Search results for: sensors
1145 Analysis the Different Types of Nano Sensors on Based of Structure and It’s Applications on Nano Electronics
Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadiyan, Mohammad Bagher Heidari, Ensiyeh Hajeb
Abstract:In this paper investigates and analyses the structure of nano sensors will be discussed. The structure can be classified based of nano sensors: quantum points, carbon nanotubes and nano tools, which details into each other and in turn are analyzed. Then will be fully examined to the Carbon nanotubes as chemical and mechanical sensors. The following discussion, be examined compares the advantages and disadvantages as different types of sensors and also it has feature and a wide range of applications in various industries. Finally, the structure and application of Chemical sensor transistors and the sensors will be discussed in air pollution control.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, quantum points, chemical sensors, mechanical sensors, chemical sensor transistors, single walled nanotube (SWNT), atomic force microscope (AFM)Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1144 A Real-time Classification of Lying Bodies for Care Application of Elderly Patients
Authors: E. Vazquez-Santacruz, M. Gamboa-Zuniga
Abstract:In this paper, we show a methodology for bodies classification in lying state using HOG descriptors and pressures sensors positioned in a matrix form (14 x 32 sensors) on the surface where bodies lie down. it will be done in real time. Our system is embedded in a care robot that can assist the elderly patient and medical staff around to get a better quality of life in and out of hospitals. Due to current technology a limited number of sensors is used, wich results in low-resolution data array, that will be used as image of 14 x 32 pixels. Our work considers the problem of human posture classification with few information (sensors), applying digital process to expand the original data of the sensors and so get more significant data for the classification, however, this is done with low-cost algorithms to ensure the real-time execution.
Keywords: real-time classification, sensors, robots, health care, elderly patients, artificial intelligenceProcedia PDF Downloads 419
1143 Development of a Serial Signal Monitoring Program for Educational Purposes
Authors: Jungho Moon, Lae-Jeong Park
Abstract:This paper introduces a signal monitoring program developed with a view to helping electrical engineering students get familiar with sensors with digital output. Because the output of digital sensors cannot be simply monitored by a measuring instrument such as an oscilloscope, students tend to have a hard time dealing with digital sensors. The monitoring program runs on a PC and communicates with an MCU that reads the output of digital sensors via an asynchronous communication interface. Receiving the sensor data from the MCU, the monitoring program shows time and/or frequency domain plots of the data in real time. In addition, the monitoring program provides a serial terminal that enables the user to exchange text information with the MCU while the received data is plotted. The user can easily observe the output of digital sensors and configure the digital sensors in real time, which helps students who do not have enough experiences with digital sensors. Though the monitoring program was programmed in the Matlab programming language, it runs without the Matlab since it was compiled as a standalone executable.
Keywords: digital sensor, MATLAB, MCU, signal monitoring programProcedia PDF Downloads 422
1142 Textile Based Physical Wearable Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring in Medical and Protective Garments
Authors: Sejuti Malakar
Abstract:Textile sensors have gained a lot of interest in recent years as it is instrumental in monitoring physiological and environmental changes, for a better diagnosis that can be useful in various fields like medical textiles, sports textiles, protective textiles, agro textiles, and geo-textiles. Moreover, with the development of flexible textile-based wearable sensors, the functionality of smart clothing is augmented for a more improved user experience when it comes to technical textiles. In this context, conductive textiles using new composites and nanomaterials are being developed while considering its compatibility with the textile manufacturing processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the contemporary advancements in textile-based wearable physical sensors, used in the field of medical, security, surveillance, and protection, from a global perspective. The methodology used is through analysing various examples of integration of wearable textile-based sensors with clothing for daily use, keeping in mind the technological advances in the same. By comparing various case studies, we come across various challenges textile sensors, in terms of stability, the comfort of movement, and reliable sensing components to enable accurate measurements, in spite of progress in the engineering of the wearable. Addressing such concerns is critical for the future success of wearable sensors.
