Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Medhat H. Elzahar

21 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda

Abstract:

The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected from the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h was designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L, respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56%, respectively.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, activated sludge, BOD5, lead, alum salt

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20 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Limestone

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

Abstract:

The discharge limits of industrial wastewater effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. So a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding powdered limestone with different dosages to wastewater, and for each group wastewater was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. Significant removals of TDS and COD were observed in these experiments showing that using effective adsorbents can aid such removals to a large extent.

Keywords: adsorption, filtration, synthetic wastewater, TDS removal, COD removal

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19 Industrial Wastewater Treatment Improvements Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Moustafa H. Omran

Abstract:

The discharge limits of industrial waste water effluents are subjected to regulations which are getting more restricted with time. A former research occurred in Port Said city studied the efficiency of treating industrial wastewater using the first stage (A-stage) of the multiple-stage plant (AB-system).From the results of this former research, the effluent treated wastewater has high rates of total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The purpose of this paper is to improve the treatment process in removing TDS and COD. Thus, a pilot plant was constructed at wastewater pump station in the industrial area in the south of Port Said. Experimental work was divided into several groups adding activated carbon with different dosages to waste water, and for each group waste water was filtered after being mixed with activated carbon. pH and TSS as variables were also studied. At the end of this paper, a comparison was made between the efficiency of using activated carbon and the efficiency of using limestone in the same circumstances.

Keywords: adsorption, COD removal, filtration, TDS removal

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18 Total Dissolved Solids and Total Iron in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: M. Y. Saleh, G. M. ELanany, M. H. Elzahar, M. Z. Elshikhipy

Abstract:

Industrial wastewater discharge, which carries high concentrations of dissolved solids and iron, could be treated by high rate activated sludge stage of the multiple-stage sludge treatment plant, a system which is characterized by high treatment efficiency, optimal prices, and small areas compared with conventional activated sludge treatment plants. A pilot plant with an influent industrial discharge flow of 135 L/h was designed following the activated sludge system to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of dosages 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L alum salt to the aeration tank. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and iron (Fe) in industrial discharge flow had an average range of 140000 TDS and 4.5 mg/L iron. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using a dosage of 200 mg/L alum succeeded to improve the removal efficiency of TDS and total iron to 48.15% and 68.11% respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, activated sludge, TDS, total iron

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17 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating High-Strength Food Industrial Wastewater with Fluctuating pH

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa

Abstract:

As awareness of the variable nature of food industrial wastewater and its environmental impact grows, a more stable treatment reactor is needed to treat such wastewater. In this paper, a performance of 5-compartment lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) treating high strength wastewater with high pH variation was studied under three organic loading rates (OLRs). The reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies: 92.67, 97.44, and 98.19% corresponding to OLRs of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.8 KgCOD/m3 d, respectively. The first compartment showed a good buffering capacity and a distinct phase separation occurred in the ABR.

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, food industrial wastewater, high strength wastewater, organic loading, pH

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16 Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) during Start-Up Period

Authors: D. M. Bassuney, W. A. Ibrahim, Medhat A. E. Moustafa

Abstract:

Appropriate start-up of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is considered to be the most delicate and important issue in the anaerobic process, and depends on several factors such as wastewater composition, reactor configuration, inoculum and operating conditions. In this work, the start-up performance of an ABR with working volume of 30 liters, fed continuously with synthetic food industrial wastewater along with semi-batch study to measure the methangenic activity by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test were carried out at various organic loading rates (OLRs) to determine the best OLR used to start up the reactor. The comparison was based on COD removal efficiencies, start-up time, pH stability and methane production. An OLR of 1.8 Kg COD/m3d (5400 gCOD/m3 and 3 days HRT) showed best overall performance with COD removal efficiency of 94.44% after four days from the feeding and methane production of 3802 ml/L with an overall SMA of 0.36 gCH4-COD/gVS.d

Keywords: anaerobic baffled reactor, anaerobic reactor start-up, food industrial wastewater, specific methanogenic activity

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15 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky

Abstract:

In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: nitrogen gas, biological treatment, alum, dewatering sludge, greenhouse gases

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14 Tutankhamen’s Shrines (Naoses): Scientific Identification of Wood Species and Technology

Authors: Medhat Abdallah, Ahmed Abdrabou

Abstract:

Tutankhamen tomb was discovered on November 1922 by Howard carter, the grave was relatively intact and crammed full of the most beautiful burial items and furniture, the black shrine-shaped boxes on sleds studied here founded in treasury chamber. This study aims to identify the wood species used in making those shrines, illustrate technology of manufacture. Optical Microscope (OM), 3D software and Imaging Processes including; Visible light, Raking light and Visible-induced infrared luminescence were effective in illustrating wooden joints and techniques of manufacture. The results revealed that cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani and sycamore fig Ficus sycomorus had been used for making the shrines’ boards and sleds while tamarisk Tamarix sp., Turkey Oak Quercus cerris L., and Sidder (nabk) Zizyphus spina christi used for making dowels. The wooden joint of mortise and tenon was used to connect the body of the shrine to the sled, while wooden pegs used to connect roof and cornice to the shrine body.

