Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2374

Search results for: metal ions

2374 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar


Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

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2373 Structural and Ion Exchange Studies of Terpolymer Resin Derived from 4, 4'-Biphenol-4,4'-Oxydianiline-Formaldehyde

Authors: Pawan P. Kalbende, Anil B. Zade


A novel terpolymer resin has been synthesized by condensation polymerization reaction of 4,4’-biphenol and 4,4’-oxydianiline with formaldehyde in presence of 2M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. Composition of resin was determined on the basis of their elemental analysis and further characterized by UV-Visible, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confine the most probable structure of synthesized terpolymer. Newly synthesized terpolymer was proved to be a selective chelating ion-exchanger for certain metal ions and were studied for Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions using their metal nitrate solutions. A batch equilibrium method was employed to study the selectivity of metal ions uptake involving the measurements of the distribution of a given metal ion between the terpolymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range, shaking time and in media of different electrolytes at different ionic strengths. Distribution ratios of metal ions were found to be increased by rising pH of the solutions. Hence, it can be used to recover certain metal ions from waste water for the purpose of purification of water and removal of iron from boiler water.

Keywords: terpolymers, ion-exchangers, distribution ratio, metal ion uptake

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2372 Effect of Some Metal Ions on the Activity of Lipase Produced by Aspergillus Niger Cultured on Vitellaria Paradoxa Shells

Authors: Abdulhakeem Sulyman, Olukotun Zainab, Hammed Abdulquadri


Lipases (triacylglycerol acyl hydrolases) (EC are class of enzymes that catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. They account for up to 10% of the enzyme in the market and have a wide range of applications in biofuel production, detergent formulation, leather processing and in food and feed processing industry. This research was conducted to study the effect of some metal ions on the activity of purified lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells. Purified lipase in 12.5 mM p-NPL was incubated with different metal ions (Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺). The final concentrations of metal ions investigated were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 mM. The results obtained from the study showed that Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ ions increased the activity of lipase up to 3.0, 3.0, 1.0, and 26.0 folds respectively. Lipase activity was partially inhibited by Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ with up to 88.5% and 83.7% loss of activity respectively. Lipase activity was also inhibited by K⁺ with up to 56.7% loss in the activity as compared to in the absence of metal ions. The study concluded that lipase produced by Aspergillus niger cultured on Vitellaria paradoxa shells can be activated by the presence of Zn²⁺, Ca²⁺, Mn²⁺ and Fe²⁺ and inhibited by Na⁺, K⁺ and Mg²⁺.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Vitellaria paradoxa, lipase, metal ions

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2371 Spectrofluorimetric Investigation of Copper (II), Cobalt (II), Calcium (II), and Ferric (III) Influence on the Ciprofloxacin Binding to Bovine Serum Albumin

Authors: Ahmed K. Youssef, Shawkat M. B. Aly


The interaction between ciprofloxacin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of Cu²⁺ Ca²⁺, Co²⁺, and Fe³⁺ on the Cip-BSA interaction was investigated. The quenching of the BSA fluorescence emission in presence of ciprofloxacin as well as the influence of metal ions on the interaction was analyzed using the Stern-Volmer equation. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, Kₛᵥ was calculated in presence and absence of the metal ions at the physiological pH of 7.4 using phosphate buffer. The experimental results showed that interaction mainly static in nature and quenching rate constant is decreased in presence of the studied metal ions with exception of Cu²⁺ ions. The decrease observed in the Kₛᵥ values in presence of Co²⁺, Ca²⁺, and Fe³⁺ can be understood on basis of competition between these metal and Cip when both of them existed in the BSA solution. Cu²⁺ induces interaction between Cip and BSA at faster quenching rates as inferred from the observed increase in the Kₛᵥ value. This allowed us to propose that copper (II) ions are directly involved in the process of Cip binding to BSA. The binding constant for Cip on BSA was determined and the metal ions effect on it was examined as well and their values were in line with the Kₛᵥ values.

Keywords: bovine serum albumin, ciprofloxacin, fluorescence, metal ions effect

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2370 Study of the Adsorption of Metal Ions Ag+ Mg2+, Ni2+ by the Chemical and Electrochemical Polydibenzoether Crown

Authors: Dalila Chouder, Djaafer Benachour


This work concerns the study of the adsorption of metal ions Ag +, Mg +, and Ni2+ in aqueous medium by polydibenzoether-ROWN based on three factors: Temperature, time and concentration. The polydibenzoether crown was synthesized by two means: Chemical and electrochemical. The behavior of the two polymers has been different, and turns out very interesting for chemical polydibenzoether crown has identified conditions. Chemical and électronique polydibenzoether crown have different extraction screw vi property of adsoption of ions fifférents, this study also shows that plyméres doped may have an advantageous electrical conductivity.

