Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8157

Search results for: wastewater management

8157 Development of Model for Effective Sub- District Municipality Wastewater Management

Authors: Vitool Suksankavanich

Abstract:

This preliminary research aimed to explore the development of wastewater management of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality, Samutprakan Province, in order to establish appropriate model for effective wastewater management that fit to the context of the area. The research posed three questions: [i] to what extent the promotion of social responsibility awareness built among the local community resulted in effectiveness of the local wastewater management; [ii] did the waste disposal management of Bang Pu Industrial Estate contribute to the overall environmental quality of Bang Pu Sub- District Municipality; and [iii] did the relationship between the community and the industrial factories have any effect on the wastewater management. The in- depth interview revealed main obstacles occurred in the process of wastewater management in the area. The fieldwork also contributed to a product of an appropriate model of effective wastewater management.

Keywords: legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, social responsibility, wastewater management

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8156 Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Microalgae – Removal of Nitrogen

Authors: A. Siham Dehmani, B. Djamal Zerrouki

Abstract:

Domestic wastewater contains high concentrations of nitrogen, which can affect public health and cause harmful ecological impacts. The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy based on wastewater has received increasing interest worldwide in recent decades. The microalgae cultivation in wastewater has two advantages: wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Our work aimed to remove nitrogen from municipal wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from the wastewater treatment station located in Ouargla and used as a medium for the cultivation of chlorella microalgae strains inside a photobioreactor. Analysis of different parameters was done every 2 days along the period of the cultivation (10 days). The average removal efficiencies of nitrogen were maintained at 95%. Our results show the potential of integrating nutrient removal from wastewater by microalgae as a secondary wastewater treatment processes.

Keywords: biomass, microalgae, treatment, wastewater

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8155 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

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8154 Management of Urban Wastewater in the City of Maradi (Niger): The Case of Domestic Wastewater

Authors: Saidou Hassidou, Laminou Ary Mahaman Moustapha

Abstract:

Uncontrolled urbanization of African cities, plus the lack of municipal waste management services in these cities, generate landscapes become places of multiple and varied interactions between health and environment. In this sense, under strong urban growth in a context of sub-equipment sanitation, the city of Maradi doesn’t escape to this situation which results in the spread of pollution (release of unpleasant odors, proliferation of mosquitoes) and many diseases posing multiple health problems. Our study focuses only on liquid waste especially domestic wastewater. To study the different domestic wastewater management options in the town of Maradi, a survey was conducted among 340 households in 17 districts. We note in most cases a crucial of waste management infrastructure (drainage and wastewater treatment) at the city. Thus, only the individual sanitation facilities are used. In the town of Maradi, in addition to the storm drains, there are, in old districts, ditches that discharge wastewater and unfortunately end up in rivers without treatment. Domestic wastewater total production is estimated at 86,761.28 m3 per day. This water is mostly from laundry activities, bathing, dishes, and is discharged in large part through the streets, by more than 60% of households. Also, pit emptying is performed at 39.11% by the vehicle Peugeot tank. The quality of service rendered by an actor is very important to encourage households to join. Existing autonomous sanitation facilities are poorly designed and poorly maintained. Fecal sludge is dumped in a hole near saturated latrines; this work is mainly done by manual scavengers or dumped in fields or on nearby vacant land concessions.

Keywords: management, urban wastewater, domestic wastewater, Maradi, Niger

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8153 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen

Abstract:

This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, construction

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8152 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

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8151 Technical Sustainable Management: An Instrument to Increase Energy Efficiency in Wastewater Treatment Plants, a Case Study in Jordan

Authors: Dirk Winkler, Leon Koevener, Lamees AlHayary

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the improvement of the municipal wastewater systems in Jordan. An important goal is increased energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants and therefore lower expenses due to reduced electricity consumption. The chosen way to achieve this goal is through the implementation of Technical Sustainable Management adapted to the Jordanian context. Three wastewater treatment plants in Jordan have been chosen as a case study for the investigation. These choices were supported by the fact that the three treatment plants are suitable for average performance and size. Beyond that, an energy assessment has been recently conducted in those facilities. The project succeeded in proving the following hypothesis: Energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants can be improved by implementing principles of Technical Sustainable Management adapted to the Jordanian context. With this case study, a significant increase in energy efficiency can be achieved by optimization of operational performance, identifying and eliminating shortcomings and appropriate plant management. Implementing Technical Sustainable Management as a low-cost tool with a comparable little workload, provides several additional benefits supplementing increased energy efficiency, including compliance with all legal and technical requirements, process optimization, but also increased work safety and convenient working conditions. The research in the chosen field continues because there are indications for possible integration of the adapted tool into other regions and sectors. The concept of Technical Sustainable Management adapted to the Jordanian context could be extended to other wastewater treatment plants in all regions of Jordan but also into other sectors including water treatment, water distribution, wastewater network, desalination, or chemical industry.