Keywords: Tutankhamen, wood species, optical microscope, Cedrus libani, Ficus sycomorus

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13 Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.

Keywords: gas turbine, syngas, analysis, recirculation

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12 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

Abstract:

Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

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11 Auditory and Language Skills Development after Cochlear Implantation in Children with Multiple Disabilities

Authors: Tamer Mesallam, Medhat Yousef, Ayna Almasaad

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation (CI) in children with additional disabilities can be a fundamental and supportive intervention. Although, there may be some positive impacts of CI on children with multiple disabilities such as better outcomes of communication skills, development, and quality of life, the families of those children complain from the post-implant habilitation efforts that considered as a burden. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of CI children with different co-disabilities through using the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS) and the Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) as outcome measurement tools. METHODS: The study sample comprised 25 hearing-impaired children with co-disability who received cochlear implantation. Age and gender-matched control group of 25 cochlear-implanted children without any other disability has been also included. The participants' auditory skills and speech outcomes were assessed using MAIS and MUSS tests. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the different outcomes measure between the two groups. However, the outcomes of some multiple disabilities subgroups were comparable to the control group. Around 40% of the participants with co-disabilities experienced advancement in their methods of communication from behavior to oral mode. CONCLUSION: Cochlear-implanted children with multiple disabilities showed variable degrees of auditory and speech outcomes. The degree of benefits depends on the type of the co-disability. Long-term follow-up is recommended for those children.

Keywords: children with disabilities, Cochlear implants, hearing impairment, language development

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10 Application of Watershed Modeling System for Urbanization Management in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abd-Alrahman Embaby, Ayman Abu Halawa, Medhat Ramadan

Abstract:

The infiltrated water into the subsurface activates expansive soil in localized manner, leading to the differential heaving and destructive of the construction. The Watershed Modeling System (WMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-1) are used to delineate and identify the drainage system and basin morphometry in Tabuk area, where flash floods and accumulation of water may take place. Eight drainage basins effect on Tabuk city. Three of them are expected to be high. The flash floods and surface runoff behavior in these basins are important for any protection projects. It was found that the risky areas that contain Tabuk shale could be expanded when exposed to flash floods and/or surface runoff. The resident neighborhoods in the middle of Tabuk city and affected by surface runoff of the tributaries of the basin of Wadi Abu Nishayfah, Na'am and Atanah outlet, represent high-risk zones. These high-risk neighborhoods are Al Qadsiyah, Al Maseif, Arrwdah, Al Nakhil and Al Rajhi. It can be avoided new constructions on these districts. The low or very low-risk zones include the western and the eastern districts. The western side of the city is lying in the upstream of the small basin. It is suitable for a future urban extension. The direction of surface runoff flow or storm water drain discharge should be away from Tabuk city. The quicker the water can flow out, the better it is.

Keywords: digital elevation model (DEM), flash floods, Saudi Arabia, Tabuk City, watershed modeling system (WMS)

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9 A Three-Dimensional Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Different Type of Fuel

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam E. Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

In the present study, a numerical simulation study is used to 3-D model the steady-state combustion of a staged natural gas flame in a 300 kW swirl-stabilized burner, using ANSYS solver to find the highest combustion efficiency by changing the inlet air swirl number and burner quarl angle in a furnace and showing the effect of flue gas recirculation, type of fuel and staging. The combustion chamber of the gas turbine is a cylinder of diameter 1006.8 mm, and a height of 1651mm ending with a hood until the exhaust cylinder has been reached, where the exit of combustion products which have a diameter of 300 mm, with a height of 751mm. The model was studied by 15 degree of the circumference due to axisymmetric of the geometry and divided into a mesh of about 1.1 million cells. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the governing equations in a three-dimensional model using realizable K-epsilon equations to express the turbulence and non-premixed flamelet combustion model taking into consideration radiation effect. The validation of the results was done by comparing it with other experimental data to ensure the agreement of the results. The study showed two zones of recirculation. The primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. It is found that the increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone is a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products back to the combustion zone decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide.

