Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12756

Search results for: water management

12756 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
12755 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela

Abstract:

At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
12754 Application of WebGIS-Based Water Environment Capacity Inquiry and Planning System in Water Resources Management

Authors: Tao Ding, Danjia Yan, Jinye Li, Chao Ren, Xinhua Hu

Abstract:

The paper based on the research background of the current situation of water shortage in China and intelligent management of water resources in the information era. And the paper adopts WebGIS technology, combining the mathematical model of water resources management to develop a WebGIS-based water environment capacity inquiry and polluted water emission planning. The research significance of the paper is that it can inquiry the water environment capacity of Jinhua City in real time and plan how to drain polluted water into the river, so as to realize the effective management of water resources. This system makes sewage planning more convenient and faster. For the planning of the discharge enterprise, the decision on the optimal location of the sewage outlet can be achieved through calculation of the Sewage discharge planning model in the river, without the need for site visits. The system can achieve effective management of water resources and has great application value.

Keywords: sewerage planning, water environment capacity, water resources management, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
12753 Importance of Determining the Water Needs of Crops in the Management of Water Resources in the Province of Djelfa

Authors: Imessaoudene Y., Mouhouche B., Sengouga A., Kadir M.

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to determine the virtual water of main crops grown in the province of Djelfa and water use efficiency (W.U.E.), Which is essential to approach the application and better integration with the offer in the region. In the case of agricultural production, virtual water is the volume of water evapo-transpired by crops. It depends on particular on the expertise of its producers and its global production area, warm and dry climates induce higher consumption. At the scale of the province, the determination of the quantities of virtual water is done by calculating the unit water requirements related to water irrigated hectare and total rainfall over the crop using the Cropwat 8.0 F.A.O. software. Quantifying the volume of agricultural virtual water of crops practiced in the study area demonstrates the quantitative importance of these volumes of water in terms of available water resources in the province, so the advantages which can be the concept of virtual water as an analysis tool and decision support for the management and distribution of water in scarcity situation.

Keywords: virtual water, water use efficiency, water requirements, Djelfa

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
12752 Calculation of Water Economy Balance for Water Management

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Ana Karalashvili, George Geladze, Nana Kvirkvelia

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia is rich in water resources, but there are disbalance between the eastern and western parts of the country. The goal of the study is to integrate the recent mechanisms compatible with European standards into Georgian water resources management system on the basis of GIS. Moreover, to draw up water economy balance for the purpose of proper determination of water consumption priorities that will be an exchange ratio of water resources and water consumption of the concrete territory. For study region was choose south-eastern part of country, Kvemo kartli Region. This is typical agrarian region, tends to the desertification. The water supply of the region was assessed on the basis of water economy balance, which was first time calculated for this region.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, sustainable management, water management

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
12751 A Study on Water Quality Parameters of Pond Water for Better Management of Pond

Authors: Dona Grace Jeyaseeli

Abstract:

Water quality conditions in a pond are controlled by both natural processes and human influences. Natural factors such as the source of the pond water and the types of rock and soil in the pond watershed will influence some water quality characteristics. These factors are difficult to control but usually cause few problems. Instead, most serious water quality problems originate from land uses or other activities near or in the pond. The effects of these activities can often be minimized through proper management and early detection of problems through testing. In the present study a survey of three ponds in Coimbatore city, Tamilnadu, India were analyzed and found that water quality problems in their ponds, ranging from muddy water to fish kills. Unfortunately, most pond owners have never tested their ponds, and water quality problems are usually only detected after they cause a problem. Hence the present study discusses some common water quality parameters that may cause problems in ponds and how to detect through testing for better management of pond.

Keywords: water quality, pond, test, problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
12750 Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses

Authors: Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ammar A. Ali, Sven Knutsson

Abstract:

Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an area of 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 million inhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from water shortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. The former includes global warming and water resources policies of neighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement of its water resources. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040. To overcome this problem, prudent water management policies are to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

Keywords: Iraq, Tigris River, Euphrates River, water scarcity, water resources management

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
12749 Legal Basis for Water Resources Management in Brazil: Case Study of the Rio Grande Basin

Authors: Janaína F. Guidolini, Jean P. H. B. Ometto, Angélica Giarolla, Peter M. Toledo, Carlos A. Valera

Abstract:

The water crisis, a major problem of the 21st century, occurs mainly due to poor management. The central issue that should govern the management is the integration of the various aspects that interfere with the use of water resources and their protection, supported by legal basis. A watershed is a unit of water interacting with the physical, biotic, social, economic and cultural variables. The Brazilian law recognized river basin as the territorial management unit. Based on the diagnosis of the current situation of the water resources of the Rio Grande Basin, a discussion informed in the Brazilian legal basis was made to propose measures to fight or mitigate damages and environmental degradation in the Basin. To manage water resources more efficiently, conserve water and optimize their multiple uses, the integration of acquired scientific knowledge and management is essential. Moreover, it is necessary to monitor compliance with environmental legislation.

