Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3591

Search results for: stakeholder theory

3591 Implications of Stakeholder Theory as a Critical Theory

Authors: Louis Hickman


Stakeholder theory is a powerful conception of the firm based on the notion that a primary focus on shareholders is inadequate and, in fact, detrimental to the long-term health of the firm. As such it represents a departure from prevalent business school teachings with their focus on accounting and cost controls. Herein, it is argued that stakeholder theory can be better conceptualized as a critical theory, or one which represents a fundamental change in business behavior and can transform the behavior of businesses if accepted. By arguing that financial interests underdetermine the success of the firm, stakeholder theory further democratizes business by endorsing an increased awareness of the importance of non-shareholder stakeholders. Stakeholder theory requires new, non-financial, measures of success that provide a new consciousness for management and businesses when conceiving their actions and place in society. Thereby, stakeholder theory can show individuals through self-reflection that the capitalist impulses to generate wealth cannot act as primary drivers of business behavior, but rather, that we would choose to support interests outside ourselves if we made the decision in free discussion. This is due to the false consciousness embedded in our capitalism that the firm’s finances are the foremost concern of modern organizations at the expense of other goals. A focus on non-shareholder stakeholders in addition to shareholders generates greater benefits for society by improving the state of customers, employees, suppliers, the community, and shareholders alike. These positive effects generate further positive gains in well-being for stakeholders and translate into increased health for the future firm. Additionally, shareholders are the only stakeholder group that does not provide long-term firm value since there are not always communities with qualified employees, suppliers capable of providing the quality of product needed, or persons with purchasing power for all conceivable products. Therefore, the firm’s long-term health is benefited most greatly by improving the greatest possible parts of the society in which it inhabits, rather than solely the shareholder.

Keywords: capitalism, critical theory, self-reflection, stakeholder theory

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3590 Stakeholder Management for Successful Software Projects

Authors: Kassem Saleh


An alarming number of software projects fail to deliver the required functionalities within the provided budget and timeframe and with the required qualities. Some of the main reasons for this problem include bad stakeholder management, poor communications and informal change management. Informal processes to identify, engage and control stakeholders lead to these reasons. Recently, to emphasize its importance, the Project Management Institute (PMI) updated the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) to explicitly include the stakeholder management knowledge area. This knowledge area consists of four processes to identify stakeholders, plan stakeholder management, and manage and control stakeholder engagement. The use of appropriate techniques for stakeholder management in software projects will definitely lead to higher quality and successful software. In this paper, we describe some of the proven techniques that can be used during the execution of the four processes for stakeholder management. Development of collaboration tools for automating these processes are recommended and need to be integrated in available software project management tools.

Keywords: project management, stakeholder management, software development, project management body of knowledge

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3589 Corporate Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting in United Kingdom: Insights from Institutional and Upper Echelons Theories

Authors: Lyton Chithambo


This paper reports the results of an investigation into the extent to which various stakeholder pressures influence voluntary disclosure of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in the United Kingdom (UK). The study, which is grounded on institutional theory, also borrows from the insights of upper echelons theory and examines whether specific managerial (chief executive officer) characteristics explain and moderates various stakeholder pressures in explaining GHG voluntary disclosure. Data were obtained from the 2011 annual and sustainability reports of a sample of 216 UK companies on the FTSE350 index listed on the London Stock Exchange. Generally the results suggest that there is no substantial shareholder and employee pressure on a firm to disclose GHG information but there is significant positive pressure from the market status of a firm with those firms with more market share disclosing more GHG information. Consistent with the predictions of institutional theory, we found evidence that coercive pressure i.e. regulatory pressure and mimetic pressures emanating in some industries notably industrials and consumer services have a significant positive influence on firms’ GHG disclosure decisions. Besides, creditor pressure also had a significant negative relationship with GHG disclosure. While CEO age had a direct negative effect on GHG voluntary disclosure, its moderation effect on stakeholder pressure influence on GHG disclosure was only significant on regulatory pressure. The results have important implications for both policy makers and company boards strategizing to reign in their GHG emissions.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, voluntary disclosure, upper echelons theory, institution theory

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3588 Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility in Kuwait: Assessment of Environmental Responsibility Efforts and Targeted Stakeholders