Keywords: polymerization, electrochemical, conductivity, complexing metal ions

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
2369 Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution by Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration Using Unmodified Starch as Biopolymer

Authors: Nurul Huda Baharuddin, Nik Meriam Nik Sulaiman, Mohammed Kheireddine Aroua


The effects of pH, polymer concentration, and metal ions feed concentration for four selected heavy metals Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were tested by using Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (PEUF). An alternative biopolymer namely unmodified starch is proposed as a binding reagent in consequences, as compared to commonly used water-soluble polymers namely polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) in the removal of selected four heavy metal ions. The speciation species profiles of four selected complexes ions namely Zn (II), Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the present of hydroxides ions (OH-) in variously charged ions were investigated by available software at certain pH range. In corresponds to identify the potential of complexation behavior between metal ion-polymers, potentiometric titration studies were obtained at first before carried out experimental works. Experimental works were done using ultrafiltration systems obtained by laboratory ultrafiltration bench scale equipped with 10 kDa polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. Throughout the laboratory works, the rejection coefficient and permeate flux were found to be significantly affected by the main operating parameter, namely the effects of pH, polymer composition and metal ions concentrations. The interaction of complexation between two binding polymers namely unmodified starch and PEG were occurred due to physical attraction of metal ions to the polymer on the molecular surface with high possibility of chemical occurrence. However, these selected metal ions are mainly complexes by polymer functional groups whenever there is interaction with PEI polymer. For study of single metal ions solutions, Zn (II) ions' rejections approaching over 90% were obtained at pH 7 for each tested polymer. This behavior was similar to Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cr (VI); where the rejections were obtained at lower acidic pH and increased at neutral pH of 7. Different behavior was found by Cr (VI) ions where a high rejection was only achieved at acidic pH region with PEI. Polymer concentration and metal ions concentration are found to have a significant effect on rejections. For mixed metal ion solutions, the behavior of metal ion rejections was similar to single metal ion solutions for investigation on the effects of pH. Rejection values were high at pH 7 for Zn (II) pH 7 for Zn (II) and Cr (III) ions, corresponding to higher rejections with unmodified starch. Pb (II) ions obtained high rejections when tested with PEG whenever carried out in mixed metal ion solutions. High Cr (VI) ions' rejection was found with PEI in single and mixed metal ions solutions at neutral pH range. The influence of starch’s granule structure towards the rejections of these four selected metal ions is found to be attracted in a non-ionic manner. No significant effects on permeate flux were obtained when tested at different pH ranges, polymer concentrations and metal ions feed either by single or mixtures metal ions solutions. Canizares Model was employed as the theoretical model to predict permeate flux and metal ions retention on the study of heavy metal ions removal.

Keywords: polyethyleneimine, polyethylene glycol, polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration, unmodified starch

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2368 Indicator-Immobilized, Cellulose Based Optical Sensing Membrane for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: Nisha Dhariwal, Anupama Sharma


The synthesis of cellulose nanofibrils quaternized with 3‐chloro‐2‐hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in NaOH/urea aqueous solution has been reported. Xylenol Orange (XO) has been used as an indicator for selective detection of Sn (II) ions, by its immobilization on quaternized cellulose membrane. The effects of pH, reagent concentration and reaction time on the immobilization of XO have also been studied. The linear response, limit of detection, and interference of other metal ions have also been studied and no significant interference has been observed. The optical chemical sensor displayed good durability and short response time with negligible leaching of the reagent.

Keywords: cellulose, chemical sensor, heavy metal ions, indicator immobilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
2367 Managing of Cobalt and Chromium Ions by Patients with Metal-on-Metal Hip Prosthesis

Authors: Alina Beraudi, Simona Catalani, Dalila De Pasquale, Eva Bianconi, Umberto Santoro, Susanna Stea, Pietro Apostoli