Keywords: conservation of soil and water, environmental laws, river basin, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
12748 Optimizing Inanda Dam Using Water Resources Models

Authors: O. I. Nkwonta, B. Dzwairo, J. Adeyemo, A. Jaiyola, N. Sawyerr, F. Otieno

Abstract:

The effective management of water resources is of great importance to ensure the supply of water resources to support changing water requirements over a selected planning horizon and in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Essentially, the purpose of the water resources planning process is to balance the available water resources in a system with the water requirements and losses to which the system is subjected. In such situations, Water resources yield and planning model can be used to solve those difficulties. It has an advantage over other models by managing model runs, developing a representative system network, modelling incremental sub-catchments, creating a variety of standard system features, special modelling features, and run result output options.

Keywords: complex, water resources, planning, cost effective and management

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
12747 The Role of Bridging Stakeholder in Water Management: Examining Social Networks in Working Groups and Co-Management

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

Abstract:

Comprehensive water management considers economic, environmental, technical and social sustainability of water resources for future generations. Integrated water management implies cooperative approach and involves all stakeholders and also introduces issues to managers and decision makers. Solving these issues needs integrated and system approach according to the recognition of actors or key persons in necessary to apply cooperative management of water resources. Therefore, social network analysis can be used to demonstrate the most effective actors for environmental base decisions. The linkage of diverse sets of actors and knowledge systems across management levels and institutional boundaries often poses one of the greatest challenges in adaptive water management. Bridging stakeholder can facilitate interactions among actors in management settings by lowering the transaction costs of collaboration. This research examines how network connections between group members affect in co- management. Cohesive network structures allow groups to more effectively achieve their goals and objectives Strong; centralized leadership is a better predictor of working group success in achieving goals and objectives. Finally, geometric position of each actor was illustrated in the network. The results of the research based on between centrality index have a key and bridging actor in recognition of cooperative management of water resources in Darbandsar village and also will help managers and planners of water in the case of recognition to organization and implementation of sustainable management of water resources and water security.

Keywords: co-management, water management, social network, bridging stakeholder, darbandsar village

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
12746 Optimising the Reservoir Operation Using Water Resources Yield and Planning Model at Inanda Dam, uMngeni Basin

Authors: O. Nkwonta, B. Dzwairo, F. Otieno, J. Adeyemo

Abstract:

The effective management of water resources is of great importance to ensure the supply of water resources to support changing water requirements over a selected planning horizon and in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Essentially, the purpose of the water resources planning process is to balance the available water resources in a system with the water requirements and losses to which the system is subjected. In such situations, water resources yield and planning model can be used to solve those difficulties. It has an advantage over other models by managing model runs, developing a representative system network, modelling incremental sub-catchments, creating a variety of standard system features, special modelling features, and run result output options.

Keywords: complex, water resources, planning, cost effective, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
12745 Factors Affecting Sustainable Water Management in Water-Challenged Societies: Case Study of Doha Qatar

Authors: L. Mathew, D. Thomas

Abstract:

Qatar is a desert country with scarce fresh water resources, low rainfall and very high evaporation rate. It meets the majority of its water requirement through desalination process which is very expensive. Pressures are expected to mount on account of high population growth rate and demands posed by being the venue for 2022 FIFA World cup. This study contributes towards advancing the knowledge of the factors affecting sustainable water consumption in water-challenged societies by examining the case of Doha, Qatar. Survey research methods have been predominantly used for this research. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Focused group interviews and personal interviews with Qatar’s residents were also used to obtain deeper insights. Salient socio-cultural factors that drive the water consumption behavior of the public and which in turn affect sustainable water management practices are determined. Suggestions for reducing water consumption as well as fiscal and punitive measures to curb overuse and misuse of water are also identified.