Keywords: energy efficiency, quality management system, technical sustainable management, wastewater treatment

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8150 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim

Abstract:

This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

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8149 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai

Abstract:

This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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8148 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

Abstract:

The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.

Keywords: adsorption, filtration, synthetic wastewater, TDS removal, COD removal

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
8147 A Concept of Rational Water Management at Local Utilities: The Use of RO for Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment/Reuse

Authors: N. Matveev, A. Pervov

Abstract:

Local utilities often face problems of local industrial wastes, storm water disposal due to existing strict regulations. For many local industries, the problem of wastewater treatment and discharge into surface reservoirs can’t be solved through the use of conventional biological treatment techniques. Current discharge standards require very strict removal of a number of impurities such as ammonia, nitrates, phosphate, etc. To reach this level of removal, expensive reagents and sorbents are used. The modern concept of rational water resources management requires the development of new efficient techniques that provide wastewater treatment and reuse. As RO membranes simultaneously reject all dissolved impurities such as BOD, TDS, ammonia, phosphates etc., they become very attractive for the direct treatment of wastewater without biological stage. To treat wastewater, specially designed membrane "open channel" modules are used that do not possess "dead areas" that cause fouling or require pretreatment. A solution to RO concentrate disposal problem is presented that consists of reducing of initial wastewater volume by 100 times. Concentrate is withdrawn from membrane unit as sludge moisture. The efficient use of membrane RO techniques is connected with a salt balance in water system. Thus, to provide high ecological efficiency of developed techniques, all components of water supply and wastewater discharge systems should be accounted for.

Keywords: reverse osmosis, stormwater treatment, open-channel module, wastewater reuse

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8146 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin

Abstract:

This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.

Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewater

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8145 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani

Abstract:

In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.

Keywords: El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio, treatment

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8144 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan

Abstract:

Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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8143 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa

Abstract:

As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pH

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8142 MBR-RO System Operation in Quantitative and Qualitative Promotion of Waste Water Cleaning: Case Study of Shokohieyh Qoms’ Waste Water Cleaning

Authors: A. A. Hassani, M. Nasri Nasrabadi

Abstract:

According to population growth and increasing water needs of industrial and agricultural sections and lack of existing water sources, also increases of wastewater and new wastewater treatment plant construction’s high costs, it is inevitable to reuse wastewater with the approach of increasing wastewater treatment capacity and output sewage quality. In this regard, the first sewage reuse plan in industrial uses was designed with the approach of qualitative and quantitative improvement due to the increased organic load of the output sewage of Qom Shokohieh city’s’ in wastewater treatment plant. This research investigated qualitative factors COD, BOD, TSS, TDS, and input and output heavy metal of MBR-RO system and ability of increase wastewater acceptance capacity by existing in wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, experimental results of seven-month navigation system have been used from 07/01/2013 to 02/01/2014. Existing data analysis showed that MBR system is able to remove 93.2% COD, 94.4% BOD, 13.8% TDS, 98% heavy metals and RO system is able to remove 98.9% TDS. This study showed that MBR-RO integration system is able to increase the capacity of refinery by 30%.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, wastewater reuse, MBR, RO

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
8141 Kinetic Evaluation of Biodegradability of Paint Shop Wastewater of a Bus Production Factory

Authors: Didem Güven, Oytun Hanhan, Elif Ceren Aksoy, Emine Ubay Çokgör

Abstract:

This paper presents a biological treatability study ofpaintshopwastewaterof a bus factory by an anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor.A lab scale 14L SBR system was implementedto investigate carbon and nitrogen removal performance frompaint shop waste streams combined with domestic and process wastewater of a bus production factory in Istanbul (Turkey).The wastewater collected from decanters of the paint boots and pre-treatmentplant was usedforthefeeding of SBR. The reactor was operated with a total hydraulic retention time of 24 hrs, and a total sludge age of 18.7 days. Initially the efficiency and stability of the reactor were studied when fed with main wastewater stream to simulate the current wastewater treatment plant. Removal efficiency of 57% nitrogen and 90% COD were obtained. Once the paint shop wastewater was introduced to mainstream feeding with a ratio of 1:5, nitrification completely, carbon removal were partially inhibited. SBR system was successful to handle even at very high COD concentrations of paint shop wastewater after feeding of 2 months, with an average effluent COD of 100 mg/L. For the determination of kinetic parameters, respirometric analysis was also conducted with/without paint shop wastewater addition. Model simulation indicated lower maximum specific growth and hydrolysis rates when paint shop wastewater was mixed with the mainstream wastewater of the factory.

Keywords: biological treatability, nitrogen removal, paint shop wastewater, sequencing batch reactor

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8140 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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8139 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Sewage Treatment Plant in Oman: Samail Case Study

Authors: Azza Mohsin Al-Hashami, Reginald Victor

Abstract:

Treatment of wastewater involves physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove the pollutants from wastewater. This study evaluates of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (STP) in Samail, Oman. Samail STP has tertiary treatment using conventional activated sludge with surface aeration. The collection of wastewater is through a network with a total length of about 60 km and also by tankers for the areas outside the network. Treated wastewater from this STP is used for the irrigation of vegetation in the STP premises and as a backwash for sand filters. Some treated water is supplied to the Samail municipality, which uses it for the landscaping, road construction, and 'the Million Date Palms' project. In this study, homogenous samples were taken from eight different treatment stages along the treatment continuum for one year, at a frequency of once a month, to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological parameters. All samples were analyzed using the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The spatial variations in water quality along the continuum are discussed. Despite these variations, the treated wastewater from Samail STP was of good quality, and most of the parameters are within class A category in Oman Standards for wastewater reuse and discharge.

Keywords: wastewater, STP, treatment, processes

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8138 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji

Abstract:

The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

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8137 Wastewater from the Food Industry: Characteristics and Possibilities of Sediments on the Basis of the Dairy Industry

Authors: Monika Gałwa-Widera, Anna Kwarciak–Kozłowska, Lucyna Sławik-Dembiczak

Abstract:

Issues relating to management of sewage sludge from small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants is a vital issue, which deal with such scholars as well as those directly involved in the issue of wastewater treatment and management of sedimentary. According to the Law on Waste generating waste is responsible for such processing to the product obtained impacted on the environment minimally. In small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants have to deal with the technology of sludge management technology is far from drying and incineration of sewage sludge. So here you can use other technologies. One of them is the composting of sewage sludge. It is a process of processing and disposal of sewage sludge that effectively their disposal. By composting, we can obtain a product that contains significant amounts of organic matter to assess the fertilizing qualities. Modifications to the ongoing process in biological reactors allow for more rapid receipt of a wholesome product. The research presented and discussed in this publication relate to assist the composting process of sewage sludge and biomass structural material in the shares of rates: 35% biomass, 55% sludge, 10% structural material using a method which involves the re-spawning batch composting physical methods leachate from the composting process.

Keywords: biomass, composting, industry, sewage sludge

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8136 Treated Wastewater Reuse in Algeria: Overview, Mobilization Potential and Challenges

Authors: Dairi Sabri, Mrad Dounia, Djebbar Yassine, Abida Habib

Abstract:

Food security, which may be ensured by important agricultural production, needs huge amounts of water for irrigation. Recognizing this, the Algerian government made enormous efforts to mobilize water resources. Every drop of water collected, regardless of its origin, is needed to strengthen agricultural production. The present irrigated area in Algeria is about 1 million hectares while the potential agricultural area all over the country exceeds 9 million ha. This clearly shows the need for non-conventional water resources in Algeria, especially treated wastewater reuse. The use of treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation is still at the experimental stage in Algeria. While 20 million hectares worldwide are irrigated with treated wastewater, only 2300 hectares in Algeria are irrigated on an experimental basis in the regions of Setif, Constantine, Mila Telemcen, Tougourt and Boumerdès. The volume of wastewater discharged nationwide is estimated to be around 750 million cubic meters and is expected to exceed 1.5 billion m3 in 2020. An ambitious program of providing treatment facilities has been initiated in this direction to increase the treatment capacity to 2.5 million m3 per day in 2030. In order to optimize the use of this resource, specific research actions interested in defining treated wastewater reuse opportunities and standards are undertaken. The objective of this study is basically to examine the different components of treated wastewater reuse, including standards, treatment processes, agricultural opportunities and potentials as well as technical and economic aspects governing the feasibility of this technology in Algeria based on Geographic Information System (GIS).