Keywords: flexible textile-based wearable sensors, contemporary advancements, conductive textiles, body conformal designProcedia PDF Downloads 108
1141 Model Based Fault Diagnostic Approach for Limit Switches
Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Surayya Naz, Nazir Shah Khattak
Abstract:The degree of freedom relates to our capability to observe or model the energy paths within the system. Higher the number of energy paths being modeled leaves to us a higher degree of freedom, but increasing the time and modeling complexity rendering it useless for today’s world’s need for minimum time to market. Since the number of residuals that can be uniquely isolated are dependent on the number of independent outputs of the system, increasing the number of sensors required. The examples of discrete position sensors that may be used to form an array include limit switches, Hall effect sensors, optical sensors, magnetic sensors, etc. Their mechanical design can usually be tailored to fit in the transitional path of an STME in a variety of mechanical configurations. The case studies into multi-sensor system were carried out and actual data from sensors is used to test this generic framework. It is being investigated, how the proper modeling of limit switches as timing sensors, could lead to unified and neutral residual space while keeping the implementation cost reasonably low.
Keywords: low-cost limit sensors, fault diagnostics, Single Throw Mechanical Equipment (STME), parameter estimation, parity-spaceProcedia PDF Downloads 543
1140 Potentiometric Determination of Moxifloxacin in Some Pharmaceutical Formulation Using PVC Membrane Sensors
Authors: M. M. Hefnawy, A. M. A. Homoda, M. A. Abounassif, A. M. Alanazia, A. Al-Majed, Gamal A. E. Mostafa
Abstract:PVC membrane sensors using different approach e.g. ion-pair, ionophore, and Schiff-base has been used as testing membrane sensor. Analytical applications of membrane sensors for direct measurement of variety of different ions in complex biological and environmental sample are reported. The most important step of such PVC membrane sensor is the sensing active material. The potentiometric sensors have some outstanding advantages including simple design, operation, wide linear dynamic range, relative fast response time, and rotational selectivity. The analytical applications of these techniques to pharmaceutical compounds in dosage forms are also discussed. The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of Poly (vinyl chloride) membrane sensors for moxifloxacin HCl (MOX) are described. The sensing membranes incorporate ion association complexes of moxifloxacin cation and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) (sensor 1), phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) (sensor 2) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA) (sensor 3) as electroactive materials. The sensors display a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a relative wide moxifloxacin concentration range (1 ×10-2-4.0×10-6, 1 × 10-2-5.0×10-6, 1 × 10-2-5.0×10-6 M), with detection limits of 3×10-6, 4×10-6 and 4.0×10-6 M for sensor 1, 2 and 3, respectively over a pH range of 6.0-9.0. The sensors show good discrimination of moxifloxacin from several inorganic and organic compounds. The direct determination of 400 µg/ml of moxifloxacin show an average recovery of 98.5, 99.1 and 98.6 % and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.8, 1.6 and 1.8% for sensors 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The proposed sensors have been applied for direct determination of moxifloxacin in some pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained by determination of moxifloxacin in tablets using the proposed sensors are comparable favorably with those obtained using the US Pharmacopeia method. The sensors have been used as indicator electrodes for potentiometric titration of moxifloxacin.
Keywords: potentiometry, PVC, membrane sensors, ion-pair, ionophore, schiff-base, moxifloxacin HCl, sodium tetraphenyl borate, phosphomolybdic acid, phosphotungstic acidProcedia PDF Downloads 377
1139 Design and Implementation of Pseudorandom Number Generator Using Android Sensors
Authors: Mochamad Beta Auditama, Yusuf Kurniawan
Abstract:A smartphone or tablet require a strong randomness to establish secure encrypted communication, encrypt files, etc. Therefore, random number generation is one of the main keys to provide secrecy. Android devices are equipped with hardware-based sensors, such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. Each of these sensors provides a stochastic process which has a potential to be used as an extra randomness source, in addition to /dev/random and /dev/urandom pseudorandom number generators. Android sensors can provide randomness automatically. To obtain randomness from Android sensors, each one of Android sensors shall be used to construct an entropy source. After all entropy sources are constructed, output from these entropy sources are combined to provide more entropy. Then, a deterministic process is used to produces a sequence of random bits from the combined output. All of these processes are done in accordance with NIST SP 800-22 and the series of NIST SP 800-90. The operation conditions are done 1) on Android user-space, and 2) the Android device is placed motionless on a desk.
