Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1748

Search results for: toxic metals

1748 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan


Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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1747 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tunas Caught from Lakshweep Islands, India

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Farejiya, Anil Kumar Dikshit


The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP–AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn > Al > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.

Keywords: toxic metals, marine tuna fish, bioaccumulation, biomagnifications

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1746 Heavy Metals in Selected Infant Milk Formula

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, M. Gazette


To test for the presence of toxic heavy metals, specifically Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in formula milk available in Misrata city north of Libya for infants aged 6-12 months through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer,30 samples of imported milk formula in Libyan markets subjected to test to accurate their pollution with heavy metals, We get concentration of Hg, Ar, Pb in milk formula samples was between 0.002-1.37, 1.62-0.04–2.16, 0.15–0.65 respectively, when compared the results with Libyan &WHO standards ,they were within standards of toxic heavy metals. The presence or absence of toxic heavy metals (Lead, Arsenic, and Mercury) in selected infant formula milk and their levels within or beyond standards set by the WHO. The three infant formulas tested, all were negative for Arsenic and Lead, while two out of the three infant formulas tested positive for Mercury with levels of 0.6333ppm and 0.8333ppm. The levels of Mercury obtained, expressed in parts per million (ppm), from the two infant formulas tested were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of total Mercury, which is 0.005ppm, as set by the FAO, WHO, and JECFA.

Keywords: heavy metals, milk formula, Libya, toxic

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1745 Simultaneous Removal of Arsenic and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Soil: a Pilot-Scale Demonstration

Authors: Juan Francisco Morales Arteaga, Simon Gluhar, Anela Kaurin, Domen Lestan


Contaminated soils are recognized as one of the most pressing global environmental problems. As is one of the most hazardous elements: chronic exposure to arsenic has devastating effects on health, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and eventually death. Pb, Zn and Cd are very highly toxic metals that affect almost every organ in the body. With this in mind, new technologies for soil remediation processes are urgently needed. Calcareous artificially contaminated soil containing 231 mg kg-1 As and historically contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd was washed with a 1:1.5 solid-liquid ratio of 90 mM EDTA, 100 mM oxalic acid, and 50 mM sodium dithionite to remove 59, 75, 29, and 53% of As, Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively. To reduce emissions of residual EDTA and chelated metals from the remediated soil, zero valent iron (ZVI) was added (1% w/w) to the slurry of the washed soil immediately prior to rinsing. Experimental controls were conducted without the addition of ZVI after remediation. The use of ZVI reduced metal leachability and minimized toxic emissions 21 days after remediation. After this time, NH4NO3 extraction was performed to determine the mobility of toxic elements in the soil. In addition, Unified Human BioaccessibilityMethod (UBM) was performed to quantify the bioaccessibility levels of metals in stimulated human gastric and gastrointestinal phases.

Keywords: soil remediation, soil science, soil washing, toxic metals removal

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1744 Presence of High Concentrations of Toxic Metals from the Collected Soil Samples Due to Excessive E-Waste Burning in the Various Areas of Moradabad City, U.P India

Authors: Aprajita Singh, Anamika Tripathi, Surya P. Dwivedi


Moradabad is a small town in the Northern area of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is situated on the bank of river Ramganga which is also known as ‘Brass City of India’. There is eventually increase in the environmental pollution due to uncontrolled and inappropriate e-waste burning (recycling) activities which have been reported in many areas of Moradabad. In this paper, analysis of toxic heavy metals, causing pollution to the surrounding environment released from the e-waste burning and much other recycling process. All major e-waste burning sites are situated on the banks of the river which is burned in open environmental conditions. Soil samples were collected from seven (n=3) different sites including control site, after digestion of soil samples using triacid mixture, analysis of different toxic metals (Pb, Ar, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ni) has been carried out with the help of instrument ICP-AAS. After the study, the outcome is that the soil of those areas contains a relatively high level of the toxic metals in order of Cu>Fe>Pb>Cd>Cr>Zn>Ar>Hg. The concentration of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ar and Zn (the majority of samples experimentally proved) exceeded the maximum standard level of WHO. Sequentially this study showed that uncontrolled e-waste processing operations caused serious pollution to local soil and release of toxic metals in the environment is also causing adverse effect on the health of people living in the nearby areas making them more prone to various harmful diseases.