Authors: Manaf Bashir


Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a tool for corporations to meet the expectations of different stakeholders about economic, social and environmental issues. It has become indispensable for an organization’s success, positive image and reputation. Equally important is how corporations communicate and report their CSR. Employing the stakeholder theory, the purpose of this research is to analyse CSR content of leading Kuwaiti corporations. No research analysis of CSR reporting has been conducted in Kuwait and this study is an attempt to redress in part this empirical deficit in the country and the region. It attempts to identify the issues and stakeholders of the CSR and if corporations are following CSR reporting standards. By analysing websites, annual and CSR reports of the top 100 Kuwaiti corporations, this study found low mentions of the CSR issues and even lower mentions of CSR stakeholders. Environmental issues were among the least mentioned despite an increasing global concern toward the environment. ‘Society’ was mentioned the most as a stakeholder and ‘The Environment’ was among the least mentioned. Cross-tabulations found few significant relationships between type of industry and the CSR issues and stakeholders. Independent sample t-tests found no significant difference between the issues and stakeholders that are mentioned on the websites and the reports. Only two companies from the sample followed reporting standards and both followed the Global Reporting Initiative. Successful corporations would be keen to identify the issues that meet the expectations of different stakeholders and address them through their corporate communication. Kuwaiti corporations did not show this keenness. As the stakeholder theory suggests, extending the spectrum of stakeholders beyond investors can open mutual dialogue and understanding between corporations and various stakeholders. However, Kuwaiti corporations focus on few CSR issues and even fewer CSR stakeholders. Kuwaiti corporations need to pay more attention to CSR and particularly toward environmental issues. They should adopt a strategic approach and allocate specialized personnel such as marketers and public relations practitioners to manage it. The government and non-profit organizations should encourage the private sector in Kuwait to do more CSR and meet the needs and expectations of different stakeholders and not only shareholders. This is in addition to reporting the CSR information professionally because of its benefits to corporate image, reputation, and transparency.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environmental responsibility, Kuwait, stakeholder theory

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3587 Problems in Establishing Alliances to Comply with SDG 17 in the Successful Execution of Environmental Conservation Projects

Authors: Elena Bulmer


The research for this study has found that the formation of alliances for the successful revitalization of the global partnership for sustainable development, as defined by UN Sustainable Development Goal 17, entails considerable difficulty. This study uses for its empirical work marine environmental conservation projects and analyses the potential involvement of nonhuman actors as primordial stakeholders in these types of projects. The idea is to extend the scope of SDG 17 for it to also consider nonhuman subjects in order for it to better achieve its goal. The results of this study may be extrapolated to the business and management fields, which depend on natural resources for the development of their products. In the same way, in these areas, natural resources as nonhuman actors are not present in the stakeholder maps of these projects. Environmental Conservation projects are thus especially interesting to study with regards to their stakeholder context and have been used as the experimental setting for the empirical work of this study. The primordial stakeholders of these projects are not social objects and therefore go beyond the present limits of present stakeholder theory. The study that has been used to analyse this concept is a marine conservation project based in Spain, and to shed light in potential extending the role of the 17th Sustainable Development Goal to include nonhuman beings to be able to better achieve the rest of the SDGs, in this case, SDG 14 whose aim is to promote the conservation and sustainability of the world´s oceans.

Keywords: SDG 17, sustainability, stakeholder management, environmental conservation projects

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3586 CSR Communication Strategies: Stakeholder and Institutional Theories Perspective

Authors: Stephanie Gracelyn Rahaman, Chew Yin Teng, Manjit Singh Sandhu


Corporate scandals have made stakeholders apprehensive of large companies and expect greater transparency in CSR matters. However, companies find it challenging to strategically communicate CSR to intended stakeholders and in the process may fall short on maximizing on CSR efforts. Given that stakeholders have the ability to either reward good companies or take legal action or boycott against corporate brands who do not act socially responsible, companies must create shared understanding of their CSR activities. As a result, communication has become a strategy for many companies to demonstrate CSR engagement and to minimize stakeholder skepticism. The main objective of this research is to examine the types of CSR communication strategies and predictors that guide CSR communication strategies. Employing Morsing & Schultz’s guide on CSR communication strategies, the study integrates stakeholder and institutional theory to develop a conceptual framework. The conceptual framework hypothesized that stakeholder (instrumental and normative) and institutional (regulatory environment, nature of business, mimetic intention, CSR focus and corporate objectives) dimensions would drive CSR communication strategies. Preliminary findings from semi-structured interviews in Malaysia are consistent with the conceptual model in that stakeholder and institutional expectations guide CSR communication strategies. Findings show that most companies use two-way communication strategies. Companies that identified employees, the public or customers as key stakeholders have started to embrace social media to be in-sync with new trends of communication. This is especially with the Gen Y which is their priority. Some companies creatively use multiple communication channels because they recognize different stakeholders favor different communication channels. Therefore, it appears that companies use two-way communication strategies to complement the perceived limitation of one-way communication strategies as some companies prefer a more interactive platform to strategically engage stakeholders in CSR communication. In addition to stakeholders, institutional expectations also play a vital role in influencing CSR communication. Due to industry peer pressures, corporate objectives (attract international investors and customers), companies may be more driven to excel in social performance. For these reasons companies tend to go beyond the basic mandatory requirement, excel in CSR activities and be known as companies that champion CSR. In conclusion, companies use more two-way than one-way communication and companies use a combination of one and two-way communication to target different stakeholders resulting from stakeholder and institutional dimensions. Finally, in order to find out if the conceptual framework actually fits the Malaysian context, companies’ responses for expected organizational outcomes from communicating CSR were gathered from the interview transcripts. Thereafter, findings are presented to show some of the key organizational outcomes (visibility and brand recognition, portray responsible image, attract prospective employees, positive word-of-mouth, etc.) that companies in Malaysia expect from CSR communication. Based on these findings the conceptual framework has been refined to show the new identified organizational outcomes.