Keywords: Android hardware-based sensor, deterministic process, entropy source, random number generation/generatorsProcedia PDF Downloads 296
1138 Study on Intensity Modulated Non-Contact Optical Fiber Vibration Sensors of Different Configurations
Authors: Dinkar Dantala, Kishore Putha, Padmavathi Manchineelu
Abstract:Optical fibers are widely used in the measurement of several physical parameters like temperature, pressure, vibrations etc. Measurement of vibrations plays a vital role in machines. In this paper, three fiber optic non-contact vibration sensors were discussed, which are designed based on the principle of light intensity modulation. The Dual plastic optical fiber, Fiber optic fused 1x2 coupler and Fiber optic fused 2x2 coupler vibration sensors are compared based on range of frequency, resolution and sensitivity. It is to conclude that 2x2 coupler configuration shows better response than other two sensors.
Keywords: fiber optic, PMMA, vibration sensor, intensity-modulatedProcedia PDF Downloads 293
1137 Design of Wireless and Traceable Sensors for Internally Illuminated Photoreactors
Authors: Alexander Sutor, David Demetz
Abstract:We present methods for developing wireless and traceable sensors for photobioreactors or photoreactors in general. The main focus of application are reactors which are wirelessly powered. Due to the promising properties of the propagation of magnetic fields under water we implemented an inductive link with an on/off switched hartley-oscillator as transmitter and an LC-tank as receiver. For this inductive link we used a carrier frequency of 298 kHz. With this system we performed measurements to demonstrate the independence of the magnetic field from water or salty water. In contrast we showed the strongly reduced range of RF-transmitter-receiver systems at higher frequencies (433 MHz and 2.4 GHz) in water and in salty water. For implementing the traceability of the sensors, we performed measurements to show the well defined orientation of the magnetic field of a coil. This information will be used in future work for implementing an inductive link based traceability system for our sensors.
Keywords: wireless sensors, photoreactor, internal illumination, wireless powerProcedia PDF Downloads 81
1136 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors
Authors: Kohji Mitsubayashi, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi
Abstract:‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.
Keywords: cavitas sensor, biosensor, contact lens, mouthguardProcedia PDF Downloads 217
1135 Proposal of Commutation Protocol in Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks for Intelligent Transport Systems
Authors: Taha Bensiradj, Samira Moussaoui
Abstract:Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks (HSVN), represent a hybrid network, which uses several generations of Ad-Hoc networks. It is used especially in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The HSVN allows making collaboration between the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) deployed on the border of the road and the Vehicular Network (VANET). This collaboration is defined by messages exchanged between the two networks for the purpose to inform the drivers about the state of the road, provide road safety information and more information about traffic on the road. Moreover, this collaboration created by HSVN, also allows the use of a network and the advantage of improving another network. For example, the dissemination of information between the sensors quickly decreases its energy, and therefore, we can use vehicles that do not have energy constraint to disseminate the information between sensors. On the other hand, to solve the disconnection problem in VANET, the sensors can be used as gateways that allow sending the messages received by one vehicle to another. However, because of the short communication range of the sensor and its low capacity of storage and processing of data, it is difficult to ensure the exchange of road messages between it and the vehicle, which can be moving at high speed at the time of exchange. This represents the time where the vehicle is in communication range with the sensor. This work is the proposition of a communication protocol between the sensors and the vehicle used in HSVN. The latter has as the purpose to ensure the exchange of road messages in the available time of exchange.
Keywords: HSVN, ITS, VANET, WSNProcedia PDF Downloads 298
1134 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing
Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild
Abstract:Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.
Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gaugeProcedia PDF Downloads 105
1133 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application
Authors: Wenmin Qu
Abstract:A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve is presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.
Keywords: by-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, harsh environment, industrial application, segmented electrodeProcedia PDF Downloads 68
1132 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors
Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono
Abstract:In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy). Using this information to judge such conditions as a bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as 'normal' when the person was in a good physical condition or as 'abnormal' when the person was in a bad physical condition.
Keywords: sensors, elderly living alone, abnormality detection, iifestyle habitProcedia PDF Downloads 197
1131 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors
Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim
Abstract:Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.
Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensorsProcedia PDF Downloads 310
1130 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance
Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta
Abstract:Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.
Keywords: Allan variance, accelerometer, gyroscope, stochastic errorsProcedia PDF Downloads 355
1129 Multimodal Deep Learning for Human Activity Recognition
Authors: Ons Slimene, Aroua Taamallah, Maha Khemaja
Abstract:In recent years, human activity recognition (HAR) has been a key area of research due to its diverse applications. It has garnered increasing attention in the field of computer vision. HAR plays an important role in people’s daily lives as it has the ability to learn advanced knowledge about human activities from data. In HAR, activities are usually represented by exploiting different types of sensors, such as embedded sensors or visual sensors. However, these sensors have limitations, such as local obstacles, image-related obstacles, sensor unreliability, and consumer concerns. Recently, several deep learning-based approaches have been proposed for HAR and these approaches are classified into two categories based on the type of data used: vision-based approaches and sensor-based approaches. This research paper highlights the importance of multimodal data fusion from skeleton data obtained from videos and data generated by embedded sensors using deep neural networks for achieving HAR. We propose a deep multimodal fusion network based on a twostream architecture. These two streams use the Convolutional Neural Network combined with the Bidirectional LSTM (CNN BILSTM) to process skeleton data and data generated by embedded sensors and the fusion at the feature level is considered. The proposed model was evaluated on a public OPPORTUNITY++ dataset and produced a accuracy of 96.77%.
Keywords: human activity recognition, action recognition, sensors, vision, human-centric sensing, deep learning, context-awarenessProcedia PDF Downloads 17
1128 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration
Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla
Abstract:Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.
Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatileProcedia PDF Downloads 301
1127 Use of Nanosensors in Detection and Treatment of HIV
Authors: Sayed Obeidullah Abrar
Abstract:Nanosensor is the combination of two terms nanoparticles and sensors. These are chemical or physical sensor constructed using nanoscale components, usually microscopic or submicroscopic in size. These sensors are very sensitive and can detect single virus particle or even very low concentrations of substances that could be potentially harmful. Nanosensors have a large scope of research especially in the field of medical sciences, military applications, pharmaceuticals etc.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, nanosensors, DNA, RNAProcedia PDF Downloads 223
1126 Overview of Wireless Body Area Networks
Authors: Rashi Jain
Abstract:The Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is an emerging interdisciplinary area where small sensors are placed on/within the human body. These sensors monitor the physiological activities and vital statistics of the body. The data from these sensors is aggregated and communicated to a remote doctor for immediate attention or to a database for records. On 6 Feb 2012, the IEEE 802.15.6 task group approved the standard for Body Area Network (BAN) technologies. The standard proposes the physical and MAC layer for the WBANs. The work provides an introduction to WBANs and overview of the physical and MAC layers of the standard. The physical layer specifications have been covered. A comparison of different protocols used at MAC layer is drawn. An introduction to the network layer and security aspects of the WBANs is made. The WBANs suffer certain limitations such as regulation of frequency bands, minimizing the effect of transmission and reception of electromagnetic signals on the human body, maintaining the energy efficiency among others. This has slowed down their implementation.