Keywords: brass city, environment pollution, e-waste, toxic heavy metals

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1743 Chronic Exposure of Mercury on Amino Acid Level in Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

Authors: Mary Josephine Rani


Virtually all metals are toxic to aquatic organisms because of the devastating effect of these metals on humans; heavy metals are one of the most toxic forms of aquatic pollution. Metal concentrations in aquatic organisms appear to be of several magnitudes higher than concentrations present in the ecosystem. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment. The principal sources of contamination in wastewater are chloralkali plants, battery factories, mercury switches, and medical wastes. Elevated levels of mercury in aquatic organisms specially fish represent both an ecological and human concern. Amino acid levels were estimated in five tissues (gills, liver, kidney, brain and muscle) of Clariasbatrachus after 28 days of chronic exposure to mercury. Free amino acids serve as precursor for energy production under stress and for the synthesis of required proteins to face the metal challenge.

Keywords: amino acids, fish, mercury, toxicity

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1742 Geostatistical Simulation of Carcinogenic Industrial Effluent on the Irrigated Soil and Groundwater, District Sheikhupura, Pakistan

Authors: Asma Shaheen, Javed Iqbal


The water resources are depleting due to an intrusion of industrial pollution. There are clusters of industries including leather tanning, textiles, batteries, and chemical causing contamination. These industries use bulk quantity of water and discharge it with toxic effluents. The penetration of heavy metals through irrigation from industrial effluent has toxic effect on soil and groundwater. There was strong positive significant correlation between all the heavy metals in three media of industrial effluent, soil and groundwater (P < 0.001). The metal to the metal association was supported by dendrograms using cluster analysis. The geospatial variability was assessed by using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and pollution model to identify the simulation of carcinogenic elements in soil and groundwater. The principal component analysis identified the metals source, 48.8% variation in factor 1 have significant loading for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) of tannery effluent-based process. In soil and groundwater, the metals have significant loading in factor 1 representing more than half of the total variation with 51.3 % and 53.6 % respectively which showed that pollutants in soil and water were driven by industrial effluent. The cumulative eigen values for the three media were also found to be greater than 1 representing significant clustering of related heavy metals. The results showed that heavy metals from industrial processes are seeping up toxic trace metals in the soil and groundwater. The poisonous pollutants from heavy metals turned the fresh resources of groundwater into unusable water. The availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use is being alarming.

Keywords: groundwater, geostatistical, heavy metals, industrial effluent

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1741 Optimization of Synergism Extraction of Toxic Metals (Lead, Copper) from Chlorides Solutions with Mixture of Cationic and Solvating Extractants

Authors: F. Hassaine-Sadi, S. Chelouaou


In recent years, environmental contamination by toxic metals such as Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn ... has become a worldwide crucial problem, particularly in some areas where the population depends on groundwater for drinking daily consumption. Thus, the sources of metal ions come from the metal manufacturing industry, fertilizers, batteries, paints, pigments and so on. Solvent extraction of metal ions has given an important role in the development of metal purification processes such as the synergistic extraction of some divalent cations metals ( M²⁺), the ions metals from various sources. This work consists of a water purification technique that involves the lead and copper systems: Pb²⁺, H₃O+, Cl⁻ and Cu²⁺, H₃O⁺, Cl⁻ for diluted solutions by a mixture of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or Tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in kerosene. The study of the fundamental parameters influencing the extraction synergism: cation exchange/extraction solvent have been examined.

Keywords: synergistic extraction, lead, copper, environment

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1740 Toxic Heavy Metal Accumulation by Algerian Malva sylvestris L. Depending on Location Variation

Authors: Souhila Terfi, Fatma Hassaine-Sadi


In the present study, wet digestion with HCl and HNO3 mixture was used to extract the heavy metals (copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)) from the leaves, the stems and the roots of Malva sylvestris L., which were subsequently analyzed by AAS. The samples (soil and parts of species) were collected from different sites: the industrial area (IA) (Rouiba), the rubbish dump area (RDA) (Boudouaou), the residential area (RA) with large open fields and construction activities (Blida), the Montaigne area (MA) (Chrea) and the high plateau area (HPA) (Berouaguia). The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the analysed parts and the different sampling locations. In the contaminated site of the industrial area (IA), high content of the toxic heavy metals (Cd: 3.18 µg/g DW and Pb: 34.48 µg/g DW) were found in the leaves of Malva sylvestris L. This finding suggests that the consumers of this species could be exposed to a risk associated with this higher level of these toxic metals. It was found that Malva sylvestris L. is rich by Zn and Cu in some sites, which are considered to be the essential elements for the human health. The obtained results with the control site (Montaigne area) suggest that this species can be applicable in both the health and food, feasible alternatives as medicinal plant without any risk.