Keywords: CSR communication, CSR communication strategies, stakeholder theory, institutional theory, conceptual framework, Malaysia

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3585 Going beyond Stakeholder Participation

Authors: Florian Engel


Only with a radical change to an intrinsically motivated project team, through giving the employees the freedom for autonomy, mastery and purpose, it is then possible to develop excellent products. With these changes, combined with using a rapid application development approach, the group of users serves as an important indicator to test the market needs, rather than only as the stakeholders for requirements.

Keywords: intrinsic motivation, requirements elicitation, self-directed work, stakeholder participation

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3584 Knowledge and Organisational Success: Developing a Scale of Knowledge Framework

Authors: Mohammed Almohammedali, David Edgar, Duncan Peter


The aim of this exploratory research is to further understand how organisations can evaluate their activities, which generate knowledge creation, to meet changing stakeholder expectations. A Scale of Knowledge (SoK) Framework is proposed which links knowledge management and organisational activities to changing stakeholder expectations. The framework was informed by the knowledge management literature, as well as empirical work conducted via a single case study of a multi-site hospital organisation in Saudi Arabia. Eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from across the organisation regarding current and future stakeholder expectations, organisational strategy/activities and knowledge management. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a hierarchical value map technique to identify activities that can produce further knowledge and consequently impact on how stakeholder expectations are met. The SoK Framework developed may be useful to practitioners as an analytical aid to determine if current organisational activities produce organisational knowledge which helps them meet (increasingly higher levels of) stakeholder expectations. The limitations of the research and avenues for future development of the proposed framework are discussed.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge management, organisational knowledge, analytical aid, stakeholders

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3583 An Investigative Study into Good Governance in the Non-Profit Sector in South Africa: A Systems Approach Perspective

Authors: Frederick M. Dumisani Xaba, Nokuthula G. Khanyile


There is a growing demand for greater accountability, transparency and ethical conduct based on sound governance principles in the developing world. Funders, donors and sponsors are increasingly demanding more transparency, better value for money and adherence to good governance standards. The drive towards improved governance measures is largely influenced by the need to ‘plug the leaks’, deal with malfeasance, engender greater levels of accountability and good governance and to ultimately attract further funding or investment. This is the case with the Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) in South Africa in general, and in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in particular. The paper draws from the good governance theory, stakeholder theory and systems thinking to critically examine the requirements for good governance for the NPO sector from a theoretical and legislative point and to systematically looks at the contours of governance currently among the NPOs. The paper did this through the rigorous examination of the vignettes of cases of governance among selected NPOs based in KwaZulu-Natal. The study used qualitative and quantitative research methodologies through document analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and statistical analysis from the various primary and secondary sources. It found some good cases of good governance but also found frightening levels of poor governance. There was an exponential growth of NPOs registered during the period under review, equally so there was an increase in cases of non-compliance to good governance practices. NPOs operate in an increasingly complex environment. There is contestation for influence and access to resources. Stakeholder management is poorly conceptualized and executed. Recognizing that the NPO sector operates in an environment characterized by complexity, constant changes, unpredictability, contestation, diversity and divergent views of different stakeholders, there is a need to apply legislative and systems thinking approaches to strengthen governance to withstand this turbulence through a capacity development model that recognizes these contextual and environmental challenges.

Keywords: good governance, non-profit organizations, stakeholder theory, systems theory

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3582 Key Factors for Stakeholder Engagement and Sustainable Development

Authors: Jo Rhodes, Bruce Bergstrom, Peter Lok, Vincent Cheng


The aim of this study is to determine key factors and processes for multinationals (MNCs) to develop an effective stakeholder engagement and sustainable development framework. A qualitative multiple-case approach was used. A triangulation method was adopted (interviews, archival documents and observations) to collect data on three global firms (MNCs). 9 senior executives were interviewed for this study (3 from each firm). An initial literature review was conducted to explore possible practices and factors (the deductive approach) to sustainable development. Interview data were analysed using Nvivo to obtain appropriate nodes and themes for the framework. A comparison of findings from interview data and themes, factors developed from the literature review and cross cases comparison were used to develop the final conceptual framework (the inductive approach). The results suggested that stakeholder engagement is a key mediator between ‘stakeholder network’ (internal and external factors) and outcomes (corporate social responsibility, social capital, shared value and sustainable development). Key internal factors such as human capital/talent, technology, culture, leadership and processes such as collaboration, knowledge sharing and co-creation of value with stakeholders were identified. These internal factors and processes must be integrated and aligned with external factors such as social, political, cultural, environment and NGOs to achieve effective stakeholder engagement.

Keywords: stakeholder, engagement, sustainable development, shared value, corporate social responsibility

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3581 Stakeholder Analysis of Agricultural Drone Policy: A Case Study of the Agricultural Drone Ecosystem of Thailand

Authors: Thanomsin Chakreeves, Atichat Preittigun, Ajchara Phu-ang


This paper presents a stakeholder analysis of agricultural drone policies that meet the government's goal of building an agricultural drone ecosystem in Thailand. Firstly, case studies from other countries are reviewed. The stakeholder analysis method and qualitative data from the interviews are then presented including data from the Institute of Innovation and Management, the Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Policy Council, agricultural entrepreneurs and farmers. Study and interview data are then employed to describe the current ecosystem and to guide the implementation of agricultural drone policies that are suitable for the ecosystem of Thailand. Finally, policy recommendations are then made that the Thai government should adopt in the future.

