). Highest conversion of carbohydrate into reducing sugar of 95% amounted to reducing sugar yield of 20 (wt%) from pre-treated T. suecica was obtained from saccharification, at temperature: 40°C, pH: 4.5 and [E]/[S] of 0.1 after 72 h of incubation. Hydrolysate obtained from enzymatic saccharification of pretreated T. suecica biomass was further fermented into biobutanol using Clostridium saccharoperbutyliticum as biocatalyst. The results from this study demonstrate a positive prospect of application of dilute alkaline pre-treatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification and biobutanol production from microalgal biomass.

Keywords: microalgal biomass, enzymatic saccharification, biobutanol, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
759 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z. A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

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This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4 % of sulphuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28 % ammonia solution. Then the EFB biomass was subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
758 Locating Potential Site for Biomass Power Plant Development in Central Luzon Philippines Using GIS-Based Suitability Analysis

Authors: Bryan M. Baltazar, Marjorie V. Remolador, Klathea H. Sevilla, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang

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Biomass energy is a traditional source of sustainable energy, which has been widely used in developing countries. The Philippines, specifically Central Luzon, has an abundant source of biomass. Hence, it could supply abundant agricultural residues (rice husks), as feedstock in a biomass power plant. However, locating a potential site for biomass development is a complex process which involves different factors, such as physical, environmental, socio-economic, and risks that are usually diverse and conflicting. Moreover, biomass distribution is highly dispersed geographically. Thus, this study develops an integrated method combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and methods for energy planning; Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), for locating suitable site for biomass power plant development in Central Luzon, Philippines by considering different constraints and factors. Using MCDA, a three level hierarchy of factors and constraints was produced, with corresponding weights determined by experts by using AHP. Applying the results, a suitability map for Biomass power plant development in Central Luzon was generated. It showed that the central part of the region has the highest potential for biomass power plant development. It is because of the characteristics of the area such as the abundance of rice fields, with generally flat land surfaces, accessible roads and grid networks, and low risks to flooding and landslide. This study recommends the use of higher accuracy resource maps, and further analysis in selecting the optimum site for biomass power plant development that would account for the cost and transportation of biomass residues.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, biomass energy, GIS, multi-criteria decision analysis, site suitability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
757 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada

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A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Solvent, Waste Plastics

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
756 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul

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Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: extraction, membrane process, microalgae, natural compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
755 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir

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The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
754 The Energy Potential of Biomass of Post-mining Spoil Heaps (South Poland)

Authors: Łazaj Alicja, Edyta Sierka

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Nowadays, the main biomass sources are energy crops, forestry, and partly agriculture. In order to limit the intake of land intended for food cultivation while striving to increase the percentage share of biomass in renewable energy sources (RES) production (EU Policy 2030), biomass resources from industrial wastelands may be used as an alternative local solution. In such areas, there are often single-species, extensive fields of wild-growing invasive species, such as the goldenrod Solidago gigantea (SG)., which produce, on average, 1.01-4.5 kg ∙ ha⁻¹ biomass - comparable to 4.9 kg ∙ ha⁻¹ of maize crops. Therefore, it is important to study the potential and energy parameters of these species and to assess the possibility of using them in the production of renewable energy. The main goal of the research was 1) determining the parameters essential for the use of SG biomass in the energy sector and 2) giving the areas transformed by man new functions within the concept of a circular economy. Solidago gigantea, which forms a monoculture on a hard coal heap, was selected for the research. The methods of classification of the time series of multispectral images WorldView-2, covering various phases of vegetation, were used to locate biomass on the studied objects. Sg biomass was collected in accordance with the guidelines of PN-EN ISO 18135: 2017-06. Then, the combustion characteristics, humidity, volatile matter content, and ash content were determined. The analysis of the energy potential of the model species was also enriched with a petrographic assessment. The conducted research allowed to compare the properties of the energy parameters of the model plant's biomass to the parameters of native plants and other standard species used for energy purposes. Determining the energy potential of the invasive species –goldenrod Solidago gigantea allows for the recommendation of the species' biomass to begin work on using it in distributed energy installations.

Keywords: biomass, brownfields, heap, invasive species, Solidago gigantea

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753 Comparison of MODIS-Based Rice Extent Map and Landsat-Based Rice Classification Map in Determining Biomass Energy Potential of Rice Hull in Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Klathea Sevilla, Marjorie Remolador, Bryan Baltazar, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion Ang

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The underutilization of biomass resources in the Philippines, combined with its growing population and the rise in fossil fuel prices confirms demand for alternative energy sources. The goal of this paper is to provide a comparison of MODIS-based and Landsat-based agricultural land cover maps when used in the estimation of rice hull’s available energy potential. Biomass resource assessment was done using mathematical models and remote sensing techniques employed in a GIS platform.

Keywords: biomass, geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
752 Uptake of Copper by Dead Biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia Isolated from a Metal Mine in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Ingrid R. Avanzi, Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Elen A. Perpetuo, Claudio Auguto Oller do Nascimento

Abstract:

In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process.

Keywords: biosorption, dead biomass, biotechnology, copper recovery

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751 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel

Abstract:

Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
750 Optimization of Reaction Parameters' Influences on Production of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Chayanoot Sangwichien, Taweesak Reungpeerakul, Kyaw Thu

Abstract:

Oil palm mills in Southern Thailand produced a large amount of biomass solid wastes. Lignocellulose biomass is the main source for production of biofuel which can be combined or used as an alternative to fossil fuels. Biomass composed of three main constituents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Thermochemical conversion process applied to produce biofuel from biomass. Pyrolysis of biomass is the best way to thermochemical conversion of biomass into pyrolytic products (bio-oil, gas, and char). Operating parameters play an important role to optimize the product yields from fast pyrolysis of biomass. This present work concerns with the modeling of reaction kinetics parameters for fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch in the fluidized bed reactor. A global kinetic model used to predict the product yields from fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters are mainly affected by product yields of EFB pyrolysis. The reaction temperature and vapor residence time parameters effects on empty fruit bunch pyrolysis are considered at the reaction temperature in the range of 450-500˚C and at a vapor residence time of 2 s, respectively. The optimum simulated bio-oil yield of 53 wt.% obtained at the reaction temperature and vapor residence time of 450˚C and 2 s, 500˚C and 1 s, respectively. The simulated data are in good agreement with the reported experimental data. These simulated data can be applied to the performance of experiment work for the fast pyrolysis of biomass.

Keywords: kinetics, empty fruit bunch, fast pyrolysis, modeling

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749 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey, Pankaj Kumar

Abstract:

Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, Ulva, CMF, furan

Procedia PDF Downloads 278