Keywords: Malva sylvestris L., toxic heavy metal, medicinal plant, impact on human health

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1739 Some Discrepancies between Experimentally-Based Theory of Toxic Metals Combined Action and Actual Approaches to Occupational and Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Management

Authors: Ilzira A. Minigalieva


Assessment of cumulative health risks associated with the widely observed combined exposures to two or more metals and their compounds on the organism in industrial or general environment, as well as respective regulatory and technical risk management decision-making have presumably the theoretical and experimental toxicology of mixtures as their reliable scientific basis. Analysis of relevant literature and our own experience proves, however, that there is no full match between these different practices. Moreover, some of the contradictions between them are of a fundamental nature. This unsatisfactory state of things may be explained not only by unavoidable simplifications characteristic of the methodologies of risk assessment and permissible exposure standards setting but also by the extreme intrinsic complexity of the combined toxicity theory, the most essential issues of which are considered and briefly discussed in this paper.

Keywords: toxic metals, nanoparticles, typology of combined toxicity, mathematical modeling, health risk assessment and management

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1738 Chemometric-Based Voltammetric Method for Analysis of Vitamins and Heavy Metals in Honey Samples

Authors: Marwa A. A. Ragab, Amira F. El-Yazbi, Amr El-Hawiet


The analysis of heavy metals in honey samples is crucial. When found in honey, they denote environmental pollution. Some of these heavy metals as lead either present at low or high concentrations are considered to be toxic. Other heavy metals, for example, copper and zinc, if present at low concentrations, they considered safe even vital minerals. On the contrary, if they present at high concentrations, they are toxic. Their voltammetric determination in honey represents a challenge due to the presence of other electro-active components as vitamins, which may overlap with the peaks of the metal, hindering their accurate and precise determination. The simultaneous analysis of some vitamins: nicotinic acid (B3) and riboflavin (B2), and heavy metals: lead, cadmium, and zinc, in honey samples, was addressed. The analysis was done in 0.1 M Potassium Chloride (KCl) using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), followed by chemometric manipulation of the voltammetric data using the derivative method. Then the derivative data were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions. The proposed method allowed the simultaneous analysis of vitamins and metals though their varied responses and sensitivities. Although their peaks were overlapped, the proposed chemometric method allowed their accurate and precise analysis. After the chemometric treatment of the data, metals were successfully quantified at low levels in the presence of vitamins (1: 2000). The heavy metals limit of detection (LOD) values after the chemometric treatment of data decreased by more than 60% than those obtained from the direct voltammetric method. The method applicability was tested by analyzing the selected metals and vitamins in real honey samples obtained from different botanical origins.

Keywords: chemometrics, overlapped voltammetric peaks, derivative and convoluted derivative methods, metals and vitamins

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1737 Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Materials: A Review

Authors: I. Nazari, B. Shaabani, P. Abaasifar


In small quantities certain heavy metals are nutritionally essential for a healthy life. The heavy metals linked most often to human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. Other heavy metals including copper, zinc and chromium are actually required by the body in small quantity but can also be toxic in large doses. Nowadays, we have contamination to this heavy metals in some untreated industrial waste waters and even in several populated cities drinking waters around the world. The contamination of ground and underground water sources to heavy metals can be concentrated and travel up to food chain by drinking water and agricultural products. In recent years, the need for safe and economical methods for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water has necessitated research interest towards the finding low-cost alternatives. Bio-adsorbents have emerged as low-cost and efficient materials for the removal of heavy metals from waste and ground waters. The bio-adsorbents have an affinity for heavy metals ions to form metal complexes or chelates due to having functional groups including carboxyl, hydroxyl, imidazole, and etc. The objective of this study is to review researches in less expensive adsorbents and their utilization possibilities for various low-cost bio-adsorbents such as coffee beans, rice husk, and saw dust for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated waters.