Recently the European Community, in line with the international scientific community such as with the Consensus Statement, has determined to stop the use of metal-on-metal big head stemmed hip prosthesis. Among the factors accounted as responsible for the high failure rates of these hip implants are the release and accumulation of metal ions. Many studies have correlated the presence of these ions, besides other factors, with the induction of oxidative stress response. In our study on 12 subjects, we observed the patient specific capability to eliminate metal ions after revision surgery. While for cobalt all the patients were able to completely excrete cobalt ions within 5-7 months after metal-on-metal bearing removal, for chromium ions it didn’t happen. If on the one hand the toxicokinetic differences between the two types of ions are confirmed by toxicological and occupational studies, on the other hand, this peculiar way of exposition represents a novel and important point of view. Thus, two different approaches were performed to better understand the subject specific capability to transport metal ions (albumin study) and to manage the response to them (heme-oxygenase-1 study): - a mutational screening of ALBUMIN gene was conducted in 30 MoM prosthetic patients resulting in the absence of nucleotidic changes compared with the ALB reference sequence. To this study was also added the analysis of expression of modified albumin protein; - a gene and protein expression study on 44 patients of heme-oxygenase-1, that is one of the most important antioxidant enzyme induced by metallic ions, was performed. This study resulted in no statistically significant differences in the expression of the gene and protein heme-oxygenase-1 between prosthetic and non-prosthetic patients, as well as between patients with high and low ions levels. Our results show that the protein studied (albumin and heme-oxygenase-1) seem to be not involved in determining chromium and cobalt ions level. On the other hand, achromium and cobalt elimination rates are different, but similar in all patients analyzed, suggesting that this process could be not patient-related. We support the importance of researching more about ions transport within the organism once released by hip prosthesis, about the chemical species involved, the districts where they are contained and the mechanisms of elimination, not excluding the existence of a subjective susceptibility to these metals ions.

Keywords: chromium, cobalt, hip prosthesis, individual susceptibility

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2366 Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: adsorption, alginate polymer, isothermal models, equilibrium

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2365 The Batch Method Approach for Adsorption Mechanism Processes of Some Selected Heavy Metal Ions and Methylene Blue by Using Chemically Modified Luffa Cylindrica

Authors: Akanimo Emene, Mark D. Ogden, Robert Edyvean


Adsorption is a low cost, efficient and economically viable wastewater treatment process. Utilization of this treatment process has not been fully applied due to the complex and not fully understood nature of the adsorption system. To optimize its process is to choose a sufficient adsorbent and to study further the experimental parameters that influence the adsorption design system. Chemically modified adsorbent, Luffa cylindrica, was used to adsorb heavy metal ions and an organic pollutant, methylene blue, from aqueous environmental solution at varying experimental conditions. Experimental factors, adsorption time, initial metal ion or organic pollutant concentration, ionic strength, and pH of solution were studied. The experimental data were analyzed with kinetic and isotherm models. The antagonistic effect of the methylene and some heavy metal ions were recorded. An understanding of the use of this treated Luffa cylindrica for the removal of these toxic substances will establish and improve the commercial application of the adsorption process in treatment of contaminated waters.

Keywords: adsorption, heavy metal ions, Luffa cylindrica, wastewater treatment

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2364 Optimization of Synergism Extraction of Toxic Metals (Lead, Copper) from Chlorides Solutions with Mixture of Cationic and Solvating Extractants

Authors: F. Hassaine-Sadi, S. Chelouaou


In recent years, environmental contamination by toxic metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn ... has become a worldwide crucial problem, particularly in some areas where the population depends on groundwater for drinking daily consumption. Thus, the sources of metal ions come from the metal manufacturing industry, fertilizers, batteries, paints, pigments and so on. Solvent extraction of metal ions has given an important role in the development of metal purification processes such as the synergistic extraction of some divalent cations metals ( M²⁺), the ions metals from various sources. This work consists of a water purification technique that involves the lead and copper systems: Pb²⁺, H₃O+, Cl⁻ and Cu²⁺, H₃O⁺, Cl⁻ for diluted solutions by a mixture of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or Tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in kerosene. The study of the fundamental parameters influencing the extraction synergism: cation exchange/extraction solvent have been examined.

Keywords: synergistic extraction, lead, copper, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2363 The Influence of Clayey Pellet Size on Adsorption Efficiency of Metal Ions Removal from Waste Printing Developer

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna


The adsorption efficiency of fired clayey pellets of 5 and 8 mm diameter size for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions removal from a waste printing developer was studied. In order to investigate the influence of contact time, adsorbent mass and pellet size on the adsorption efficiency the batch mode was carried out. Faster uptake of copper ions was obtained with the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size within 30 minutes. The pellets of 8 mm diameter size showed the higher equilibrium time (60 to 75 minutes) for copper and zinc ions. The results pointed out that adsorption efficiency increases with the increase of adsorbent mass. The maximal efficiency is different for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions due to the pellet size. Therefore, the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size present an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) ions removal (adsorption efficiency is 63.6%), whereas the fired clay pellets of 8 mm diameter size are the best alternative for Zn(II) ions removal (adsorption efficiency is 92.8%) from a waste printing developer.