Keywords: drone public policy, drone ecosystem, policy development, agricultural drone

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3580 The Corporate Vision Effect on Rajabhat University Brand Building in Thailand

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit


This study aims to (1) investigate the corporate vision factor influencing Rajabhat University brand building in Thailand and (2) explore influences of brand building upon Rajabhat University stakeholders’ loyalty, and the research method will use mixed methods to conduct qualitative research with the quantitative research. The qualitative will approach by Indebt-interview the executive of Rathanagosin Rajabhat University group for 6 key informants and the quantitative data was collected by questionnaires distributed to stakeholder including instructors, staff, students and parents of the Rathanagosin Rajabhat University group for 400 sampling were selected by multi-stage sampling method. Data was analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling: SEM and also provide the focus group interview for confirming the model. Findings corporate vision had a direct and positive influence on Rajabhat University brand building were showed direct and positive influence on stakeholder’s loyalty and stakeholder’s loyalty was indirectly influenced by corporate vision through Rajabhat University brand building.

Keywords: brand building, corporate vision, Rajabhat University, stakeholder‘s loyalty

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3579 Identification and Classification of Stakeholders in the Transition to 3D Cadastre

Authors: Qiaowen Lin


The 3D cadastre is an inevitable choice to meet the needs of real cadastral management. Nowadays, more attention is given to the technical aspects of 3D cadastre, resulting in the imbalance within this field. To fulfill this research gap, the stakeholder, which has been regarded as the determining factor in cadastral change has been studied. Delphi method, Michael rating, and stakeholder mapping are used to identify and classify the stakeholders in 3D cadastre. It is concluded that the project managers should pay more attention to the interesting appeal of the key stakeholders and different coping strategies should be adopted to facilitate the transition to 3D cadastre.

Keywords: stakeholders, three dimension, cadastre, transtion

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3578 The Relation between Earnings Management with the Financial Reporting

Authors: Anocha Rojanapanich


The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of earnings management on corporate transparency of the company in Dusit area workplace via financial reporting reliability and stakeholder acceptance as independent variable. And the company in Dusit are are taken as the population and sample. The questionnaire is used to collect data. Exploratory Factor Analysis is implemented to ensure construct validity, and correlation statistic is selected to test the relationship among all variable and the ordinary least squares regression is used to explore the hypothesized. The results show that earnings management has a significant and negative impact on financial reporting reliability, stakeholder acceptance, and corporate transparency. Both financial reporting reliability and stakeholder acceptance have an important and positive effect on corporate transparency, and they are then mediators of the earnings management-corporate transparency relationships.

Keywords: dusit area workplace, earnings management, financial report, business and marketing management

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3577 Perceptions of Corporate Governance and Business Ethics Practices in Kuwaiti Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi, Salah Alhamadi, Ibraheem Almubarak


The study attempts to explore both corporate governance (GC) and business ethics (BE) practices in Kuwaiti banks and the relationship between CG and BE, using an accountability framework. By examining the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, this study investigates the practices of BE and CG in Islamic banks (IBs) compared to conventional banks (CBs). We contribute to the scarce studies concerned with relations between CG and BE. We have employed a questionnaire survey method for a random sample of crucial relevant stakeholder groups. The empirical analysis of the participants’ perceptions highlights the importance of applying CG regulations and BE for Kuwaiti banks and the clear link between the two concepts. We find that the main concern is not the absence of CG and BE codes, but the lack of consistent enforcement of the regulations. Such a system needs to be strictly and effectively implemented in Kuwaiti banks to protect all stakeholders’ wealth, not only that of stockholders. There are significant patterns in the CG and BE expectations among different stakeholder groups. Most interestingly, banks’ client groups illustrate high expectations concerning CG and BE practices.

Keywords: corporate governance, GC, business ethics, BE, Islamic banks, IBs, conventional banks, CBs, accountability

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3576 Development of Model for Effective Sub- District Municipality Wastewater Management

Authors: Vitool Suksankavanich


This preliminary research aimed to explore the development of wastewater management of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality, Samutprakan Province, in order to establish appropriate model for effective wastewater management that fit to the context of the area. The research posed three questions: [i] to what extent the promotion of social responsibility awareness built among the local community resulted in effectiveness of the local wastewater management; [ii] did the waste disposal management of Bang Pu Industrial Estate contribute to the overall environmental quality of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality; and [iii] did the relationship between the community and the industrial factories have any effect on the wastewater management. The in- depth interview revealed main obstacles occurred in the process of wastewater management in the area. The fieldwork also contributed to a product of an appropriate model of effective wastewater management.

Keywords: legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, social responsibility, wastewater management

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3575 Sustainable Enterprise Theory: A Starting Point for Reporting Sustainable Business Values

Authors: Arne Fagerstrom, Gary Cunningham, Fredrik Hartwig


In this paper, a theory of sustainable enterprises, sustainable enterprise theory (SET), is developed. The sustainable enterprise theory can only be a valid theory if knowledge about life and nature is complete. Knowledge limitations should not stop enterprises from doing business with a goal of better long-term life on earth. Life demands stewardship of the resources used during one’s lifetime. This paper develops a model influenced by (the classical) enterprise theory and resource theory that includes more than money in the business activities of an enterprise. The sustainable enterprise theory is then used in an analysis of accountability and in discussions about sustainable businesses.