Keywords: Middle East, Qatar, water consumption, water management, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
12744 Sustainable Transboundary Water Management: Challenges and Good Practices of Cooperation in International River Basin Districts

Authors: Aleksandra Ibragimow, Moritz Albrecht, Eerika Albrecht

Abstract:

Close international cooperation between all countries within a river basin has become one of the key aspects of sustainable cross-border water management. This is due to the fact that water does not stop at administrative or political boundaries. Therefore, the preferred mode to protect and manage transnational water bodies is close cooperation between all countries and stakeholders within the natural hydrological unit of the river basin. However, past practices have demonstrated that combining interests of different countries and stakeholders with differing political systems and management approaches to environmental issues upstream as well as downstream can be challenging. The study focuses on particular problems and challenges of water management in international river basin districts by the example of the International Oder River Basin District. The Oder River is one of the largest cross-border rivers of the Baltic Sea basin passing through Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. Attention is directed towards the activities and the actions that were carried out during the Districts' first management cycle of transnational river basin management (2009-2015). The results show that actions of individual countries have been focused on the National Water Management Plans while a common appointment about identified supra-regional water management problems has not been solved, and conducted actions can be considered as preliminary and merely a basis for future management. This present state raises the question whether the achievement of main objectives of Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) can be a realistic task.

Keywords: International River Basin Districts, water management, water frameworkdirective, water management plans

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
12743 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Systems in Taiwan

Authors: Chia-Ling Chang, Hao-Bo Chang

Abstract:

Global climate change alters rainfall characteristics, while the variation of these characteristics further influences environmental conditions, such as hydrologic responses, landslide areas, and the amounts of diffuse pollution. The variations of environmental conditions may impact the stability of water resource systems. The objective of this study is to assess the present conditions of major water resource systems in Taiwan. The impact of climate change on each system is also discussed herein. Compared to the water resource systems in northern Taiwan, the ratio of the precipitation during the rainy season to that during the dry season has a larger increase in southern Taiwan. This variation of hydrologic condition impacts the stability of water resource systems and increases the risk of normal water supply. The findings in this work can be important references for water resource management.

Keywords: basin management, climate change, water resource system, water resource management

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
12742 Development of Total Maximum Daily Load Using Water Quality Modelling as an Approach for Watershed Management in Malaysia

Authors: S. A. Che Osmi, W. M. F. Wan Ishak, H. Kim, M. A. Azman, M. A. Ramli

Abstract:

River is one of important water sources for many activities including industrial and domestic usage such as daily usage, transportation, power supply and recreational activities. However, increasing activities in a river has grown the sources of pollutant enters the water bodies, and degraded the water quality of the river. It becomes a challenge to develop an effective river management to ensure the water sources of the river are well managed and regulated. In Malaysia, several approaches for river management have been implemented such as Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) program for coordinating the management of resources in a natural environment based on river basin to ensure their sustainability lead by Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID), Malaysia. Nowadays, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is one of the best approaches for river management in Malaysia. TMDL implementation is regulated and implemented in the United States. A study on the development of TMDL in Malacca River has been carried out by doing water quality monitoring, the development of water quality model by using Environmental Fluid Dynamic Codes (EFDC), and TMDL implementation plan. The implementation of TMDL will help the stakeholders and regulators to control and improve the water quality of the river. It is one of the good approaches for river management in Malaysia.

Keywords: EFDC, river management, TMDL, water quality modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
12741 Water Demand Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network in Ramallah

Authors: F. Massri, M. Shkarneh, B. Almassri

Abstract:

Water scarcity and increasing water demand especially for residential use are major challenges facing Palestine. The need to accurately forecast water consumption is useful for the planning and management of this natural resource. The main objective of this paper is to (i) study the major factors influencing the water consumption in Palestine, (ii) understand the general pattern of Household water consumption, (iii) assess the possible changes in household water consumption and suggest appropriate remedies and (iv) develop prediction model based on the Artificial Neural Network to the water consumption in Palestinian cities. The paper is organized in four parts. The first part includes literature review of household water consumption studies. The second part concerns data collection methodology, conceptual frame work for the household water consumption surveys, survey descriptions and data processing methods. The third part presents descriptive statistics, multiple regression and analysis of the water consumption in the two Palestinian cities. The final part develops the use of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the water consumption in Palestinian cities.

