Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Gaber El Enany

23 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda

Abstract:

The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected from the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h was designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L, respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56%, respectively.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, activated sludge, BOD5, lead, alum salt

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22 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

Abstract:

The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.

Keywords: adsorption, filtration, synthetic wastewater, TDS removal, COD removal

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21 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

Abstract:

The discharge limits of industrial waste water effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. Thus, a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding activated carbon with different dosages to waste water, and for each group waste water was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. At the end of this paper, a comparison was made between the efficiency of using activated carbon and the efficiency of using limestone in the same circumstances.

Keywords: adsorption, COD removal, filtration, TDS removal

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20 Vibrancy in The City: The Problem of Sidi-Gaber Station Zone in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Gihan Mosaad, Bakr Gomaa, Rana Elbadri

Abstract:

Modern parts of Alexandria city lack in vibrancy, causing a number of problems such as urban areas with poor security measures as well as weak economic state. Vibrancy provides a livable, attractive and secure environments; it also boosts the city’s economy and social life. Vibrant city is a city full of energy and life. To achieve this, a number of resources are needed; namely specific urban density, the availability of alternative modes of transportation and finally diversity of land-uses. Literature review shows no comprehensive study that assesses vibrancy in the streets of modern Alexandria. This study aims to measure the vibrancy potential in Sidi-Gaber station area thought the assessment of existing resources performance. Methods include literature reviews, surveying of existing case, questionnaire as well as GIS techniques. Expected results include GIS maps defining the vibrancy potentials in land use, density and statistical study regarding public transportation use in the area.

Keywords: Alexandria, density, mixed use, transportation, vibrancy

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19 A Secure Digital Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on the Improved RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient digital signature scheme with fault tolerance based on the improved RSA system. The proposed scheme for the RSA cryptosystem contains three prime numbers and overcome several attacks possible on RSA. By using the Chinese Reminder Theorem (CRT) the proposed scheme has a speed improvement on the RSA decryption side and it provides high security also.

Keywords: digital signature, fault tolerance, RSA, security analysis

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18 Implementing Fault Tolerance with Proxy Signature on the Improvement of RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the improved RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: fault tolerance, improved RSA, key agreement, proxy signature

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17 An Efficient Proxy Signature Scheme Over a Secure Communications Network

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Proxy signature scheme permits an original signer to delegate his/her signing capability to a proxy signer, and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: proxy signature, warrant partial delegation, key agreement, discrete logarithm

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16 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: proxy signature, fault tolerance, rsa, key agreement protocol

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15 Secure Proxy Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithm

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

A digital signature is an electronic signature form used by an original signer to sign a specific document. When the original signer is not in his office or when he/she travels outside, he/she delegates his signing capability to a proxy signer and then the proxy signer generates a signing message on behalf of the original signer. The two parties must be able to authenticate one another and agree on a secret encryption key, in order to communicate securely over an unreliable public network. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties. In this paper, we present a secure proxy signature scheme over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on factoring and discrete logarithm problem.

Keywords: discrete logarithm, factoring, proxy signature, key agreement

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14 Strategic Citizen Participation in Applied Planning Investigations: How Planners Use Etic and Emic Community Input Perspectives to Fill-in the Gaps in Their Analysis

Authors: John Gaber

Abstract:

Planners regularly use citizen input as empirical data to help them better understand community issues they know very little about. This type of community data is based on the lived experiences of local residents and is known as "emic" data. What is becoming more common practice for planners is their use of data from local experts and stakeholders (known as "etic" data or the outsider perspective) to help them fill in the gaps in their analysis of applied planning research projects. Utilizing international Health Impact Assessment (HIA) data, I look at who planners invite to their citizen input investigations. Research presented in this paper shows that planners access a wide range of emic and etic community perspectives in their search for the “community’s view.” The paper concludes with how planners can chart out a new empirical path in their execution of emic/etic citizen participation strategies in their applied planning research projects.