Keywords: sustainable business, sustainability reporting, sustainable values, theory of the firm

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3574 Perceptions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in Physiotherapy Management for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Qualitative Exploration of Stakeholder Views

Authors: Latifa Alenezi, Liz Croot, Janet Harris


Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is one of the most common and recurrent musculoskeletal problems that causes patients to access health care services frequently. The Bio-psychosocial Model emphasises that psychological, behavioural and social factors contribute to the development and persistence of CLBP. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a psychological pain management strategy that can be used by physiotherapists treating chronic low back pain. However, evidence of the effectiveness of CBT for CLBP varies between different studies. The proposed study was preceded by a mixed methods systematic review that found that CBT has a beneficial effect for CLBP patients when compared to waiting list or other treatments; however, there is variation in effectiveness across different settings. Little is known about how CBT is applied by physiotherapists in physiotherapy settings. The interest of this study is directed towards generating an explanation and understanding of why, when, and how some physiotherapists make decisions and choose to apply CBT for CLBP patients, whereas others do not. Also, how and for what type of CLBP patients does CBT work, and for whom might CBT not work? Therefore, the study will take a qualitative approach to explore CLBP patients’, physiotherapists’ and managers’ perceptions of CBT and how it is used in physiotherapy to enable a deeper understanding and richer explanation of CBT effectiveness and help to inform research and practice. The study will use grounded theory approach to generate an explanatory theory of the clinical application of CBT for CLBP in physiotherapy settings. Physiotherapists, patients and managers of physiotherapy services will be interviewed. Grounded theory techniques will be used to analyse the data. The presentation will describe findings from the interviews and the emerging theory. This research will help to further inform RCTs about the effectiveness of CBT for CLBP in physiotherapy.

Keywords: CBT, CLBP, perception, physiotherapy, theory

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3573 Sustainable Development Goals: The Effect of a Board Structure on the Sustainability Performance

Authors: V. Naciti, L. Pulejo, F. Cesaroni


This study empirically analyzes whether the composition of the board of directors (BoD) enhances sustainability performance, in order to understand how the BoD contribute to the integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their businesses. Hypotheses are developed based on the agency theory and stakeholder theory. Using a system generalized method of the moment (SGMM) two-step estimator, with data from Sustainalytics and Compustat databases for 362 firms in six regions, we find that firms with more diversity on the board and a separation of chair and CEO roles have higher sustainability performance. Moreover, our findings provide that a higher number of independent directors is negatively associated with sustainability performance. This study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and the firm’s performance by demonstrating that the composition of the board of directors contributes to a better sustainability performance: by the implementation of a particular corporate governance mechanism, it is possible to integrate SDGs in the corporate strategy.

Keywords: sustainable development goals, corporate governance, board of directors, sustainability performance

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3572 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami


The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.

Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order Logic

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3571 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha


Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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3570 Adopting a Stakeholder Perspective to Profile Successful Sustainable Circular Business Approaches: A Single Case Study

Authors: Charleen von Kolpinski, Karina Cagarman, Alina Blaute


The circular economy concept is often framed by politicians, scientists and practitioners as being the solution to sustainability problems of our times. However, the focus of these discussions and publications is very often set on environmental and economic aspects. In contrast, the social dimension of sustainability has been neglected and only a few recent and mostly conceptual studies targeted the inclusion of social aspects and the SDGs into circular economy research. All stakeholders of this new circular system have to be included to represent a truly sustainable solution to all the environmental, economic and social challenges caused by the linear economic system. Hence, this empirical research aims to analyse, next to the environmental and economic dimension, also explicitly the social dimension of a sustainable circular business model. This inductive and explorative approach applies the single case study method. A multi-stakeholder view is adopted to shed light on social aspects of the circular business model. Different stakeholder views, tensions between stakeholders and conflicts of interest are detected. In semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders of the company, this study compares the different stakeholder views to profile the success factors of its business model in terms of sustainability implementation and to detect its shortcomings. These findings result in the development of propositions which cover different social aspects of sustainable circular business model implementation. This study is an answer to calls for future empirical research about the social dimension of the circular economy and contributes to sustainable business model thinking in entrepreneurial contexts of the circular economy. It helps identifying all relevant stakeholders and their needs to successfully and inclusively implement a sustainable circular business model. The method of a single case study has some limitations by nature as it only covers one enterprise with its special business model. Therefore, more empirical studies are needed to research sustainable circular business models from multiple stakeholder perspectives, in different countries and industries. Future research can build upon the developed propositions of this study and develop hypotheses to be tested.