Keywords: burner selection, natural gas, analysis, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
8 Space Telemetry Anomaly Detection Based On Statistical PCA Algorithm

Authors: Bassem Nassar, Wessam Hussein, Medhat Mokhtar

Abstract:

The crucial concern of satellite operations is to ensure the health and safety of satellites. The worst case in this perspective is probably the loss of a mission but the more common interruption of satellite functionality can result in compromised mission objectives. All the data acquiring from the spacecraft are known as Telemetry (TM), which contains the wealth information related to the health of all its subsystems. Each single item of information is contained in a telemetry parameter, which represents a time-variant property (i.e. a status or a measurement) to be checked. As a consequence, there is a continuous improvement of TM monitoring systems in order to reduce the time required to respond to changes in a satellite's state of health. A fast conception of the current state of the satellite is thus very important in order to respond to occurring failures. Statistical multivariate latent techniques are one of the vital learning tools that are used to tackle the aforementioned problem coherently. Information extraction from such rich data sources using advanced statistical methodologies is a challenging task due to the massive volume of data. To solve this problem, in this paper, we present a proposed unsupervised learning algorithm based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The algorithm is particularly applied on an actual remote sensing spacecraft. Data from the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) was acquired under two operation conditions: normal and faulty states. The models were built and tested under these conditions and the results shows that the algorithm could successfully differentiate between these operations conditions. Furthermore, the algorithm provides competent information in prediction as well as adding more insight and physical interpretation to the ADCS operation.

Keywords: space telemetry monitoring, multivariate analysis, PCA algorithm, space operations

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7 INNPT Nano Particles Material Technology as Enhancement Technology for Biological WWTP Performance and Capacity

Authors: Medhat Gad

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment became a big issue in this decade due to shortage of water resources, growth of population and modern live requirements. Reuse of treated wastewater in industrial and agriculture sectors has a big demand to substitute the shortage of clean water supply as well as to save the eco system from dangerous pollutants in insufficient treated wastewater In last decades, most of wastewater treatment plants are built using primary or secondary biological treatment technology which almost does not provide enough treatment and removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. those plants which built ten to 15 years ago also now suffering from overflow which decrease the treatment efficiency of the plant. Discharging treated wastewater which contains phosphorus and nitrogen to water reservoirs and irrigation canals destroy ecosystem and aquatic life. Using chemical material to enhance treatment efficiency for domestic wastewater but it leads to huge amount of sludge which cost a lot of money. To enhance wastewater treatment, we used INNPT nano material which consists of calcium, aluminum and iron oxides and compounds plus silica, sodium and magnesium. INNPT nano material used with a dose of 100 mg/l to upgrade SBR treatment plant in Cairo Egypt -which has three treatment tanks each with a capacity of 2500 cubic meters per day - to tertiary treatment level by removing Phosphorus, Nitrogen and increase dissolved oxygen in final effluent. The results showed that the treatment retention time decreased from 9 hours in SBR system to one hour using INNPT nano material with improvement in effluent quality while increasing plant capacity to 20 k cubic meters per day. Nitrogen removal efficiency achieved 77%, while phosphorus removal efficiency achieved 90% and COD removal efficiency was 93% which all comply with tertiary treatment limits according to Egyptian law.

Keywords: INNPT technology, nanomaterial, tertiary wastewater treatment, capacity extending

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
6 Scientific Investigation for an Ancient Egyptian Polychrome Wooden Stele

Authors: Ahmed Abdrabou, Medhat Abdalla

Abstract:

The studied stele dates back to Third Intermediate Period (1075-664) B.C in an ancient Egypt. It is made of wood and covered with painted gesso layers. This study aims to use a combination of multi spectral imaging {visible, infrared (IR), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL), Visible-induced ultraviolet luminescence (UVL) and ultraviolet reflected (UVR)}, along with portable x-ray fluorescence in order to map and identify the pigments as well as to provide a deeper understanding of the painting techniques. Moreover; the authors were significantly interested in the identification of wood species. Multispectral imaging acquired in 3 spectral bands, ultraviolet (360-400 nm), visible (400-780 nm) and infrared (780-1100 nm) using (UV Ultraviolet-induced luminescence (UVL), UV Reflected (UVR), Visible (VIS), Visible-induced infrared luminescence (VIL) and Infrared photography. False color images are made by digitally editing the VIS with IR or UV images using Adobe Photoshop. Optical Microscopy (OM), potable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (p-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study. Mapping and imaging techniques provided useful information about the spatial distribution of pigments, in particular visible-induced luminescence (VIL) which allowed the spatial distribution of Egyptian blue pigment to be mapped and every region containing Egyptian blue, even down to single crystals in some instances, is clearly visible as a bright white area; however complete characterization of the pigments requires the use of p. XRF spectroscopy. Based on the elemental analysis found by P.XRF, we conclude that the artists used mixtures of the basic mineral pigments to achieve a wider palette of hues. Identification of wood species Microscopic identification indicated that the wood used was Sycamore Fig (Ficus sycomorus L.) which is recorded as being native to Egypt and was used to make wooden artifacts since at least the Fifth Dynasty.