Keywords: wastewater reuse, integrated management, irrigation, GIS

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8135 Removal of Chloro-Compounds from Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation

Authors: Chhaya Sharma, Dushyant Kumar

Abstract:

The present work deals with the treatment of wastewater generated by paper industry by using aluminium as anode material. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of chloropenolics have been carried out by using primary clarifier effluent with the help of gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Sixteen chlorophenolics compounds have been identified and estimated. Results indicated that among 16 identified compounds, 7 are 100% removed and overall 66% reduction in chorophenolics compounds have been detected. Moreover, during the treatment, the biodegradability index of wastewater significantly increases, along with 70 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand and 99 % in color.

Keywords: aluminium anode, chlorophenolics, electrocoagulation, pollution load, wastewater

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8134 Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Green Chlorine-Free Coagulants

Authors: Huihui Zhang, Zhongzhi Zhang

Abstract:

Coagulation/flocculation is regarded a simple and effective wastewater treatment technology. Chlorine-containing coagulants may release chloride ions into the wastewater, causing corrosion. A green chlorine-free coagulant of polyaluminum ferric silicate (PSAF) was prepared by the copolymerization method to treat oily refractory wastewaters. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) achieved 97.4% and 93.0% at a dosage of 700 mg/L, respectively. After PSAF coagulation, the chloride ion concentration was also almost the same as that in the raw wastewater. Thus, the chlorine-free coagulant is highly efficient and does not introduce additional chloride ions into the wastewater, avoiding corrosion.

Keywords: coagulation, chloride-free coagulant, oily refractory wastewater, coagulation performance

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8133 Use of Microbial Fuel Cell for Metal Recovery from Wastewater

Authors: Surajbhan Sevda

Abstract:

Metal containing wastewater is generated in large quintiles due to rapid industrialization. Generally, the metal present in wastewater is not biodegradable and can be accumulated in living animals, humans and plant tissue, causing disorder and diseases. The conventional metal recovery methods include chemical, physical and biological methods, but these are chemical and energy intensive. The recent development in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology provides a new approach for metal recovery; this technology offers a flexible platform for both reduction and oxidation reaction oriented process. The use of MFCs will be a new platform for more efficient and low energy approach for metal recovery from the wastewater. So far metal recover was extensively studied using chemical, physical and biological methods. The MFCs present a new and efficient approach for removing and recovering metals from different wastewater, suggesting the use of different electrode for metal recovery can be a new efficient and effective approach.

Keywords: metal recovery, microbial fuel cell, wastewater, bioelectricity

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8132 Desodesmus sp.: A Potential Micro Alga to Treat the Textile Wastewater

Authors: Thirunavoukkarasu Manikkannan, Karpanai Selvan Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Textile industry is the one of the most important industrial sector in India. It accounts for 5% of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the country. A Textile industry consumes large quantities of water (~250 m3/ton of product) and they generate almost ~90% of wastewater from its consumption. The problem is alarming and requires proper treatment process to acquire dual benefit of Zero Liquid Discharge and no contamination to the environment. Here we describe the process by which the textile wastewater can be reused. We have collected the textile wastewater in and around Ayyampettai area of Tamilnadu, India. Among different microalgal strains used, Desodesmus sp. collected at Manali, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India was able to lessen the colour of the waste water in 12-15 hrs of its growth, COD around 81.7%, Dissolved solid reduction was 28 ± 0.5 %, Suspended solid was reduced to 40.5 ± 0.3 %, Dye degradation was 50-78%. Further, Desodesmus sp. able to achieve the biomass of 0.9 ± 0.2 g/L (dry weight) in two weeks’ time, the Chl a content was 11 mg/L. It infers that this algal strain able to utilize the textile wastewater as source for growth and algal biomass production.