Keywords: circular economy, single case study, social dimension, sustainable circular business model

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3569 Collaboration with Governmental Stakeholders in Positioning Reputation on Value

Authors: Zeynep Genel


The concept of reputation in corporate development comes to the fore as one of the most frequently discussed topics in recent years. Many organizations, which make worldwide investments, make effort in order to adapt themselves to the topics within the scope of this concept and to promote the name of the organization through the values that might become prominent. The stakeholder groups are considered as the most important actors determining the reputation. Even, the effect of stakeholders is not evaluated as a direct factor; it is signed as indirect effects of their perception are a very strong on ultimate reputation. It is foreseen that the parallelism between the projected reputation and the perceived c reputation, which is established as a result of communication experiences perceived by the stakeholders, has an important effect on achieving these objectives. In assessing the efficiency of these efforts, the opinions of stakeholders are widely utilized. In other words, the projected reputation, in which the positive and/or negative reflections of corporate communication play effective role, is measured through how the stakeholders perceptively position the organization. From this perspective, it is thought that the interaction and cooperation of corporate communication professionals with different stakeholder groups during the reputation positioning efforts play significant role in achieving the targeted reputation or in sustainability of this value. The governmental stakeholders having intense communication with mass stakeholder groups are within the most effective stakeholder groups of organization. The most important reason of this is that the organizations, regarding which the governmental stakeholders have positive perception, inspire more confidence to the mass stakeholders. At this point, the organizations carrying out joint projects with governmental stakeholders in parallel with sustainable communication approach come to the fore as the organizations having strong reputation, whereas the reputation of organizations, which fall behind in this regard or which cannot establish the efficiency from this aspect, is thought to be perceived as weak. Similarly, the social responsibility campaigns, in which the governmental stakeholders are involved and which play efficient role in strengthening the reputation, are thought to draw more attention. From this perspective, the role and effect of governmental stakeholders on the reputation positioning is discussed in this study. In parallel with this objective, it is aimed to reveal perspectives of seven governmental stakeholders towards the cooperation in reputation positioning. The sample group representing the governmental stakeholders is examined under the lights of results obtained from in-depth interviews with the executives of different ministries. It is asserted that this study, which aims to express the importance of stakeholder participation in corporate reputation positioning especially in Turkey and the effective role of governmental stakeholders in strong reputation, might provide a new perspective on measuring the corporate reputation, as well as establishing an important source to contribute to the studies in both academic and practical domains.

Keywords: collaborative communications, reputation management, stakeholder engagement, ultimate reputation

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3568 Integration of Corporate Social Responsibility Criteria in Employee Variable Remuneration Plans

Authors: Jian Wu


Since a few years, some French companies have integrated CRS (corporate social responsibility) criteria in their variable remuneration plans to ‘restore a good working atmosphere’ and ‘preserve the natural environment’. These CSR criteria are based on concerns on environment protection, social aspects, and corporate governance. In June 2012, a report on this practice has been made jointly by ORSE (which means Observatory on CSR in French) and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Facing this initiative from the business world, we need to examine whether it has a real economic utility. We adopt a theoretical approach for our study. First, we examine the debate between the ‘orthodox’ point of view in economics and the CSR school of thought. The classical economic model asserts that in a capitalist economy, exists a certain ‘invisible hand’ which helps to resolve all problems. When companies seek to maximize their profits, they are also fulfilling, de facto, their duties towards society. As a result, the only social responsibility that firms should have is profit-searching while respecting the minimum legal requirement. However, the CSR school considers that, as long as the economy system is not perfect, there is no ‘invisible hand’ which can arrange all in a good order. This means that we cannot count on any ‘divine force’ which makes corporations responsible regarding to society. Something more needs to be done in addition to firms’ economic and legal obligations. Then, we reply on some financial theories and empirical evident to examine the sound foundation of CSR. Three theories developed in corporate governance can be used. Stakeholder theory tells us that corporations owe a duty to all of their stakeholders including stockholders, employees, clients, suppliers, government, environment, and society. Social contract theory tells us that there are some tacit ‘social contracts’ between a company and society itself. A firm has to respect these contracts if it does not want to be punished in the form of fine, resource constraints, or bad reputation. Legitime theory tells us that corporations have to ‘legitimize’ their actions toward society if they want to continue to operate in good conditions. As regards empirical results, we present a literature review on the relationship between the CSR performance and the financial performance of a firm. We note that, due to difficulties in defining these performances, this relationship remains still ambiguous despite numerous research works realized in the field. Finally, we are curious to know whether the integration of CSR criteria in variable remuneration plans – which is practiced so far in big companies – should be extended to other ones. After investigation, we note that two groups of firms have the greatest need. The first one involves industrial sectors whose activities have a direct impact on the environment, such as petroleum and transport companies. The second one involves companies which are under pressures in terms of return to deal with international competition.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, variable remuneration, stakeholder theory

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3567 The Role of Businesses in Peacebuilding in Nigeria: A Stakeholder Approach