Keywords: vehicular networks, sensors, MicroController 8085, LTEProcedia PDF Downloads 189
1125 Power Management in Wireless Combustible Gas Sensors
Authors: Denis Spirjakin, Alexander Baranov, Saba Akbari, Natalia Kalenova, Vladimir Sleptsov
Abstract:In this paper we propose the approach to power management in wireless combustible gas sensors. This approach makes possible drastically prolong sensor nodes autonomous lifetime. That is necessary to tie battery replacement to every year technical service procedures which are claimed by safety standards. Using this approach the current consumption of the wireless combustible gas sensor node was decreased from 80 mA to less than 2 mA and the power consumption from more than 220 mW to 4.6 mW. These values provide autonomous lifetime of the node more than one year.
Keywords: Gas sensors, power management, wireless sensor networkProcedia PDF Downloads 508
1124 Polydimethylsiloxane Applications in Interferometric Optical Fiber Sensors
Authors: Zeenat Parveen, Ashiq Hussain
Abstract:This review paper consists of applications of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) materials for enhanced performance, optical fiber sensors in acousto-ultrasonic, mechanical measurements, current applications, sensing, measurements and interferometric optical fiber sensors. We will discuss the basic working principle of fiber optic sensing technology, various types of fiber optic and the PDMS as a coating material to increase the performance. Optical fiber sensing methods for detecting dynamic strain signals, including general sound and acoustic signals, high frequency signals i.e. ultrasonic/ultrasound, and other signals such as acoustic emission and impact induced dynamic strain. Optical fiber sensors have Industrial and civil engineering applications in mechanical measurements. Sometimes it requires different configurations and parameters of sensors. Optical fiber current sensors are based on Faraday Effect due to which we obtain better performance as compared to the conventional current transformer. Recent advancement and cost reduction has simulated interest in optical fiber sensing. Optical techniques are also implemented in material measurement. Fiber optic interferometers are used to sense various physical parameters including temperature, pressure and refractive index. There are four types of interferometers i.e. Fabry–perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. This paper also describes the future work of fiber optic sensors.
Keywords: fiber optic sensing, PDMS materials, acoustic, ultrasound, current sensor, mechanical measurementsProcedia PDF Downloads 328
1123 PDDA: Priority-Based, Dynamic Data Aggregation Approach for Sensor-Based Big Data Framework
Authors: Lutful Karim, Mohammed S. Al-kahtani
Abstract:Sensors are being used in various applications such as agriculture, health monitoring, air and water pollution monitoring, traffic monitoring and control and hence, play the vital role in the growth of big data. However, sensors collect redundant data. Thus, aggregating and filtering sensors data are significantly important to design an efficient big data framework. Current researches do not focus on aggregating and filtering data at multiple layers of sensor-based big data framework. Thus, this paper introduces (i) three layers data aggregation and framework for big data and (ii) a priority-based, dynamic data aggregation scheme (PDDA) for the lowest layer at sensors. Simulation results show that the PDDA outperforms existing tree and cluster-based data aggregation scheme in terms of overall network energy consumptions and end-to-end data transmission delay.
Keywords: big data, clustering, tree topology, data aggregation, sensor networksProcedia PDF Downloads 257
1122 Autonomic Sonar Sensor Fault Manager for Mobile Robots
Authors: Martin Doran, Roy Sterritt, George Wilkie
Abstract:NASA, ESA, and NSSC space agencies have plans to put planetary rovers on Mars in 2020. For these future planetary rovers to succeed, they will heavily depend on sensors to detect obstacles. This will also become of vital importance in the future, if rovers become less dependent on commands received from earth-based control and more dependent on self-configuration and self-decision making. These planetary rovers will face harsh environments and the possibility of hardware failure is high, as seen in missions from the past. In this paper, we focus on using Autonomic principles where self-healing, self-optimization, and self-adaption are explored using the MAPE-K model and expanding this model to encapsulate the attributes such as Awareness, Analysis, and Adjustment (AAA-3). In the experimentation, a Pioneer P3-DX research robot is used to simulate a planetary rover. The sonar sensors on the P3-DX robot are used to simulate the sensors on a planetary rover (even though in reality, sonar sensors cannot operate in a vacuum). Experiments using the P3-DX robot focus on how our software system can be adapted with the loss of sonar sensor functionality. The autonomic manager system is responsible for the decision making on how to make use of remaining ‘enabled’ sonars sensors to compensate for those sonar sensors that are ‘disabled’. The key to this research is that the robot can still detect objects even with reduced sonar sensor capability.