Keywords: heavy metals, water pollution, bio-adsorbents, low cost adsorbents

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1736 Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Central Mexico

Authors: Jacobo Tabla, P. F. Rodriguez-Espinosa, M. E. Perez-Lopez


Valsequillo reservoir located in Puebla City, Central Mexico receives water from the Atoyac River (Northwest) and from Alseseca River in the north. It has been the receptacle of municipal and industrial wastes for the past few decades affecting the water quality lethally. As a result, there is an outburst of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) in the reservoir occupying around 50 % of the total area. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the concentration levels of toxic metals (Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As) in the water hyacinths and the ambient waters during the dry season. Fourteen water samples and three water hyacinth samples were procured from the Valsequillo reservoir. The collected samples of water hyacinth (roots, rhizome, stems and leaves) were analyzed using an Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) Ultramass 700 (Varian Inc.) to determine the metal levels. Results showed that water hyacinth presented an exhaustion in metal capture from the inlet to outlet of the reservoir. The maximum bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As were 5000, 47474, 4929, 17090 and 74000 respectively. On the other hand, the maximum Translocation Factor (TF) of 0.85 was observed in Zn, whilst Co presented the minimum TF of 0.059. Thus, the results presented the fact that water hyacinth in Valsequillo reservoir proves to be an important environmental utility for efficiently accumulating and translocating heavy metals from the ambient waters to its organelles (stems and leaves).

Keywords: bioaccumulation factor, toxic metals, translocation factor, water hyacinth

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1735 Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Yelagirihills,Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique

Authors: Chandrasekaran, Ravisankar N. Harikrishnan, Rajalakshmi, K. K. Satapathy M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy


Heavy metals were considered as highly toxic environmental pollutants to soil ecosystem and human health. In present study the 12 heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co,Ni and Zn.) are determined in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Metal concentrations were used to quantify pollution contamination factors such as enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) are calculated and reported.

Keywords: soil, heavy metals, EDXRF, pollution contamination factors

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1734 A Study on Leaching of Toxic Elements of High Strength Concrete Containing Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass as Coarse Aggregate

Authors: Nurul Noraziemah Mohd Pauzi, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd Zain


The rapid advance in the electronic industry has led to the increase amount of the waste cathode ray tube (CRT) devices. The management of CRT waste upon disposal haves become a major issue of environmental concern as it contains toxic elements (i.e. lead, barium, zinc, etc.) which has a risk of leaching if it is not managed appropriately. Past studies have reported regarding the possible use of CRT glass as a part of aggregate in concrete production. However, incorporating waste CRT glass may present an environmental risk via leachability of toxic elements. Accordingly, the preventive measures for reducing the risk was proposed. The current work presented the experimental results regarding potential leaching of toxic elements from four types of concrete mixed, each compromising waste CRT glass as coarse aggregate with different shape and properties. Concentrations of detected elements are measure in the leachates by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Results indicate that the concentration of detected elements were found to be below applicable risk, despite the higher content of toxic elements in CRT glass. Therefore, the used of waste CRT glass as coarse aggregate in hardened concrete does not pose any risk of leachate of heavy metals to the environment.

Keywords: recycled CRT glass, coarse aggregate, physical properties, leaching, toxic elements

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1733 Investigations of Metals and Metal-Antibrowning Agent Effects on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity from Red Poppy Leaf

Authors: Gulnur Arabaci


Heavy metals are one of the major groups of contaminants in the environment and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration in plants and animals. However, some metals play important roles in the biological function of many enzymes in living organisms. Metals such as zinc, iron, and cooper are important for survival and activity of enzymes in plants, however heavy metals can inhibit enzyme which is responsible for defense system of plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper-containing metalloenzyme which is responsible for enzymatic browning reaction of plants. Enzymatic browning is a major problem for the handling of vegetables and fruits in food industry. It can be increased and effected with many different futures such as metals in the nature and ground. In the present work, PPO was isolated and characterized from green leaves of red poppy plant (Papaver rhoeas). Then, the effect of some known antibrowning agents which can form complexes with metals and metals were investigated on the red poppy PPO activity. The results showed that glutathione was the most potent inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Cu(II) and Fe(II) metals increased the enzyme activities however, Sn(II) had the maximum inhibitory effect and Zn(II) and Pb(II) had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals, the effects of metal-antibrowning agent complexes on the PPO activity were determined. EDTA and metal complexes had no significant effect on the enzyme. L-ascorbic acid and metal complexes decreased but L-ascorbic acid-Cu(II)-complex had no effect. Glutathione–metal complexes had the best inhibitory effect on Red poppy leaf PPO activity.