Authors: Jamila Mohammed Makarfi, Yontem Sonmez


Developing countries like Nigeria have recently been affected by conflicts characterized by violence, high levels of risk and insecurity, resulting in loss of lives, livelihoods, displacement of communities, degradation of health, educational and social infrastructure as well as economic underdevelopment. The Nigerian government’s response to most of these conflicts has mainly been reactionary in the form of military deployments, as against precautionary to prevent or address the root causes of the conflicts. Several studies have shown that at various points of a conflict, conflict regions can benefit from the resources and expertise available outside the government, mainly from the private sector through mechanisms such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) by businesses. The main aim of this study is to examine the role of businesses in peacebuilding in Northern Nigeria through CSR in the last decade. The expected contributions from this will answer research questions, such as the key business motivations to engage in peacebuilding, as well as the degree of influence exerted from various stakeholder groups on the business decision to engage. The methodology of the study adopts a multiple case study of over 120 businesses of various sizes, ranging from small, medium and large-scale. A mixed method enabled the collection of quantitative and qualitative primary data to augment the secondary data. The results indicated that the most important business motivations to engage in peacebuilding were the negative effects of the conflict on economic stability, as well as stakeholder-driven motives. On the other hand, out of the 12 identified stakeholders, micro-, small- and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) considered the chief executive officer’s interest to be the most important factor, while large companies rated the government and community pressure as the highest. Overall, the foreign stakeholders scored low on the influence chart for all business types.

Keywords: conflict, corporate social responsibility, peacebuilding, stakeholder

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3566 Embedding Looping Concept into Corporate CSR Strategy for Sustainable Growth: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Vani Tanggamani, Azlan Amran


The issues of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) have been extended from developmental economics to corporate and business in recent years. Research in issues related to CSR is deemed to make higher impacts as CSR encourages long-term economy and business success without neglecting social, environmental risks, obligations and opportunities. Therefore, CSR is a key matter for any organisation aiming for long term sustainability since business incorporates principles of social responsibility into each of its business decisions. Thus, this paper presents a theoretical proposition based on stakeholder theory from the organisational perspective as a foundation for better CSR practices. The primary subject of this paper is to explore how looping concept can be effectively embedded into corporate CSR strategy to foster sustainable long term growth. In general, the concept of a loop is a structure or process, the end of which is connected to the beginning, whereas the narrow view of a loop in business field means plan, do, check, and improve. In this sense, looping concept is a blend of balance and agility with the awareness to know when to which. Organisations can introduce similar pull mechanisms by formulating CSR strategies in order to perform the best plan of actions in real time, then a chance to change those actions, pushing them toward well-organized planning and successful performance. Through the analysis of an exploratory study, this paper demonstrates that approaching looping concept in the context of corporate CSR strategy is an important source of new idea to propel CSR practices by deepening basic understanding through the looping concept which is increasingly necessary to attract and retain business stakeholders include people such as employees, customers, suppliers and other communities for long-term business survival. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a fundamental explanation of how the organisations will experience less financial and reputation risk if looping concept logic is integrated into core business CSR strategy.The value of the paper rests in the treatment of looping concept as a corporate CSR strategy which demonstrates "looping concept implementation framework for CSR" that could further foster business sustainability, and help organisations move along the path from laggards to leaders.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, looping concept, stakeholder theory, sustainable growth

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3565 Enhance Concurrent Design Approach through a Design Methodology Based on an Artificial Intelligence Framework: Guiding Group Decision Making to Balanced Preliminary Design Solution

Authors: Loris Franchi, Daniele Calvi, Sabrina Corpino


This paper presents a design methodology in which stakeholders are assisted with the exploration of a so-called negotiation space, aiming to the maximization of both group social welfare and single stakeholder’s perceived utility. The outcome results in less design iterations needed for design convergence while obtaining a higher solution effectiveness. During the early stage of a space project, not only the knowledge about the system but also the decision outcomes often are unknown. The scenario is exacerbated by the fact that decisions taken in this stage imply delayed costs associated with them. Hence, it is necessary to have a clear definition of the problem under analysis, especially in the initial definition. This can be obtained thanks to a robust generation and exploration of design alternatives. This process must consider that design usually involves various individuals, who take decisions affecting one another. An effective coordination among these decision-makers is critical. Finding mutual agreement solution will reduce the iterations involved in the design process. To handle this scenario, the paper proposes a design methodology which, aims to speed-up the process of pushing the mission’s concept maturity level. This push up is obtained thanks to a guided negotiation space exploration, which involves autonomously exploration and optimization of trade opportunities among stakeholders via Artificial Intelligence algorithms. The negotiation space is generated via a multidisciplinary collaborative optimization method, infused by game theory and multi-attribute utility theory. In particular, game theory is able to model the negotiation process to reach the equilibria among stakeholder needs. Because of the huge dimension of the negotiation space, a collaborative optimization framework with evolutionary algorithm has been integrated in order to guide the game process to efficiently and rapidly searching for the Pareto equilibria among stakeholders. At last, the concept of utility constituted the mechanism to bridge the language barrier between experts of different backgrounds and differing needs, using the elicited and modeled needs to evaluate a multitude of alternatives. To highlight the benefits of the proposed methodology, the paper presents the design of a CubeSat mission for the observation of lunar radiation environment. The derived solution results able to balance all stakeholders needs and guaranteeing the effectiveness of the selection mission concept thanks to its robustness in valuable changeability. The benefits provided by the proposed design methodology are highlighted, and further development proposed.