Keywords: adsorption efficiency, clayey pellet, metal ions, waste printing developer

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2362 The Transport of Coexisting Nanoscale Zinc Oxide Particles, Cu(Ⅱ) and Cr(Ⅵ) Ions in Simulated Landfill Leachate

Authors: Xiaoyu Li, Wenchuan Ding, Yujia Yia


As the nanoscale zinc oxide particles (nano-ZnO) accumulate in the landfill, nano-ZnO will enter the landfill leachate and come into contact with the heavy metal ions in leachate, which will change their transport process in the landfill and, furthermore, affect each other's environmental fate and toxicity. In this study, we explored the transport of co-existing nano-ZnO, Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions by column experiments under different stages of landfill leachate conditions (flow rate, pH, ionic strength, humic acid). The results show that Cu(II) inhibits the transport of nano-ZnO in the quartz sand column by increasing the surface potential of nano-ZnO, and nano-ZnO increases the retention of Cu(II) in the quartz sand column by adsorbing Cu(II) ions. Cr(VI) promotes the transport of nano-ZnO in the quartz sand column by neutralizing the surface potential of the nano-ZnO which reduces electrostatic attraction between nZnO and quartz sand, but the nano-ZnO has no effect on the transport of Cr(VI). The nature of landfill leachates such as flow rate, pH, ionic strength (IS) and humic acid (HA) has a certain effect on the transport of coexisting nano-ZnO and heavy metal ions. For leachate containing Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions, at the initial stage of landfilling, the pH of leachate is acidic, ionic strength value is high, the humic acid concentration is low, and the transportability of nano-ZnO is weak. As the landfill age increased, the pH value in the leachate gradually increases, when the ions are raised to alkaline, these ions are trending to precipitated or adsorbed to the solid wastes in landfill, which resulting in low IS value of leachate. At the same time, more refractory organic matter gradually increases such as HA, which provides repulsive steric effects, so the nano-ZnO is more likely to migrate. Overall, the Cr(VI) can promote the transport of nano-ZnO more than Cu(II).

Keywords: heavy metal ions, landfill leachate, nano-ZnO, transport

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2361 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko


A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: activated carbon, pseudo second order, chromium, lead, Elovich model

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2360 Adsorption of Lead and Zinc Ions Onto Chemical Activated Millet Husk: Equilibrium and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Linda Sibali


In this study, the adsorption of lead and zinc ions from aqueous solutions by modified millet husk has been investigated. The effects of different parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentration, temperature, and contact time, have been investigated. The results of the experiments showed that the adsorption of both metal ions increased by increasing pH values up to 11. Adsorption process was initially fast. The adsorption rate decreased then until it reached to equilibrium time of 120 min for both lead and zinc ions. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and thermodynamic models (Gibbs free energy) were used to determine the isotherm parameters associated with the adsorption process. The positive values of Gibbs free energy change indicated that reaction is not spontaneous. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption, and it was found that adsorption process for both metal ions followed pseudo-first order for zinc and pseudo-second-order for lead.

Keywords: zinc, lead, adsorption, millet husks

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2359 Removal of Metal Ions (II) Using a Synthetic Bis(2-Pyridylmethyl)Amino-Chloroacetyl Chloride- Ethylenediamine-Grafted Graphene Oxide Sheets

Authors: Laroussi Chaabane, Emmanuel Beyou, Amel El Ghali, Mohammed Hassen V. Baouab