Keywords: autonomic, self-adaption, self-healing, self-optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 290
1121 Training of Sensors for Early Warning System of Rainfall Induced Landslides
Authors: M. Naresh, Pratik Chaturvedi, Srishti Yadav, Varun Dutt, K. V. Uday
Abstract:Changes in the Earth’s climate are likely to increase natural hazards such as drought, floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. The present study focusing on to early warning systems (EWS) of landslides, major issues in Himalayan region without prominence to deforestation, encroachments and un-engineered cutting of slopes and reforming for infrastructural purposes. EWS can be depicted by conducting a series of flume tests using micro-electro mechanical systems sensors data after reaching threshold values under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the threshold value database, an alert will be sent via SMS.
Keywords: slope-instability, flume test, sensors, early warning systemProcedia PDF Downloads 195
1120 Design of Structural Health Monitoring System for a Damaged Reinforced Concrete Bridge
Authors: Muhammad Fawad
Abstract:Monitoring and structural health assessment are the primary requirements for the performance evaluation of damaged bridges. This paper highlights the case study of a damaged Reinforced Concrete (RC) bridge structure where the Finite element (FE) modelling of this structure was done using the material properties extracted by the in-situ testing. Analysis was carried out to evaluate the bridge damage. On the basis of FE analysis results, this study proposes a proper Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system that will extend the life cycle of the bridge with minimal repair costs and reduced risk of failure. This system is based on the installation of three different types of sensors: Liquid Levelling sensors (LLS) for measurement of vertical displacement, Distributed Fiber Optic Sensors (DFOS) for crack monitoring, and Weigh in Motion (WIM) devices for monitoring of moving loads on the bridge.
Keywords: bridges, reinforced concrete, finite element method, structural health monitoring, sensorsProcedia PDF Downloads 17
1119 Digital Platform for Psychological Assessment Supported by Sensors and Efficiency Algorithms
Authors: Francisco M. Silva
Abstract:Technology is evolving, creating an impact on our everyday lives and the telehealth industry. Telehealth encapsulates the provision of healthcare services and information via a technological approach. There are several benefits of using web-based methods to provide healthcare help. Nonetheless, few health and psychological help approaches combine this method with wearable sensors. This paper aims to create an online platform for users to receive self-care help and information using wearable sensors. In addition, researchers developing a similar project obtain a solid foundation as a reference. This study provides descriptions and analyses of the software and hardware architecture. Exhibits and explains a heart rate dynamic and efficient algorithm that continuously calculates the desired sensors' values. Presents diagrams that illustrate the website deployment process and the webserver means of handling the sensors' data. The goal is to create a working project using Arduino compatible hardware. Heart rate sensors send their data values to an online platform. A microcontroller board uses an algorithm to calculate the sensor heart rate values and outputs it to a web server. The platform visualizes the sensor's data, summarizes it in a report, and creates alerts for the user. Results showed a solid project structure and communication from the hardware and software. The web server displays the conveyed heart rate sensor's data on the online platform, presenting observations and evaluations.