Keywords: inhibition, metal, red poppy, poly phenol oxidase (PPO)

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1732 Evaluation of Health Risk Degree Arising from Heavy Metals Present in Drinking Water

Authors: Alma Shehu, Majlinda Vasjari, Sonila Duka, Loreta Vallja, Nevila Broli


Humans consume drinking water from several sources, including tap water, bottled water, natural springs, filtered tap water, etc. The quality of drinking water is crucial for human survival given the fact that the consumption of contaminated drinking water is related to many diseases and deaths all over the world. This study represents the investigation of the quality and health risks of different types of drinking waters being consumed by the population in Albania, arising from heavy metals content. Investigated water included industrialized water, tap water, and spring water. In total, 20 samples were analyzed for the content of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn, Al, and Mn. Determination of each metal concentration in selected samples was conducted by atomic absorption spectroscopy method with electrothermal atomization, GFAAS. Water quality was evaluated by comparing the obtained metals concentrations with the recommended maximum limits, according to the European Directive (98/83/EC) and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (WHO, 2017). Metal Index (MI) was used to assess the overall water quality due to heavy metals content. Health risk assessment was conducted based on the recommendations of the USEPA (1996), human health risk assessment, via ingestion. Results of this investigation showed that Al, Ni, Fe, and Cu were the metals found in higher concentrations while Cd exhibited the lowest concentration. Among the analyzed metals, Al (one sample) and Ni (in five samples) exceeded the maximum allowed limit. Based on the pollution metal index, it was concluded that the overall quality of Glina bottled water can be considered as toxic to humans, while the quality of bottled water (Trebeshina) was classified as moderately toxic. Values of health risk quotient (HQ) varied between 1x10⁻⁶-1.3x10⁻¹, following the order Ni > Cd > Pb > Cu > Al > Fe > Zn > Mn. All the values were lower than 1, which suggests that the analyzed samples exhibit no health risk for humans.

Keywords: drinking water, health risk assessment, heavy metals, pollution index

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1731 Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic

Authors: Elena Castillo-López, Raúl Pereda, Julio Manuel de Luis, Rubén Pérez, Felipe Piña


Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.

Keywords: remote sensing, intertidal sediment, airborne sensors, heavy metals, eTOCoxicity, robust statistic, estimation

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1730 Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles

Authors: Shinen B., Bavor J., Dorjkhand B., Suvd B., Maitsetseg B.


A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.

Keywords: bioavailability, heavy metals, nanoparticles, remediation

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1729 Changes in Secretory Products and Lipid Profile in the Epididymis and Spermatozoa of Rats Induced by Aluminium Chloride

Authors: Ramalingam Venugopal, Kalaiselvi Arumugam


Environmental exposure to heavy metals is associated with a wide range of toxic effects. It is evident that heavy metals released in the environment affect the reproductive processes and fertility of animals. Toxic metals affect the male and female reproductive system directly or indirectly. Considering the toxic nature of aluminium and also the major role of secretory products and lipids in sperm maturation, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride on secretory products like glyceryl phosphoryl choline (GPC), sialic acid, carnitine and acetyl carnitine content and also lipid profiles in the epididymis and spermatozoa of adult rats. Aluminium chloride, 50 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily for 60 days. 24 hours after the last dose the rats were sacrificed and immediately epididymis was dissected out and spermatozoa was isolated. The weight of the epididymis decreased significantly. GPC and sialic acid content was significantly reduced in the epididymis and not much altered in spermatozoa. Carnitine and acetyl carnitine contents were markedly decreased in the spermatozoa as well as in the epididymis. Aluminium chloride administration caused a marked reduction in total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids and cholesterol content in epididymis and no significant changes in spermatozoa. Several changes take place in the spermatozoa as they pass through the epididymis. These changes are directly related to the acquisition of fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. From the results, it is evident that aluminium chloride has definite influence on secretory products and lipid profiles in the epididymis. This may eventually have an adverse impact on the fertility of the animal.