Keywords: water management, demand forecasting, consumption, ANN, Ramallah

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
12740 Social Network Analysis, Social Power in Water Co-Management (Case Study: Iran, Shemiranat, Jirood Village)

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani, Ali Salajegheh

Abstract:

Comprehensively water management considers economic, environmental, technical and social and also sustainability of water resources for future generations. Grassland management implies cooperative approach and involves all stakeholders and also introduces issues to managers, decision and policy makers. Solving these issues needs integrated and system approach. According to the recognition of actors or key persons in necessary to apply cooperative management of Water. Therefore, based on stakeholder analysis and social network analysis can be used to demonstrate the most effective actors for environmental decisions. In this research, social powers according are specified to social network approach at Water utilizers’ level of Natural in Jirood catchment of Latian basin. In this paper, utilizers of water resources were recognized using field trips and then, trust and collaboration matrix produced using questionnaires. In the next step, degree centrality index were Examined. Finally, geometric position of each actor was illustrated in the network. The results of the research based on centrality index have a key role in recognition of cooperative management of Water in Jirood and also will help managers and planners of water in the case of recognition of social powers in order to organization and implementation of sustainable management of Water.

Keywords: social network analysis, water co-management, social power, centrality index, local stakeholders network, Jirood catchment

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
12739 Ways to Define the Most Sustainable Actions for Water Shortage Prevention in Mega Cities, Especially in Developing Countries

Authors: Keivan Karimlou, Nemat Hassani, Abdollah Rashidi Mehrabadi

Abstract:

Climate change, industrial bloom, population growth and mismanagement are the most important factors that lead to water shortages around the world. Water shortages often lead to forced immigration, war, and thirst and hunger, especially in developing countries. One of the simplest solutions to solve the water shortage issues around the world is transferring water from one watershed to another; however it may not be a suitable solution. Water managers around the world use supply and demand management methods to decrease the incidence of water shortage in a sustainable manner. But as a matter of economic constraints, they must define a method to select the best possible action to reduce and limit water shortages. The following paper recognizes different kinds of criteria to select the best possible policy for reducing water shortage in mega cities by examining a comprehensive literature review.

Keywords: criteria, management, shortage, sustainable, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
12738 Fuzzy Neuro Approach for Integrated Water Management System

Authors: Stuti Modi, Aditi Kambli

Abstract:

This paper addresses the need for intelligent water management and distribution system in smart cities to ensure optimal consumption and distribution of water for drinking and sanitation purposes. Water being a limited resource in cities require an effective system for collection, storage and distribution. In this paper, applications of two mostly widely used particular types of data-driven models, namely artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy logic-based models, to modelling in the water resources management field are considered. The objective of this paper is to review the principles of various types and architectures of neural network and fuzzy adaptive systems and their applications to integrated water resources management. Final goal of the review is to expose and formulate progressive direction of their applicability and further research of the AI-related and data-driven techniques application and to demonstrate applicability of the neural networks, fuzzy systems and other machine learning techniques in the practical issues of the regional water management. Apart from this the paper will deal with water storage, using ANN to find optimum reservoir level and predicting peak daily demands.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, peak daily demand prediction, water management and distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
12737 A Case Study on Management of Coal Seam Gas by-Product Water

Authors: Mojibul Sajjad, Mohammad G. Rasul, Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir

Abstract:

The rate of natural gas dissociation from the Coal Matrix depends on depressurization of reservoir through removing of the cleat water from the coal seam. These waters are similar to brine and aged of long years. For improving the connectivity through fracking /fracturing, high pressure liquids are pumped off inside the coal body. A significant quantity of accumulated water, a combined mixture of cleat water and fracking fluids (back flow water) is pumped out through gas well. In Queensland Coal Seam Gas industry is in booming state and estimated of 30,000 wells would be active for CSG production forecasting life span of 30 years. Integrated water management along with water softening programs is practiced for subsequent treatment and later on discharge to nearby surface water catchment. Water treatment is an important part of the CSG industry. A case study on a CSG site and review on the test results are discussed for assessing the Standards & Practices for management of CSG by-product water and their subsequent disposal activities. This study was directed toward (i) water management and softening process in Spring Gully Mine field, (ii) Comparative analysis on experimental study and standards and (iii) Disposal of the treated water. This study also aimed for alternative usages and their impact on vegetation, living species as well as long term effects.