Keywords: citizen participation, emic data, etic data, Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

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13 Point-Mutation in a Rationally Engineered Esterase Inverts its Enantioselectivity

Authors: Yasser Gaber, Mohamed Ismail, Serena Bisagni, Mohamad Takwa, Rajni Hatti-Kaul

Abstract:

Enzymes are safe and selective catalysts. They skillfully catalyze chemical reactions; however, the native form is not usually suitable for industrial applications. Enzymes are therefore engineered by several techniques to meet the required catalytic task. Clopidogrel is recorded among the five best selling pharmaceutical in 2010 under the brand name Plavix. The commonly used route for production of the drug on an industrial scale is the synthesis of the racemic mixture followed by diastereomeric resolution to obtain the pure S isomer. The process consumes a lot of solvents and chemicals. We have evaluated a biocatalytic cleaner approach for asymmetric hydrolysis of racemic clopidogrel. Initial screening of a selected number of hydrolases showed only one enzyme EST to exhibit activity and selectivity towards the desired stereoisomer. As the crude EST is a mixture of several isoenzymes, a homology model of EST-1 was used in molecular dynamic simulations to study the interaction of the enzyme with R and S isomers of clopidogrel. Analysis of the geometric hindrances of the tetrahedral intermediates revealed a potential site for mutagenesis in order to improve the activity and the selectivity. Single point mutation showed dramatic increase in activity and inversion of the enantioselectivity (400 fold change in E value).

Keywords: biocatalysis, biotechnology, enzyme, protein engineering, molecular modeling

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12 CAG Repeat Polymorphism of Androgen Receptor and Female Sexual Functions in Egyptian Female Population

Authors: Azza Gaber Farag, Yasser Atta Shehata, Sara Elsayed Elghazouly, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib, Nesreen Gamal Elden Elhelbawy

Abstract:

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in cytosine adenineguanine (CAG) repeat has an effect on the functional capacity of AR in males. However, little researches in this field are available regarding female sexual function. Aim: To investigate the possible link between polymorphism in the CAG repeat of AR gene and female sexual function in a sample of the Egyptian population. Materials and methods: 500 Egyptian married females completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, reproductive, and sexual data. AR CAG repeat length was analyzed for those having female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) using real-time PCR. Results: The most sensitive domain to AR CAG repeat length was the orgasm domain that showed significant positive correlations with short allele (p=0.001), long allele (p=.015), biallellic mean (p=.000), and X weighted biallelic mean (p=.000). The satisfaction domain had significant positive correlations with the biallelic mean (p=.035), and the X weighted biallelic mean (p=. 032). However, the pain domain was of significant negative correlations with AR polymorphism of short allele (p=.002), biallelic mean (p=.013), and X weighted biallelic mean (p = . 011). Conclusions: AR polymorphism could represent a non-negligible aspect in female sexual function. The lower AR CAG repeat polymorphism was of significant impact on FSD, affecting mainly female orgasm followed by pain disorders that finally reflected On her sexual satisfaction.

Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, androgen receptor, CAG repeat polymorphism, androgen

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11 Dopamine and Female Sexual Function: A Clinical and Biochemical Study

Authors: Azza Gaber Antar Farag, Eman Abd El Fatah Badr, Wesam Ahmed Tawfik Hasssan Abdel Aal, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib

Abstract:

Background: Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) represents recurrent and persistent problems that distress women and/or strain their relationships with their partners. Dopamine can affect sexual function and interacts with ovarian hormones in the ventromedial area in the hypothalamus. Objective: To investigate the possible role of dopamine in FSD. Method: This prospective case-control study was carried on 100 women having FSD and 100 healthy volunteer females. They were recruited from the Al-Menoufia governorate. All included women were subjected to the questionnaire to assess their demographic and gynecological data as well as sexual function. They were investigated for serum levels of dopamine, estradiol, progesterone and DHEA hormones. Results: Dopamine serum levels were significantly lower in females having sexual dysfunction (6.68±4.14) than controls (57.97±26.26) (P>0.001). This decreased dopamine level was of a significant positive correlation with the arousal domain and significant negative correlation regarding the pain domain (r=-0.19, p=0.01). Also, estradiol serum levels were significantly lower (P>0.001), but progesterone and DHEA serum levels were significantly higher in the FSD group than controls (P>0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between dopamine and DHEA serum levels (r= -0.45, p <0.001). Conclusions: Decreased dopamine serum levels may have an active role in the pathophysiology of FSD, impacting mainly arousal and pain domains, and its targeting should be considered during FSD management.