Keywords: aluminium chloride, rat, carnitine, GPC, sialic acid, epididymis, spermatozoa

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1728 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati


Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, removal of heavy metals, sludge waste, paper industries

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1727 Heavy Metal Contents in Vegetable Oils of Kazakhstan Origin and Life Risk Assessment

Authors: A. E. Mukhametov, M. T. Yerbulekova, D. R. Dautkanova, G. A. Tuyakova, G. Aitkhozhayeva


The accumulation of heavy metals in food is a constant problem in many parts of the world. Vegetable oils are widely used, both for cooking and for processing in the food industry, meeting the main dietary requirements. One of the main chemical pollutants, heavy metals, is usually found in vegetable oils. These chemical pollutants are carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunotoxic, harmful to consumption and have a negative effect on human health even in trace amounts. Residues of these substances can easily accumulate in vegetable oil during cultivation, processing and storage. In this article, the content of the concentration of heavy metal ions in vegetable oils of Kazakhstan production is studied: sunflower, rapeseed, safflower and linseed oil. Heavy metals: arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel, were determined in three repetitions by the method of flame atomic absorption. Analysis of vegetable oil samples revealed that the largest lead contamination (Pb) was determined to be 0.065 mg/kg in linseed oil. The content of cadmium (Cd) in the largest amount of 0.009 mg/kg was found in safflower oil. Arsenic (As) content was determined in rapeseed and safflower oils at 0.003 mg/kg, and arsenic (As) was not detected in linseed and sunflower oil. The nickel (Ni) content in the largest amount of 0.433 mg/kg was in linseed oil. The heavy metal contents in the test samples complied with the requirements of regulatory documents for vegetable oils. An assessment of the health risk of vegetable oils with a daily consumption of 36 g per day shows that all samples of vegetable oils produced in Kazakhstan are safe for consumption. But further monitoring is needed, since all these metals are toxic and their harmful effects become apparent only after several years of exposure.

Keywords: vegetable oil, sunflower oil, linseed oil, safflower oil, toxic metals, food safety, rape oil

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1726 Dietary Exposure of Heavy Metals through Cereals Commonly Consumed by Dhaka City Residents

Authors: A. Md. Bayejid Hosen, B. M Zakir Hossain Howlader, C. Yearul Kabir


Contamination of soil and agricultural products by heavy metals resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concern. Dietary exposure to heavy metals has been associated with toxic and adverse health effects. The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd and Hg. The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of heavy metals in cereals collected from different wholesale markets of Dhaka City. One hundred and sixty cereal samples were collected and analyzed for determination of heavy metals. Heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A total of six heavy metals– lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and antimony were estimated. The average concentrations of heavy metals in cereals fall within the safe limit established by regulatory organizations except for Pb (152.4 μg/100g) and Hg (15.13 μg/100g) which exceeded the safe limits. BARI gom-26 was the highest source of Pb (304.1 μg/100g) whereas Haski-29 rice variety contained the highest amount of Hg (60.85 μg/100g). Though all the cereal varieties contained approximately same amount of Cr the naizer sail varieties contained huge amount of Cr (171.8 μg/100g). Among all the cereal samples miniket rice varieties contained the least amount of heavy metals. The concentration of Cr (63.24 μg/100g), Cd (5.54 μg/100g) and As (3.26 μg/100g) in all cereals were below the safe limits. The daily intake of heavy metals was determined using the total weight of cereals consumed each day multiplied by the concentrations of heavy metals in cereals. The daily intake was compared with provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set by different regulatory organizations. The daily intake of Cd (23.0 μg), Hg (63.0 μg) and as (13.6 μg) through cereals were below the risk level except for Pb (634.0 μg) and Cr (263.1 μg). As the main meal of average Bangladeshi people is boiled rice served with some sorts of vegetables, our findings indicate that the residents of Dhaka City are at risk from Pb and Cr contamination. Potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in self-planted cereals need more attention.

Keywords: contamination, dietary exposure, heavy metals, human health, ICP-MS

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1725 GIS-Based Spatial Distribution and Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals Contamination in Topsoil around Ecton Mining Area, Derbyshire, UK

Authors: Zahid O. Alibrahim, Craig D. Williams, Clive L. Roberts


The study area (Ecton mining area) is located in the southern part of the Peak District in Derbyshire, England. It is bounded by the River Manifold from the west. This area has been mined for a long period. As a result, huge amounts of potentially toxic metals were released into the surrounding area and are most likely to be a significant source of heavy metal contamination to the local soil, water and vegetation. In order to appraise the potential heavy metal pollution in this area, 37 topsoil samples (5-20 cm depth) were collected and analysed for their total content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and V using ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) optical emission spectroscopy. Multivariate Geospatial analyses using the GIS technique were utilised to draw geochemical maps of the metals of interest over the study area. A few hotspot points, areas of elevated concentrations of metals, were specified, which are presumed to be the results of anthropogenic activities. In addition, the soil’s environmental quality was evaluated by calculating the Mullers’ Geoaccumulation index (I geo), which suggests that the degree of contamination of the investigated heavy metals has the following trend: Pb > Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni = Cr = V. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk, using the enrichment factor (EF), was also specified. On the basis of the calculated amount or the EF, the levels of pollution for the studied metals in the study area have the following order: Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>V>Ni>Mn.