Keywords: Desodesmus sp., microalgae, textile, treatment, wastewater

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8131 Numerical Investigation of Wastewater ‎Rheological Characteristics on Flow Field ‎Inside a Sewage Network

Authors: Seyed-Mohammad-Kazem Emami, Behrang Saki, Majid Mohammadian

Abstract:

The wastewater flow field inside a sewage network including pipe and ‎manhole was investigated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics ‎‎(CFD) model. The numerical model is developed by incorporating a ‎rheological model to calculate the viscosity of wastewater fluid by ‎means of open source toolbox OpenFOAM. The rheological ‎properties of prepared wastewater fluid suspensions are first measured ‎using a BrookField LVDVII Pro+ viscometer with an enhanced UL ‎adapter and then correlated the suitable rheological viscosity model ‎values from the measured rheological properties. The results show the ‎significant effects of rheological characteristics of wastewater fluid on ‎the flow domain of sewer system. Results were compared and ‎discussed with the commonly used Newtonian model to evaluate the ‎differences for velocity profile, pressure and shear stress. ‎

Keywords: Non-Newtonian flows, Wastewater, Numerical simulation, Rheology, Sewage Network

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8130 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi

Abstract:

Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, cactus ficus-indica, hydroxyapatite, coagulation - flocculation

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8129 System Dynamics Projections of Environmental Issues for Domestic Water and Wastewater Scenarios in Urban Area of India

Authors: Isha Sharawat, R. P. Dahiya, T. R. Sreekrishnan

Abstract:

One of the environmental challenges in India is urban wastewater management as regulations and infrastructural development has not kept pace with the urbanization and growing population. The quality of life of people is also improving with the rapid growth of the gross domestic product. This has contributed to the enhancement in the per capita water requirement and consumption. More domestic water consumption generates more wastewater. The scarcity of potable water is making the situation quite serious, and water supply has to be regulated in most parts of the country during summer. This requires elaborate and concerted efforts to efficiently manage the water resources and supply systems. In this article, a system dynamics modelling approach is used for estimating the water demand and wastewater generation in a district headquarter city of North India. Projections are made till the year 2035. System dynamics is a software tool used for formulation of policies. On the basis of the estimates, policy scenarios are developed for sustainable development of water resources in conformity with the growing population. Mitigation option curtailing the water demand and wastewater generation include population stabilization, water reuse and recycle and water pricing. The model is validated quantitatively, and sensitivity analysis tests are carried out to examine the robustness of the model.

Keywords: system dynamics, wastewater, water pricing, water recycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
8128 Approach for Evaluating Wastewater Reuse Options in Agriculture

Authors: Manal Elgallal, Louise Fletcher, Barbara Evans

Abstract:

Water scarcity is a growing concern in many arid and semi-arid countries. The increase of water scarcity threatens economic development and sustainability of human livelihoods as well as environment especially in developing countries. Globally, agriculture is the largest water consumption sector, accounting for approximately 70% of all freshwater extraction. Growing competition between the agricultural and higher economic value in urban and industrial uses of high-quality freshwater supplies, especially in regions where water scarcity major problems, will increase the pressure on this precious resource. In this circumstance, wastewater may provide reliable source of water for agriculture and enable freshwater to be exchanged for more economically valuable purposes. Concern regarding the risks from microbial and toxic components to human health and environment quality is a serious obstacle for wastewater reuse particularly in agriculture. Although powerful approaches and tools for microbial risk assessment and management for safe use of wastewater are now available, few studies have attempted to provide any mechanism to quantitatively assess and manage the environmental risks resulting from reusing wastewater. In seeking pragmatic solutions to sustainable wastewater reuse, there remains a lack of research incorporating both health and environmental risk assessment and management with economic analysis in order to quantitatively combine cost, benefits and risks to rank alternative reuse options. This study seeks to enhance effective reuse of wastewater for irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas, the outcome of the study is an evaluation approach that can be used to assess different reuse strategies and to determine the suitable scale at which treatment alternatives and interventions are possible, feasible and cost effective in order to optimise the trade-offs between risks to protect public health and the environment and preserving the substantial benefits.

Keywords: environmental risks, management, life cycle costs, waste water irrigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 196