Keywords: dopamine, estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, females sexual dysfunction

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10 Moho Undulations beneath South of Egypt, Using the Seismic Waves Generated by Tele Earthquakes

Authors: Ahmed Hosny, Haroon Elshaikh, Gaber Hassib, Yassin Ali

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The Moho discontinuity undulations beneath the southern part of Egypt have been defined using the seismic waves generated by tele earthquakes. These earthquakes have been recorded by the Aswan seismic network, which consists of 10 seismic stations established around the lake of Nasser. An additional seismic station was located towards the east of the Lake of Nasser by about ~ 150 km. Receiver functions and H-k stacking methods were used for obtaining the depths of Moho discontinuity and the Vp/Vs ratios beneath each seismic station. Our results revealed that, the depths of Moho discontinuity beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser range from 36 to 39 km, with an average value of 37.5 km. These results are consistent with the previous works done on the same area. The obtained Vp/Vs ratios for the crust of this area were ranged from 1.73 to 1.86, with an average value of 1.79. While beneath the station located towards the east, the Moho discontinuity was detected at a shallowest depth of 27 km and the Vp/Vs ratio was 1.82. The difference in the Moho depths beneath the stations located around the Lake of Nasser and the station located to the east revealed the boundary position between the Saharan Metacraton to the west and the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east. This structural boundary delineates the position of the old collision of the Oceanic crust of the Nubian-Arabian Shield to the east with the Continental crust of the Saharan Metacraton to the west.

Keywords: Moho undulations, south of Egypt, seismic waves, earthquakes

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9 Functionality of Promotional and Advertising Texts: Pragmatic Implications for English-Arabic Translation

Authors: Jamal Gaber Abdalla

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In business promotion and advertising, language is used intentionally to create a powerful influence over people and their behavior. In commercial and marketing activities, the choice of language to convey specific messages with the intention of influencing people is pragmatically important. Design and visual content in promotional and advertising texts also have a great persuasive impact on consumers. It is the functional combination of design, language and visual content that helps people to identify a product or service and remember it. Translating promotional and advertising texts between structurally and culturally different languages, such as English and Arabic, usually involves pragmatic/functional shifts that decide the quality of translation. This study explores some of these shifts in translating promotional and advertising texts between English and Arabic and their implications for translation quality. The study is based on a contrastive analysis of data collected from real samples of English-Arabic translations of promotional and advertising texts. The samples cover different promotional and advertising text types and different business domains. The aim is to identify the most recurrent translation shifts and most used translation approaches/strategies that achieve quality in view of the functional nature of promotional and advertising texts and target language culture conventions. The study shows that linguistic shifts and visual shifts are recurrent in English-Arabic translations of promotional and advertising texts. The study also shows that the most commonly used translation approaches/strategies are functional translation, domestication, communicative translation.

Keywords: advertising, Arabic, English, functional translation, promotion

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8 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss, stem cells

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7 Electrospun Conducting Polymer/Graphene Composite Nanofibers for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors: Aliaa M. S. Salem, Soliman I. El-Hout, Amira Gaber, Hassan Nageh