Keywords: enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, GIS, heavy metals, multivariate analysis

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1724 Geochemical Evaluation of Weathering-Induced Release of Trace Metals from the Maastritchian Shales in Parts of Bida an Anambra Basins, Nigeria

Authors: Adetunji Olusegun Aderigibigbe


Shales, especially black shales, are of great geological significance, in the study of heavy/trace metal contamination. This is due to their abundance in occurrence and high concentration of heavy metals embedded which are released during their weathering. Heavy metals constitute one of the most dangerous pollution known to human because they are toxic (i.e., carcinogenic), non-biodegradable and can enter the global eco-biological circle. In the past, heavy metal contamination in aquatic environment and agricultural top soil has been attributed to industrial wastes, mining extractions and pollution from traffic vehicles; only a few studies have focused on weathering of shale as possible source of heavy metal contamination. Based on the above background, this study attempts to establish weathering of shale as possible source of trace/heavy metal contaminations. This was done by carefully selecting fresh and their corresponding weathered shale samples from selected localities in Bida and Anambra Basins. The samples were analysed in Activation Laboratories Ltd; Ontario, Canada for trace/heavy metal. It was observed that some major and trace metals were released during weathering, i.e., some were depleted and some enriched. By this contamination of water zones and agricultural top soils are not only traceable to biogenic processes but geogenic inputs (weathering of shale) as well.

Keywords: contamination, fresh samples, heavy metals, pollution, shales, trace metals, weathered samples

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1723 The Effect of Bacteria on Mercury's Biological Removal

Authors: Nastaran Soltani


Heavy metals such as Mercury are toxic elements that enter the environment through different ways and endanger the environment, plants, animals, and humans’ health. Microbial activities reduce the amount of heavy metals. Therefore, an effective mechanism to eliminate heavy metals in the nature and factory slops, is using bacteria living in polluted areas. Karun River in Khuzestan Province in Iran has been always polluted by heavy metals as it is located among different industries in the region. This study was performed based on the data from sampling water and sediments of four stations across the river during the four seasons of a year. The isolation of resistant bacteria was performed through enrichment and direct cultivation in a solid medium containing mercury. Various bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Serratia Marcescens, and E.coli were identified as mercury-resistant bacteria. The power of these bacteria to remove mercury varied from 28% to 86%, with strongest power belonging to Pseudomonas sp. isolated in spring making a good candidate to be used for mercury biological removal from factory slops.

Keywords: bacteria, Karun River, mercury, biological removal, mercury-resistant

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1722 Trace Metals in Natural Bottled Water on Montenegrin Market and Comaparison with Tap Water in Podgorica

Authors: Katarina Živković, Ivana Joksimović


Many different chemicals may occur in drinking water and cause significant human health risks after prolonged periods of exposure. In particular concern are contaminants that have cumulative toxic properties, such as heavy metals. This investigation was done to clarify concerns about chemical quality and safety of drinking tap water in Podgorica. For comparison, all available natural bottled water on Montenegrin market were bought. All samples (bottled water and tap water from Podgorica) were analyzed using ICP –OES on contents of Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn,Cr, Fe, As and Mn. All results compared with the maximum concentration levels allowed by international standards and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The results of analysis showed that all trace of heavy metals were very low and in same time below MCL according to WHO and International standard.