The functionalization of graphene oxide sheets by ethylenediamine (EDA) was accomplished followed by the grafting of bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino group (BPED) onto the activated graphene oxide sheets in the presence of chloroacetylchloride (CAC) produced the martial [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED]. The physic-chemical properties of [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPs), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] was used for removing M(II) (where M=Cu, Ni and Co) ions from aqueous solutions using a batch process. The effect of pH, contact time and temperature were investigated. More importantly, the [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] adsorbent exhibited remarkable performance in capturing heavy metal ions from water. The maximum adsorption capacity values of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) on the [(GO-EDA-CAC)-BPED] at the pH of 7 is 3.05 mmol.g⁻¹, 3.25 mmol.g⁻¹ and 3.05 mmol.g⁻¹ respectively. To examine the underlying mechanism of the adsorption process, pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were fitted to experimental kinetic data. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation was appropriate to describe the three metal ions adsorption by [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED]. Adsorption data were further analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Jossensadsorption approaches. Additionally, the adsorption properties of the [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED], their reusability (more than 10 cycles) and durability in the aqueous solutions open the path to removal of metal ions (Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) from water solution. Based on the results obtained, we conclude that [(Go-EDA-CAC)-BPED] can be an effective and potential adsorbent for removing metal ions from an aqueous solution.

Keywords: graphene oxide, bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino, adsorption kinetics, isotherms

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2358 Coordination Polymer Hydrogels Based on Coinage Metals and Nucleobase Derivatives

Authors: Lamia L. G. Al-Mahamad, Benjamin R. Horrocks, Andrew Houlton


Hydrogels based on metal coordination polymers of nucleosides and a range of metal ions (Au, Ag, Cu) have been prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. AFM images of the xerogels revealed the formation of extremely long polymer molecules (> 10 micrometers, the maximum scan range). This result is also consistent with TEM images which show a fibrous morphology. Oxidative doping of the Au-nucleoside fibres produces an electrically conductive nanowire. No sharp Bragg peaks were found at the at the X-ray diffraction pattern for metal ions hydrogels indicating that the samples were amorphous, but instead the data showed broad peaks in the range 20 < Q < 40 and correspond to distances d=2μ/Q. The data was analysed using a simplified Rietveld method by fitting a regression model to obtain the distance between atoms.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions, nanowire, nucleoside

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2357 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy


Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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2356 Studies on Optimization of Batch Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Wastewater Using Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati


The objective of this present study is to optimize the process parameters for batch biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions by Bacillus subtilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Batch biosorption studies were conducted under optimum pH, temperature, biomass concentration and contact time for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions using Bacillus subtilis. From the studies it is noticed that the maximum biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) was by Bacillus subtilis at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 minutes, pH of 4.0, biomass concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, the temperature of 32°C in batch biosorption studies. Predicted percent biosorption of the selected heavy metal ions by the design expert software is in agreement with experimental results of percent biosorption. The percent biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in batch studies is 80% and 78.4%, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metal ions, response surface methodology, biosorption, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2355 A Multi-Templated Fe-Ni-Cu Ion Imprinted Polymer for the Selective and Simultaneous Removal of Toxic Metallic Ions from Wastewater

Authors: Morlu Stevens, Bareki Batlokwa


The use of treated wastewater is widely employed to compensate for the scarcity of safe and uncontaminated freshwater. However, the existence of toxic heavy metal ions in the wastewater pose a health hazard to animals and the environment, hence, the importance for an effective technique to tackle the challenge. A multi-templated ion imprinted sorbent (Fe,Ni,Cu-IIP) for the simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions from waste water was synthesised employing molecular imprinting technology (MIT) via thermal free radical bulk polymerization technique. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was employed as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linking agent, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator, Fe, Ni, Cu ions as template ions, and 1,10-phenanthroline as the complexing agent. The template ions were exhaustively washed off the synthesized polymer by solvent extraction in several washing steps, while periodically increasing solvent (HCl) concentration from 1.0 M to 10.0 M. The physical and chemical properties of the sorbents were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were employed. Optimization of operational parameters such as time, pH and sorbent dosage to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbents were investigated and found to be 15 min, 7.5 and 666.7 mg/L respectively. Selectivity of ion-imprinted polymers and competitive sorption studies between the template and similar ions were carried out and showed good selectivity towards the targeted metal ion by removing 90% - 98% of the templated ions as compared to 58% - 62% of similar ions. The sorbents were further applied for the selective removal of Fe, Ni and Cu from real wastewater samples and recoveries of 92.14 ± 0.16% - 106.09 ± 0.17% and linearities of R2 = 0.9993 - R2 = 0.9997 were achieved.