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Nowadays, the development of poisonous gas detectors is considered to be an urgent matter to secure human health and the environment from poisonous gases, in view of the fact that even a minimal amount of poisonous gas can be fatal. Of these concerns, various inorganic or organic sensing materials have been used. Among these are conducting polymers, have been used as the active material in the gassensorsdue to their low-cost,easy-controllable molding, good electrochemical properties including facile fabrication process, inherent physical properties, biocompatibility, and optical properties. Moreover, conducting polymer-based chemical sensors have an amazing advantage compared to the conventional one as structural diversity, facile functionalization, room temperature operation, and easy fabrication. However, the low selectivity and conductivity of conducting polymers motivated the doping of it with varied materials, especially graphene, to enhance the gas-sensing performance under ambient conditions. There were a number of approaches proposed for producing polymer/ graphene nanocomposites, including template-free self-assembly, hard physical template-guided synthesis, chemical, electrochemical, and electrospinning...etc. In this work, we aim to prepare a novel gas sensordepending on Electrospun nanofibers of conducting polymer/RGO composite that is the effective and efficient expectation of poisonous gases like ammonia, in different application areas such as environmental gas analysis, chemical-,automotive- and medical industries. Moreover, our ultimate objective is to maximize the sensing performance of the prepared sensor and to check its recovery properties.

Keywords: electro spinning process, conducting polymer, polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized reduced graphene oxide, spin coating technique, gas sensors

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6 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory C: Laboratory Exposed Snails to Chemical Mixtures

Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda, M. A. Abu Taleb, Hassan E. Flefel

Abstract:

Snails are considered as suitable diagnostic organisms for heavy metal–contaminated sites. Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are used in this work as pollution bioindicators after exposure to chemical mixtures consisted of heavy metals (HM); zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb); and persistent organic pollutants; Decabromodiphenyl ether 98% (D) and Aroclor 1254 (A). The impacts of these tested chemicals, individual and mixtures, on liver and kidney functions, antioxidant enzymes, complete blood picture, and tissue histology were studied. Results showed that Cu was proved to be the highly toxic against snails than Zn and Pb where LC50 values were 1.362, 213.198 and 277.396 ppm, respectively. Also, B. alexandrina snails exposed to the mixture of HM (¼ LC5 Cu, Pb and Zn) showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn in their whole tissue, the most significant increase in AST, ALT & ALP activities and the highest significant levels of total protein, albumin and globulin. Results showed significant alterations in CAT activity in snail tissue extracts while snail samples exposed to most experimental tests showed significant increase in GST activity. Snail samples that exposed to HM mixtures showed a significant decrease in total hemocytes count while snail samples that exposed to mixtures containing A & D showed a significant increase in total hemocytes and Hyalinocytes. Histopathological alterations in snail samples exposed to individual HM and their mixtures for 4 weeks showed degeneration, edema, hyper trophy and vaculation in head-foot muscle, degeneration and necrotic changes in the digestive gland and accumulation in most tested organs. Also, the hermaphrodite gland showed mature ova with irregular shape and reduction in sperm number. In conclusion, the resulted damage and alterations in B. alexandrina studied parameters can be used as bioindicators to the presence of pollutants in its habitats.

Keywords: Biomphalaria, Zn, Cu, Pb, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein albumin, globulin, CAT, histopathology

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5 Protective Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Alpha Lipoic Acid on Rats Chronically Exposed to Cadmium Chloride

Authors: S. El Ballal, H. El Sabbagh, M. Abd El Gaber, A. Eisa, A. Al Gamal

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Cadmium is one of the most harmful heavy metals able to induce severe injury. In this study, sixty four male Sprague Dawley rats weighing (70-80 gm) were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups each group of 16 rats. Group A: served as control and received commercial ration and distilled water Group B: cadmium chloride was administered orally in water at dose of 300 ppm cadmium (560 mg/L as CdCl2). Group C: Animals received cadmium in drinking water in addition to administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight, equivalent to 1500 ppm in food. Group D: Animals received cadmium in drinking water in addition to administration of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight, equivalent to 1500 ppm in food. The experiment was continued for 2 months. Collection of blood and tissue samples was performed at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks. Blood sample were collected for serum biochemical analysis including malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidants, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein, albumin, urea and uric acid. Tissue specimens were collected for histopathological examination including liver, kidney, brain and testis. Histopathological examination revealed that cadmium choloride induces pathological alterations which increased in severity with time. The use of NAC and ALA can ameliorate toxic effect of CdCl2. The results showed significant decrease MDA and significant increase total antioxidants in group C and D compared to group B, Liver enzymes include AST and ALT showed significant decrease. Regarding to results of total protein and albumin, they revealed significant increase. Urea and uric acid showed significant decrease. From our study we conclude that NAC and ALA have protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

Keywords: ALA, cadmium, histopathology, NAC

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4 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish

Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hoda M. A. Abu Taleb

Abstract:

This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.