Keywords: inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Montenegro (Podgorica), natural bottled water, tap water , trace of heavy metal

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1721 Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in a Contaminated Site in Assam, India Using Indian Pennywort and Fenugreek: An Experimental Study

Authors: Chinumani Choudhury


Heavy metal contamination is an alarming problem, which poses a serious risk to human health and the surrounding geology. Soils get contaminated with heavy metals due to the un-regularized industrial discharge of the toxic metal-rich effluents. Under such a condition, the remediation of the contaminated sites becomes imperative for a sustainable, safe, and healthy environment. Phytoextraction, which involves the removal of heavy metals from the soil through root absorption and uptake, is a viable remediation technique, which ensures extraction of the toxic inorganic compound available in the soil even at low concentrations. The soil present in the Silghat Region of Assam, India, is mostly contaminated with Zinc (Zn) and Lead (Pb), having concentrations as high as to cause a serious environmental problem if proper measures are not taken. In the present study, an extensive experimental study was carried out to understand the effectiveness of two commonly planted trees in Assam, namely, i) Indian Pennywort and ii) Fenugreek, in the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soil. The basic characterization of the soil in the contaminated site of the Silghat region was performed and the field concentration of Zn and Pb was recorded. Various long-term laboratory pot tests were carried out by sowing the seeds of Indian Pennywort and Fenugreek in a soil, which was spiked, with a very high dosage of Zn and Pb. The tests were carried out for different concentration of a particular heavy metal and the individual effectiveness in the absorption of the heavy metal by the plants were studied. The concentration of the soil was monitored regularly to assess the rate of depletion and the simultaneous uptake of the heavy metal from the soil to the plant. The amount of heavy metal uptake by the plant was also quantified by analyzing the plant sample at the end of the testing period. Finally, the study throws light on the applicability of the studied plants in the field for effective remediation of the contaminated sites of Assam.

Keywords: phytoextraction, heavy-metals, Indian pennywort, fenugreek

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1720 Determination of Acid Volatile Sulfides–Simultaneously Extracted Metal Relationship and Toxicity in Contaminated Sediment Layer in Mid-Black Sea Coasts

Authors: Arife Simsek, Gulfem Bakan


Sediment refers to the accumulation of varying amounts of sediment material in natural waters and the formation of bottom sludge. Sediments are the most important sources of pollutants as well as important future sources and carriers of pollutants. The accumulation of pollutants in sediments can cause serious environmental problems for the surrounding areas. Heavy metals (such as Cr, Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Al, Zn) disrupt the water quality, affect the useful use of sediment, affect the ecosystem and have a toxic effect on the life of the sediment layer. This effect, which accumulates in the aquatic organisms, can enter the human body with the food chain and affect health seriously. Potential metal toxicity can be determined by comparing acid volatile sulfides (AVS) – simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) ratio in anoxic sediments to determine the effect of metals. Determination of the concentration of SEM and AVS is useful in screening sediments for potential toxicity due to the high metal concentration. In the case of SEM/AVS < 0 (anoxic sediment); in terms of AVS biomass production, its toxicity can be controlled. No toxic effects may be observed when SEM / AVS < 0. SEM / AVS > 0 (in the case of oxic sediment); metals with sensitive fraction such as Cu, As, Ag, Zn are stored. In this study, AVS and SEM measurements of sediment samples collected from five different points in the district of Tekkeköy in Samsun province were performed. The SEM - AVS ratio was greater than 0 in all samples. Therefore, it is necessary to test the toxicity against the risks that may occur in the ecosystem.

Keywords: AVS-SEM, Black Sea, heavy metal, sediment, toxicity

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1719 Removal Efficiency of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution on Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Gehan El-Sayed Sharaf El-Deen


In this study, super paramagnetic iron-oxide nano- materials (SPMIN) were investigated for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solution. The magnetic nanoparticles of 12 nm were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Batch experiments carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, the dosage of SPMIN, desorption,pH value of solutions. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent, which made the nanoparticles selectively adsorb these three metals from wastewater. Maximum sorption for all the studies cations obtained at the first half hour and reached equilibrium at one hour. The adsorption data of heavy metals studied were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm and the equilibrium data show the percent removal of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were 96.5%, 80% and 75%, respectively. Desorption studies in acidic medium indicate that Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ were removed by 89%, 2% and 18% from the first cycle. Regeneration studies indicated that SPMIN nanoparticles undergoing successive adsorption–desorption processes for Zn2+ ions retained original metal removal capacity. The results revealed that the most prominent advantage of the prepared SPMIN adsorbent consisted in their separation convenience compared to the other adsorbents and SPMIN has high efficiency for removal the investigated metals from aqueous solution.

Keywords: heavy metals, magnetic nanoparticles, removal efficiency, Batch technique

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