Keywords: ion imprinting, ion imprinted polymers, heavy metals, wastewater

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2354 Utilization of Fishbone for the Removal of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Media

Authors: Bukunola A.Oguntade, Abdul- Azeez A. Oderinde


Fishbone is a type of waste generated from food and food processing industries. Fishbone wastes are usually treated as the source of organic matter for the by-production. It is a rich source of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In this study, the adsorption behavior of fishbone was examined in a batch system as an economically viable adsorbent for the removal of Ni⁺² ions from aqueous solution. The powdered fishbone was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron microscope (SEM). The study investigated the influence of adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration on the removal of Nickel (II) ions at room temperature. The batch kinetics study showed that the optimum adsorption of Ni(II) was 98% at pH 7, metal ion concentration of 30 mg/L. The results obtained from the experimental work showed that fishbone can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, aqueous media, fishbone, kinetic study

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2353 C-Coordinated Chitosan Metal Complexes: Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Properties

Authors: Weixiang Liu, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Pengcheng Li


Plant diseases can cause the death of crops with great economic losses. Particularly, those diseases are usually caused by pathogenic fungi. Metal fungicides are a type of pesticide that has advantages of a low-cost, broad antimicrobial spectrum and strong sterilization effect. However, the frequent and wide application of traditional metal fungicides has caused serious problems such as environmental pollution, the outbreak of mites and phytotoxicity. Therefore, it is critically necessary to discover new organic metal fungicides alternatives that have a low metal content, low toxicity, and little influence on mites. Chitosan, the second most abundant natural polysaccharide next to cellulose, was proved to have broad-spectrum antifungal activity against a variety of fungi. However, the use of chitosan was limited due to its poor solubility and weaker antifungal activity compared with commercial fungicide. Therefore, in order to improve the water solubility and antifungal activity, many researchers grafted the active groups onto chitosan. The present work was to combine free metal ions with chitosan, to prepare more potent antifungal chitosan derivatives, thus, based on condensation reaction, chitosan derivative bearing amino pyridine group was prepared and subsequently followed by coordination with cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions to synthesize chitosan metal complexes. The calculations by density functional theory (DFT) show that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and all of them are coordinated by the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group and the oxygen atoms in the acetate ion. The antifungal properties of chitosan metal complexes against Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici), Gibberella zeae (G. zeae), Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) were also assayed. In addition, a plant toxicity experiment was carried out. The experiments indicated that the derivatives have significantly enhanced antifungal activity after metal ions complexation compared with the original chitosan. It was shown that 0.20 mg/mL of O-CSPX-Cu can 100% inhibit the growth of P. capsici and 0.20 mg/mL of O-CSPX-Ni can 87.5% inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. In general, their activities are better than the positive control oligosaccharides. The combination of the pyridine formyl groups seems to favor biological activity. Additionally, the ligand fashion was precisely analyzed, and the results revealed that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and the carbon atoms of the p-π conjugate group and the oxygen atoms of acetate ion are involved in the coordination of metal ions. The phytotoxicity assay of O-CSPX-M was also conducted, unlike the traditional metal fungicides, the metal complexes were not significantly toxic to the leaves of wheat. O-CSPX-Zn can even increase chlorophyll content in wheat leaves at 0.40 mg/mL. This is mainly because chitosan itself promotes plant growth and counteracts the phytotoxicity of metal ions. The chitosan derivative described here may lend themselves to future applicative studies in crop protection.

Keywords: coordination, chitosan, metal complex, antifungal properties

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2352 Highly Selective Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for Cd(II) Ions

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Ozge Yilmaz, Ece Kok Yetimoglu, M. Vezir Kahraman


In this work, a polymer based highly selective fluorescence sensor membrane was prepared by the photopolymerization technique for the determination Cd(II) ion. Sensor characteristics such as effects of pH, response time and foreign ions on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor were also studied. Under optimized conditions, the polymeric sensor shows a rapid, stable and linear response for 4.45x10-⁹ mol L-¹ - 4.45x10-⁸ mol L-¹ Cd(II) ion with the detection limit of 6.23x10-¹⁰ mol L-¹. In addition, sensor membrane was selective which is not affected by common foreign metal ions. The concentrations of the foreign ions such as Pb²+, Co²+, Ag+, Zn²+, Cu²+, Cr³+ are 1000-fold higher than Cd(II) ions. Moreover, the developed polymeric sensor was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium ions in food and water samples. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: cadmium(II), fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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2351 Studies of Heavy Metal Ions Removal Efficiency in the Presence of Anionic Surfactant Using Ion Exchangers