Keywords: Lake Manzala, Oreochromis niloticus fish, water pollution, physiological, hematological and histopathological parameters

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3 Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed ligand complexes of Bipyridyl and Glycine with Different Counter Anions as Functional Antioxidant Enzyme Mimics

Authors: Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Gaber A. M. Mersal, Salih Al-Juaid, Samir A. El-Shazly

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A series of mixed ligand complexes, viz., [Cu(BPy)(Gly)X]Y {X = Cl (1), Y = 0; X = 0, Y = ClO4- (2); X = H2O, Y = NO3- (3); X = H2O, Y = CH3COO- (4); and [Cu(BPy)(Gly)-(H2O)]2(SO4) (5) have been synthesized. Their structures and properties were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal analaysis, IR, UV–vis, and ESR spectroscopy, as well as electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry, electrical molar conductivity, and magnetic moment measurements. Complexes 1 and 2 formed slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometries of CuN3OCl and CuN3O2, respectively in which the N,O-donor glycine and N,N-donor bipyridyl bind at the basal plane with chloride ion or water as the axial ligand. Complex 3 shows square planar CuN3O coordination geometry, which exhibits chemically significant hydrogen bonding interactions besides showing coordination polymer formation. The superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities of all complexes were tested and were found to be promising candidates as durable electron-transfer catalyst being close to the efficiency of the mimicking enzymes displaying either catalase or tyrosinase activity to serve for complete reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, both with respect to superoxide radicals and related peroxides. The DNA binding interaction with super coiled pGEM-T plasmid DNA was investigated by using spectral (absorption and emission) titration and electrochemical techniques. The results revealed that DNA intercalate with complexes 1 and 2 through the groove binding mode. The calculated intrinsic binding constant (Kb) of 1 and 2 were 4.71 and 2.429 × 105 M−1, respectively. Gel electrophoresis study reveals the fact that both complexes cleave super coiled pGEM-T plasmid DNA to nicked and linear forms in the absence of any additives. On the other hand, the interaction of both complexes with DNA, the quasi-reversible CuII/CuI redox couple slightly improves its reversibility with considerable decrease in current intensity. All the experimental results indicate that the bipyridyl mixed copper(II) complex (1) intercalate more effectively into the DNA base pairs.

Keywords: enzyme mimics, mixed ligand complexes, X-ray structures, antioxidant, DNA-binding, DNA cleavage

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2 Determinants of Youth Engagement with Health Information on Social Media Platforms in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Niyi Awofeso, Yunes Gaber, Moyosola Bamidele

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Since most social media platforms are accessible anytime and anywhere where Internet connections and smartphones are available, the invisibility of the reader raises questions about accuracy, appropriateness and comprehensibility of social media communication. Furthermore, the identity and motives of individuals and organizations who post articles on social media sites are not always transparent. In the health sector, through socially networked platforms constitute a common source of health-related information, given their purported wealth of information. Nevertheless, fake blogs and sponsored postings for marketing 'natural cures' pervade most commonly used social media platforms, thus complicating readers’ abilities to access and understand trustworthy health-related information. This purposive sampling study of 120 participants aged 18-35 year in UAE was conducted between September and December 2017, and explored commonly used social media platforms, frequency of use of social media for accessing health related information, and approaches for assessing the trustworthiness of health information on social media platforms. Results indicate that WhatsApp (95%), Instagram (87%) and Youtube (82%) were the most commonly used social media platforms among respondents. Majority of respondents (81%) indicated that they regularly access social media to get health-associated information. More than half of respondents (55%) with non-chronic health status relied on unsolicited messages to obtain health-related information. Doctors’ health blogs (21%) and social media sites of international healthcare organizations (20%) constitute the most trusted source of health information among respondents, with UAE government health agencies’ social media accounts trusted by 15% of respondents. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension were the most commonly searched topics on social media (29%), followed by nutrition (20%) and skin care (16%). Majority of respondents (41%) rely on reliability of hits on Google search engines, 22% check for health information only from 'reliable' social media sites, while 8% utilize 'logic' to ascertain reliability of health information. As social media has rapidly become an integral part of the health landscape, it is important that health care policy makers, healthcare providers and social media companies collaborate to promote the positive aspects of social media for young people, whilst mitigating the potential negatives. Utilizing popular social media platforms for posting reader-friendly health information will achieve high coverage. Improving youth digital literacy will facilitate easier access to trustworthy information on the internet.