Keywords: Arduino, heart rate BPM, microcontroller board, telehealth, wearable sensors, web-based healthcareProcedia PDF Downloads 72
1118 Generation of 3d Models Obtained with Low-Cost RGB and Thermal Sensors Mounted on Drones
Authors: Julio Manuel De Luis Ruiz, Javier Sedano Cibrián, RubéN Pérez Álvarez, Raúl Pereda García, Felipe Piña García
Abstract:Nowadays it is common to resort to aerial photography to carry out the prospection and/or exploration of archaeological sites. In this sense, the classic 3D models are being applied to investigate the direction towards which the generally subterranean structures of an archaeological site may continue and therefore, to help in making the decisions that define the location of new excavations. In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been applied as the vehicles that carry the sensor. This implies certain advantages, such as the possibility of including low-cost sensors, given that these vehicles can carry the sensor at relatively low altitudes. Due to this, low-cost dual sensors have recently begun to be used. This new equipment can collaborate with classic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in the exploration of archaeological sites, but this entails the need for a methodological setting to optimise the acquisition, processing and exploitation of the information provided by low-cost dual sensors. This research focuses on the design of an appropriate workflow to obtain 3D models with low-cost sensors carried on UAVs, both in the RGB and thermal domains. All the foregoing has been applied to the archaeological site of Juliobriga, located in Cantabria (Spain).
Keywords: process optimization, RGB models, thermal models, , UAV, workflowProcedia PDF Downloads 67
1117 A Human Activity Recognition System Based on Sensory Data Related to Object Usage
Authors: M. Abdullah, Al-Wadud
Abstract:Sensor-based activity recognition systems usually accounts which sensors have been activated to perform an activity. The system then combines the conditional probabilities of those sensors to represent different activities and takes the decision based on that. However, the information about the sensors which are not activated may also be of great help in deciding which activity has been performed. This paper proposes an approach where the sensory data related to both usage and non-usage of objects are utilized to make the classification of activities. Experimental results also show the promising performance of the proposed method.
Keywords: Naïve Bayesian, based classification, activity recognition, sensor data, object-usage modelProcedia PDF Downloads 235
1116 Modification of Carbon-Based Gas Sensors for Boosting Selectivity
Authors: D. Zhao, Y. Wang, G. Chen
Abstract:Gas sensors that utilize carbonaceous materials as sensing media offer numerous advantages, making them the preferred choice for constructing chemical sensors over those using other sensing materials. Carbonaceous materials, particularly nano-sized ones like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), provide these sensors with high sensitivity. Additionally, carbon-based sensors possess other advantageous properties that enhance their performance, including high stability, low power consumption for operation, and cost-effectiveness in their construction. These properties make carbon-based sensors ideal for a wide range of applications, especially in miniaturized devices created through MEMS or NEMS technologies. To capitalize on these properties, a group of chemoresistance-type carbon-based gas sensors was developed and tested against various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and volatile inorganic compounds (VICs). The results demonstrated exceptional sensitivity to both VOCs and VICs, along with the sensor’s long-term stability. However, this broad sensitivity also led to poor selectivity towards specific gases. This project aims at addressing the selectivity issue by modifying the carbon-based sensing materials and enhancing the sensor's specificity to individual gas. Multiple groups of sensors were manufactured and modified using proprietary techniques. To assess their performance, we conducted experiments on representative sensors from each group to detect a range of VOCs and VICs. The VOCs tested included acetone, dimethyl ether, ethanol, formaldehyde, methane, and propane. The VICs comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The concentrations of the sample gases were all set at 50 parts per million (ppm). Nitrogen (N2) was used as the carrier gas throughout the experiments. The results of the gas sensing experiments are as follows. In Group 1, the sensors exhibited selectivity toward CO2, acetone, NO, and NO2, with NO2 showing the highest response. Group 2 primarily responded to NO2. Group 3 displayed responses to nitrogen oxides, i.e., both NO and NO2, with NO2 slightly surpassing NO in sensitivity. Group 4 demonstrated the highest sensitivity among all the groups toward NO and NO2, with NO2 being more sensitive than NO. In conclusion, by incorporating several modifications using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), sensors can be designed to respond well to NOx gases with great selectivity and without interference from other gases. Because the response levels to NO and NO2 from each group are different, the individual concentration of NO and NO2 can be deduced.
Keywords: gas sensors, carbon, CNT, MEMS/NEMS, VOC, VIC, high selectivity, modification of sensing materialsProcedia PDF Downloads 3