Authors: Anna Wolowicz, Katarzyna Staszak, Zbigniew Hubicki


Nowadays heavy metal ions as well as surfactants are widely used throughout the world due to their useful properties. The consequence of such widespread use is their significant production. On the other hand, the increasing demand for surfactants and heavy metal ions results in production of large amounts of wastewaters which are discharged to the environment from mining, metal plating, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fertilizer, paper, pesticide and electronic industries, pigments producing, petroleum refining and from autocatalyst, fibers, food, polymer industries etc. Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable in the environment, cable of accumulation in living organisms and organs, toxic and carcinogenic. On the other hand, not only heavy metal ions but also surfactants affect the purity of water and soils. Some of surfactants are also toxic, harmful and dangerous because they are able to penetrate into surface waters causing foaming, blocked diffusion of oxygen from the atmosphere and act as emulsifiers of hydrophobic substances and increase solubility of many the dangerous pollutants. Among surfactants the anionic ones dominate and their share in the global production of surfactants is around 50 ÷ 60%. Due to the negative impact of heavy metals and surfactants on aquatic ecosystems and living organisms, removal and monitoring of their concentration in the environment is extremely important. Surfactants and heavy metal ions removal can be achieved by different biological and physicochemical methods. The adsorption as well as the ion-exchange methods play here a significant role. The aim of this study was heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solutions using different types of ion exchangers in the presence of anionic surfactants. Preliminary studies of copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cobalt(II) removal from acidic solutions using ion exchangers (Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220, Lewatit MonoPlus SR 7, Purolite A 400 TL, Purolite A 830, Purolite S 984, Dowex PSR 2, Dowex PSR3, Lewatit AF-5) allowed to select the most effective ones for the above mentioned sorbates and then to checking their removal efficiency in the presence of anionic surfactants. As it was found out Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 of the chelating type, show the highest sorption capacities for copper(II) ions in comparison with the other ion exchangers under discussion, e.g. 9.98 mg/g (0.1 M HCl); 9.12 mg/g (6 M HCl). Moreover, cobalt(II) removal efficiency was the highest in 0.1 M HCl using also Lewatit MonoPlus TP 220 (6.9 mg/g) similar to zinc(II) (9.1 mg/g) and nickiel(II) (6.2 mg/g). As the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used and surfactant parameters such as viscosity (η), density (ρ) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) were obtained: η = 1.13 ± 0,01 mPa·s; ρ = 999.76 mg/cm3; CMC = 2.26 g/cm3. The studies of copper(II) removal from acidic solutions in the presence of SDS of different concentration show negligible effects on copper(II) removal efficiency. The sorption capacity of Cu(II) from 0.1 M acidic solution of 500 mg/L initial concentration was equal to 46.8 mg/g whereas in the presence of SDS 45.3 mg/g (0.1 mg SDS/L), 47.1 mg/g (0.5 mg SDS/L), 46.6 mg/g (1 mg SDS/L).

Keywords: anionic surfactant, heavy metal ions, ion exchanger, removal

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2350 Sorption Properties of Biological Waste for Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Lucia Rozumová, Ivo Šafařík, Jana Seidlerová, Pavel Kůs


Biosorption by biological waste materials from agriculture industry could be a cost-effective technique for removing metal ions from wastewater. The performance of new biosorbent systems, consisting of the waste matrixes which were magnetically modified by iron oxide nanoparticles, for the removal of lead ions from an aqueous solution was tested. The use of low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods. This article deals with the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions by modified waste products - orange peels, sawdust, peanuts husks, used tea leaves and ground coffee sediment. Magnetically modified waste materials were suspended in methanol and then was added ferrofluid (magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles). This modification process gives the predictions for the formation of the smart materials with new properties. Prepared material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and pore size analyzer. Studies were focused on the sorption and desorption properties. The changes of iron content in magnetically modified materials after treatment were observed as well. Adsorption process has been modelled by adsorption isotherms. The results show that magnetically modified materials during the dynamic sorption and desorption are stable at the high adsorbed amount of lead ions. The results of this study indicate that the biological waste materials as sorbent with new properties are highly effective for the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: biological waste, sorption, metal ions, ferrofluid

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2349 Wastewater Treatment from Heavy Metals by Nanofiltration and Ion Exchange

Authors: G. G. Kagramanov, E. N. Farnosova, Linn Maung Maung


The technologies of ion exchange and nanofiltration can be used for treatment of wastewater containing copper and other heavy metal ions to decrease the environmental risks. Nanofiltration characteristics under water treatment of heavy metals have been studied. The influence of main technical process parameters - pressure, temperature, concentration and pH value of the initial solution on flux and rejection of nanofiltration membranes has been considered. And ion exchange capacities of resins in removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater have been determined.