Keywords: social media, United Arab Emirates, youth engagement, digital literacy

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1 Effect of Amiodarone on the Thyroid Gland of Adult Male Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Role of Vitamin E Supplementation: A Histological and Ultrastructural Study

Authors: Ibrahim Abdulla Labib, Medhat Mohamed Morsy, Gamal Hosny, Hanan Dawood Yassa, Gaber Hassan

Abstract:

Amiodarone is a very effective drug, widely used for arrhythmia. Unfortunately it has many side effects involving many organs especially thyroid gland. The current work was conducted to elucidate the effect of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and the possible protective role of vitamin E. Fifty adult male albino rats weighed 200 – 250 grams were divided into five groups; ten rats each. Group I (Control): Five rats were sacrificed after three weeks and five rats were sacrificed after six weeks. Group II (Sham control): Each rat received sunflower oil orally; the solvent of vitamin E for three weeks. Group III (Amiodarone-treated): each rat received an oral dose of amiodarone; 150 mg/kg/day for three weeks. Group IV (Recovery): Each rat received amiodarone as group III then the drug was stopped for three weeks to evaluate recovery. Group V (Amiodarone + Vitamin E-treated): Each rat received amiodarone as group III followed by 100 mg/kg/day vitamin E orally for three weeks. Thyroid gland of the sacrificed animals were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic studies. Amiodarone administration resulted in loss of normal follicular architecture as many follicles appeared either shrunken, empty or contained scanty pale colloid. Some follicles appeared lined by more than one layer of cells while others showed interruption of their membrane. Masson's Trichrome stained sections showed increased collagen fibers in between the thyroid follicles. Ultrastructurally, the apical border of the follicular cells showed few irregular detached microvilli. The nuclei of the follicular cells were almost irregular with chromatin condensation. The cytoplasm of most follicular cells revealed numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum with numerous lysosomes. After three weeks of stopping amiodarone, the follicles were nearly regular in outline. Some follicles were filled with homogenous eosinophilic colloid and others had shrunken pale colloid or were empty. Some few follicles showed exfoliated cells in their lumina and others were still lined by more than one layer of follicular cells. Moderate amounts of collagen fibers were observed in-between thyroid follicles. Ultrastructurally, many follicular cells had rounded euchromatic nucleui, moderate number of lysosomes and moderately dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. However, few follicular cells still showing irregular nucleui, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and many cytoplasmic vacuoles. Administration of vitamin E with amiodarone for three weeks resulted in obvious structural improvement. Most of the follicles were lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells and the lumina were filled with homogenous eosinophilic colloid with very few vacuolations. The majority of follicular cells had rounded nuclei with occasional detection of ballooned cells and dark nuclei. Scanty collagen fibers were detected among thyroid follicles. Ultrastructurally, most follicular cells exhibited rounded euchromatic nuclei with few short microvilli were projecting into the colloid. Few lysosomes were also noticed. It was concluded that amiodarone administration leads to many adverse histological changes in the thyroid gland. Some of these changes are reversible during the recovery period however concomitant vitamin E administration with amiodarone has a major protective role in preventing many of these changes.

Keywords: amiodarone, recovery, ultrastructure, vitamin E.

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