Keywords: coal seam gas (CSG), cleat water, hydro-fracking, product water

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
12736 Study on Water Level Management Criteria of Reservoir Failure Alert System

Authors: B. Lee, B. H. Choi

Abstract:

The loss of safety for reservoirs brought about by climate change and facility aging leads to reservoir failures, which results in the loss of lives and property damage in downstream areas. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a reservoir failure alert system for downstream residents to detect the early signs of failure (with sensors) in real-time and perform safety management to prevent and minimize possible damage. 10 case studies were carried out to verify the water level management criteria of four levels (attention, caution, alert, serious). Peak changes in water level data were analysed. The results showed that ‘Caution’ and ‘Alert’ were closed to 33% and 66% of difference in level between flood water level and full water level. Therefore, it is adequate to use initial water level management criteria of reservoir failure alert system for the first year. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by a grant (2017-MPSS31-002) from 'Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management' funded by the Ministry of the Interior and Safety(MOIS)

Keywords: alert system, management criteria, reservoir failure, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
12735 Ballast Water Management Triad: Administration, Ship Owner and the Seafarer

Authors: Rajoo Balaji, Omar Yaakob

Abstract:

The Ballast Water Convention requires less than 5% of the world tonnage for ratification. Consequently, ships will have to comply with the requirements. Compliance evaluation and enforcement will become mandatory. Ship owners have to invest in treatment systems and shipboard personnel have to operate them and ensure compliance. The monitoring and enforcement will be the responsibilities of the Administrations. Herein, a review of the current status of the Ballast Water Management and the issues faced by these are projected. Issues range from efficacy and economics of the treatment systems to sampling and testing. Health issues of chemical systems, paucity of data for decision support etc., are other issues. It is emphasized that management of ballast water must be extended to ashore and sustainable solutions must be researched upon. An exemplar treatment system based on ship’s waste heat is also suggested.

Keywords: Ballast Water Management, compliance evaluation, compliance enforcement, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
12734 Hydrological Analysis for Urban Water Management

Authors: Ranjit Kumar Sahu, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Urban Water Management is the practice of managing freshwater, waste water, and storm water as components of a basin-wide management plan. It builds on existing water supply and sanitation considerations within an urban settlement by incorporating urban water management within the scope of the entire river basin. The pervasive problems generated by urban development have prompted, in the present work, to study the spatial extent of urbanization in Golden Triangle of Odisha connecting the cities Bhubaneswar (20.2700° N, 85.8400° E), Puri (19.8106° N, 85.8314° E) and Konark (19.9000° N, 86.1200° E)., and patterns of periodic changes in urban development (systematic/random) in order to develop future plans for (i) urbanization promotion areas, and (ii) urbanization control areas. Remote Sensing, using USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) Landsat8 maps, supervised classification of the Urban Sprawl has been done for during 1980 - 2014, specifically after 2000. This Work presents the following: (i) Time series analysis of Hydrological data (ground water and rainfall), (ii) Application of SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) and other soft computing techniques for Urban Water Management, and (iii) Uncertainty analysis of model parameters (Urban Sprawl and correlation analysis). The outcome of the study shows drastic growth results in urbanization and depletion of ground water levels in the area that has been discussed briefly. Other relative outcomes like declining trend of rainfall and rise of sand mining in local vicinity has been also discussed. Research on this kind of work will (i) improve water supply and consumption efficiency (ii) Upgrade drinking water quality and waste water treatment (iii) Increase economic efficiency of services to sustain operations and investments for water, waste water, and storm water management, and (iv) engage communities to reflect their needs and knowledge for water management.

Keywords: Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), uncertainty analysis, urban sprawl, land use change

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
12733 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem

Abstract:

This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
12732 Infrastructure Project Management and Implementation: A Case Study Of the Mokolo-Crocodile Water Augmentation Project in South Africa

Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni

Abstract:

The Mokolo-Crocodile Water Augmentation Project (MCWAP) is located in the Limpopo Province in the northern-western part of South Africa. Its purpose is to increase water supply by 30 million cubic meters per year to meet current and future demand for users, including power stations, mining houses, and the local municipality in the Lephalale area. This paper documents the planning and implementation aspects of the MCWAP infrastructure project. The study will add to the body of knowledge with respect to bulk water infrastructure development in water-scarce regions. The method used to gather and collate relevant data and information was the desktop study. The key finding was that the project was successfully completed in 2015 using conventional project management and construction methods. The project is currently being operated and maintained by the National Department of Water and Sanitation.