Keywords: concurrent engineering, artificial intelligence, negotiation in engineering design, multidisciplinary optimization

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3564 Decentralization and Participatory Approach in the Cultural Heritage Management in Local Thailand

Authors: Amorn Kritsanaphan


This paper illustrates the decentralization of cultural heritage management in local Thailand, a place similar to other middle- income developing countries characterized by rapid tourism-industrialization, weakness formal state institutions and procedures, and intensity use of the cultural heritage resources. The author conducted field research in local Thailand, principally using qualitative primary data gathering. These were combined with records reviews and content analysis of documents. The author also attended local public meetings, and social activities, and interacted casually with local residents and governments. Cultural heritage management has been supposed to improve through multi-stakeholder participation and decentralization. However, processes and outcomes are far from being straightforward and depend on a variety of contingencies and contexts involved. Multi-stakeholder and participatory approach in decentralization of the cultural heritage management in Thailand have pushed to the forefront and sharpened a number of existing problems. However, under the decentralization, the most significant contribution has been in creating real political space where various local stakeholders have become active, respond and address their concerns in various ways vis-à-vis cultural heritage problems. Improving cultural heritage sustainability and viability of local livelihoods through decentralization and participatory approach is by no means certain. However, the shift instead creates spaces potent with possibilities for a meaningful and constructive engagement between and among local state and non-state actors that can lead to synergies and positive outcomes.

Keywords: decentralization, participatory approach, cultural heritage management, multi-stakeholder approach

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3563 Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility Adoption: Evidence from China

Authors: Jing (Claire) LI


More than two decades from 2000 to 2020 of economic reforms have brought China unprecedented economic growth. There is an urgent call of research towards corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the context of China because while China continues to develop into a global trading market, it suffers from various serious problems relating to CSR. This study analyses the factors affecting the adoption of CSR practices by Chinese listed companies. The author proposes a new framework of factors of CSR adoption. Following common organisational factors and external factors in the literature (including organisational support, company size, shareholder pressures, and government support), this study introduces two additional factors, dynamic capability and regional culture. A survey questionnaire was conducted on the CSR adoption of Chinese listed companies in Shen Zhen and Shang Hai index from December 2019 to March 2020. The survey was conducted to collect data on the factors that affect the adoption of CSR. After collection of data, this study performed factor analysis to reduce the number of measurement items to several main factors. This procedure is to confirm the proposed framework and ensure the significant factors. Through analysis, this study identifies four grouped factors as determinants of the CSR adoption. The first factor loading includes dynamic capability and organisational support. The study finds that they are positively related to the first factor, so the first factor mainly reflects the capabilities of companies, which is one component in internal factors. In the second factor, measurement items of stakeholder pressures mainly are from regulatory bodies, customer and supplier, employees and community, and shareholders. In sum, they are positively related to the second factor and they reflect stakeholder pressures, which is one component of external factors. The third factor reflects organisational characteristics. Variables include company size and cultural score. Among these variables, company size is negatively related to the third factor. The resulted factor loading of the third factor implies that organisational factor is an important determinant of CSR adoption. Cultural consistency, the variable in the fourth factor, is positively related to the factor. It represents the difference between perception of managers and actual culture of the organisations in terms of cultural dimensions, which is one component in internal factors. It implies that regional culture is an important factor of CSR adoption. Overall, the results are consistent with previous literature. This study is of significance from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. First, from the significance of theoretical perspective, this research combines stakeholder theory, dynamic capability view of a firm, and neo-institutional theory in CSR research. Based on association of these three theories, this study introduces two new factors (dynamic capability and regional culture) to have a better framework for CSR adoption. Second, this study contributes to empirical literature of CSR in the context of China. Extant Chinese companies lack recognition of the importance of CSR practices adoption. This study built a framework and may help companies to design resource allocation strategies and evaluate future CSR and management practices in an early stage.

Keywords: China, corporate social responsibility, CSR adoption, dynamic capability, regional culture

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3562 Financial Capacity, Governance, and Corporate Engagement in Environmental Protection

Authors: Lubica Hikkerova, Jean-Michel Sahut


Environmental protection remains a global challenge but, since 2012, there has been a progressive decline in corporate engagement in environmental protection issues. This study seeks to investigate the role of financial capacity and governance in improving the level of environmental engagement of companies. The regression technique is applied to data on 351 large European companies from the ASSET4-ESG database for the 2007-2015 period. Firstly, the results show that the companies in the sample are fairly engaged in environmental protection, with a strong dispersion representing nearly four times the average. This means that the companies in the sample do not share the same level of engagement in matters of environmental protection, some being more committed than others. Secondly, the results reveal that the financial capacity of the company, as assessed through its indicators, has a significant effect on its level of environmental protection engagement in the present sample. This effect is more positive the higher the profits the company makes, and more negative the more heavily indebted or, the higher the rates of dividends it pays per share. Lastly, the results also show that a better quality of governance plays an important role in the decision to undertake actions leading to environmental protection. More specifically, the degree of management implication in the running of the business, the respect of the rights of the shareholders, the effectiveness of the control exerted by the board of directors, and, to a lesser extent, the independence of the audit committee, are variables which have a positive and significant influence on the level of environmental engagement of companies.

Keywords: financial capacity, corporate governance, environmental engagement, stakeholder theory, theory of organizational legitimacy, theory of resources and capabilities

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