Keywords: exchange capacity, heavy metals, ion exchange, membrane separation, nanofiltration

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2348 Synthesis and Application of Tamarind Hydroxypropane Sulphonic Acid Resin for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Aresh Vikram Singh, Sarika Nagar


The tamarind based resin containing hydroxypropane sulphonic acid groups has been synthesized and their adsorption behavior for heavy metal ions has been investigated using batch and column experiments. The hydroxypropane sulphonic acid group has been incorporated onto tamarind by a modified Porath's method of functionalisation of polysaccharides. The tamarind hydroxypropane sulphonic acid (THPSA) resin can selectively remove of heavy metal ions, which are contained in industrial wastewater. The THPSA resin was characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of various adsorption conditions, such as pH, treatment time and adsorbent dose were also investigated. The optimum adsorption condition was found at pH 6, 120 minutes of equilibrium time and 0.1 gram of resin dose. The orders of distribution coefficient values were determined.

Keywords: distribution coefficient, industrial wastewater, polysaccharides, tamarind hydroxypropane sulphonic acid resin, thermogravimetric analysis, THPSA

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2347 Biosorption of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from Real Wastewater onto Cajanus cajan Husk

Authors: Mallappa A. Devani, John U. Kennedy Oubagaranadin, Basudeb Munshi


In this preliminary work, locally available husk of Cajanus cajan (commonly known in India as Tur or Arhar), a bio-waste, has been used in its physically treated and chemically activated form for the removal of binary Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions from the real waste water obtained from an electroplating industry in Bangalore, Karnataka, India and from laboratory prepared binary solutions having almost similar composition of the metal ions, for comparison. The real wastewater after filtration and dilution for five times was used for biosorption studies at the normal pH of the solutions at room temperature. Langmuir's binary model was used to calculate the metal uptake capacities of the biosorbents. It was observed that Cu(II) is more competitive than Zn(II) in biosorption. In individual metal biosorption, Cu(II) uptake was found to be more than that of the Zn(II) and a similar trend was observed in the binary metal biosorption from real wastewater and laboratory prepared solutions. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups in the industrial wastewater and EDAX for the elemental analysis of the biosorbents after experiments.

Keywords: biosorption, Cajanus cajan, multi metal remediation, wastewater

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2346 Adsorptive Removal of Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Systems by Wood Ash-Alginate Composite Beads

Authors: Tichaona Nharingo, Hope Tauya, Mambo Moyo


Wood ash has been demonstrated to have favourable adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions but suffers the application problem of difficult to separate/isolate from the batch adsorption systems. Fabrication of wood ash beads using multifunctional group and non-toxic carbohydrate, alginate, may improve the applicability of wood ash in environmental pollutant remediation. In this work, alginate-wood ash beads (AWAB) were fabricated and applied to the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous systems. The beads were characterized by FTIR, TGA/DSC, SEM-EDX and their pHZPC before and after the adsorption of Cd(II) ions. Important adsorption parameters i.e. pH, AWAB dosage, contact time and ionic strength were optimized and the effect of initial concentration of Cd(II) ions to the adsorption process was established. Adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, adsorption mechanism and application of AWAB to real water samples spiked with Cd(II) ions were ascertained. The composite adsorbent was characterized by a heterogeneous macro pore surface comprising of metal oxides, multiple hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups that were involved in electrostatic interaction and Lewis acid-base interactions with the Cd(II) ions. The pseudo second order and the Freundlich isotherm models best fitted the adsorption kinetics and isotherm data respectively suggesting chemical sorption process and surface heterogeneity. The presence of Pb(II) ions inhibited the adsorption of Cd(II) ions (reduced by 40 %) attributed to the competition for the adsorption sites. The Cd(II) loaded beads could be regenerated using 0.1 M HCl and could be applied to four sorption-desorption cycles without significant loss in its initial adsorption capacity. The high maximum adsorption capacity, stability, selectivity and reusability of AWAB make the adsorbent ideal for application in the removal of Cd(II) ions from real water samples. Column type adsorption experiments need to be explored to establish the potential of the adsorbent in removing Cd(II) ions using continuous flow systems.

Keywords: adsorption, Cd(II) ions, regeneration, wastewater, wood ash-alginate beads

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2345 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Serife Parlayici, Erol Pehlivan


In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: plum-stone, activated carbon, copper and lead, isotherms

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