Keywords: construction, contract management, infrastructure project, project management

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
12731 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha

Abstract:

Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
12730 Water Management in Mexico City and Its Metropolitan Area

Authors: Raquel Salazar Moreno, Uwe Schmidt, Efrén Fitz Rodríguez, Dennis Dannehl, Abraham Rojano Aguilar, Irineo López Cruz, Gilberto Navas Gómez

Abstract:

As urban areas expand, strategic and protected water reserves become more critical. In this study we investigate the water problems in Mexico City and its Metropolitan area. This region faces a complex water problem that concerns not only Mexican boundaries but also international level because is one of the biggest human concentrations in the World. The current water shortage situation raises the necessity of importing surface and groundwater from the Cutzamala River and from the Alto Rio Lerma System respectively. Water management is the real issue in this region, because waste water generation is more than aquifer overexploitation, and surface water loss in the rainfall period is greater than water imported from other regions. However, the possible solutions of the water supply schemes are complicated, there is a need to look for alternatives socially acceptable and environmentally desirable, considering first the possible solutions on the demand side. Also, it is necessary more investment in water treatment plants and hydraulic infrastructure to ensure water supply and decrease the environmental problems in the area. More studies need to be done related to water efficiency in the three sectors.

Keywords: megacities, aquifer overexploitation, environmental problems, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
12729 An Overview of Water Governance and Management in the Philippines: Some Key Findings

Authors: Sahara Piang Brahim

Abstract:

This paper looks at the current state of water governance in the Philippines. It is mainly descriptive and relies on an analysis of secondary data gathered during the author’s fieldwork as well as those found in available scholarly literature, legal and government policy documents, reports and publicly available information on the official websites of government agencies and departments. This paper finds that despite the Philippines having relatively abundant water resources due to its topographical characteristics, it is facing a number of water-related problems, including the availability of water supply in light of growing water demand, increasing population and urbanization as well as climate change. Another key finding is that the sheer number of agencies, which have overlapping legal mandates and functions in relation to water governance and management, make coordination, planning and data collection difficult especially since they are neither vertically nor horizontally integrated. These findings have obvious implications for water policy and governance in the country. This study also finds that 'predict and control' characterizes the government’s approach to water resources management and allocation. This paper argues that taking such an approach and the existing institutional context into account is quite relevant not only in terms of making sense of how decision-making and policymaking take place but also when contemplating the kinds of alternative governance arrangements that could address water-related issues and challenges and that might work 'best' in the Philippines.

Keywords: Philippines, water governance, water issues, water policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
12728 Corporate Water Footprint Assessment: The Case of Tata Steel

Authors: Sujata Mukherjee, Arunavo Mukherjee

Abstract:

Water covers 70 per cent of our planet; however, freshwater is incredibly rare, and scarce has been listed as the highest impact global risk. The problems related to freshwater scarcity multiplies with the human population having more than doubled coupled with climate change, changing water cycles leading to droughts and floods and a rise in water pollution. Businesses, governments, and local communities are constrained by water scarcity and are facing growing challenges to their growth and sustainability. Water foot printing as an indicator for water use was introduced in 2002. Business water footprint measures the total water consumed to produce the goods and services it provides. It is a combination of the water that goes into the production and manufacturing of a product or service and the water used throughout the supply chain, as well as during the use of the product. A case study approach was applied describing the efforts of Tata Steel. It is based on a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews with top executives of the company as well as observation and content analysis of internal and external documents about the company’s efforts in sustainable water management. Tata Steel draws water required for industrial use from surface water sources, primarily perennial rivers and streams, internal reservoirs and water from municipal sources. The focus of the present study was to explore Tata Steel’s engagement in sustainable water management focusing on water foot printing accounting as a tool to account for water use in the steel supply chain at its Jamshedpur plant. The findings enabled the researchers to conclude that no sources of water are adversely affected by the company’s production of steel at Jamshedpur.

Keywords: sustainability, corporate responsibility water management, risk management, business engagement

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12727 Some Aspects of Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, Case Study of Western Iran

Authors: Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi

Abstract:

Water resource management is of global significance as it plays a key role in the socioeconomic development of all nations. On account of the fact that Iran is situated in a highly pressurized belt in the world, precipitation is limited, so that the average annual precipitation in the country is about 250 mm, only about one third to one quarter of the world average for rainfall. Karkheh basin is located in the semiarid and arid regions of Western Iran, an area with severe water scarcity. 70 % of rainfall is directly evaporated. The potential annual evaporation of the southern and northern regions is 3,600 mm 1,800 mm, respectively. In this paper, Some aspects of water resources management for this region, the specifications of the Karkheh reservoir dam & hydroelectric power plant as the biggest dam in history of Iran with total volume of reservoir 7.3 Bm3 are illustrated. Also the situation of water availability in the basin, surface and groundwater potential are considered.

Keywords: Iran, water availability, water resources, Zagros

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