Keywords: polychrome wooden stele, multispectral imaging, IR luminescence, Wood identification, Sycamore Fig, p-XRF

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5 Pelvic Floor Electrophysiology Patterns Associated with Obstructed Defecation

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat

Abstract:

Pelvic floor electrophysiological tests are essential for assessment of patients with obstructed defecation. The present study was conducted to determine the different patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated with obstructed defecation. The present cross sectional study included 25 patients with obstructed defecation. A control group of 20 apparently healthy subjects were included. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, proctosigmoidoscopy, lateral proctography (evacuation proctography), dynamic pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, anal manometry and electrophysiological studies. Electrophysiological studies were including pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, needle electromyography of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The control group was subjected to electrophysiological studies which included pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The most common pelvic floor electrodiagnostic pattern characteristics of obstructed defecation was pudendal neuropathy, denervation and anismus of external anal sphincter and puborectalis with complete interference pattern of external anal sphincter and puborectalis at squeezing and cough and no localized defect in external anal sphincter. In conclusion, there were characteristic pelvic floor electrodiagnostic patterns associated with obstructed defecation.

Keywords: obstructed defecation, pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, pudendoanal reflex, sphincter electromyography

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
4 Analytical Study and Conservation Processes of Scribe Box from Old Kingdom

Authors: Mohamed Moustafa, Medhat Abdallah, Ramy Magdy, Ahmed Abdrabou, Mohamed Badr

Abstract:

The scribe box under study dates back to the old kingdom. It was excavated by the Italian expedition in Qena (1935-1937). The box consists of 2pieces, the lid and the body. The inner side of the lid is decorated with ancient Egyptian inscriptions written with a black pigment. The box was made using several panels assembled together by wooden dowels and secured with plant ropes. The entire box is covered with a red pigment. This study aims to use analytical techniques in order to identify and have deep understanding for the box components. Moreover, the authors were significantly interested in using infrared reflectance transmission imaging (RTI-IR) to improve the hidden inscriptions on the lid. The identification of wood species included in this study. The visual observation and assessment were done to understand the condition of this box. 3Ddimensions and 2D programs were used to illustrate wood joints techniques. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence portable (XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used in this study in order to identify wood species, remains of insects bodies, red pigment, fibers plant and previous conservation adhesives, also RTI-IR technique was very effective to improve hidden inscriptions. The analysis results proved that wooden panels and dowels were identified as Acacia nilotica, wooden rail was Salix sp. the insects were identified as Lasioderma serricorne and Gibbium psylloids, the red pigment was Hematite, while the fiber plants were linen, previous adhesive was identified as cellulose nitrates. The historical study for the inscriptions proved that it’s a Hieratic writings of a funerary Text. After its transportation from the Egyptian museum storage to the wood conservation laboratory of the Grand Egyptian museum –conservation center (GEM-CC), conservation techniques were applied with high accuracy in order to restore the object including cleaning , consolidating of friable pigments and writings, removal of previous adhesive and reassembly, finally the conservation process that were applied were extremely effective for this box which became ready for display or storage in the grand Egyptian museum.

Keywords: scribe box, hieratic, 3D program, Acacia nilotica, XRD, cellulose nitrate, conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3 Organic Farming for Sustainable Production of Some Promising Halophytic Species in Saline Environment

Authors: Medhat Tawfik, Ezzat Abd El Lateef, Bahr Amany, Mohamed Magda

Abstract:

Applying organic farming systems in biosaline agriculture is unconventional approach for sustainable use of marginal soil and desert land for planting non-traditional halophytic crops such as Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens. These plants are highly salt tolerant C4 halophytic forage plants grown well in coastal salt marsh. These halophytic plant will take important place in the farming system, especially in the coastal areas and salt-affected land. We can call it environmentally smart crops because they ensure food security, contribute to energy security, guarantee environmental sustainability, and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. Organic Agriculture is the most important and widely practiced agro-ecological farming system. It is claimed to be the most sustainable approach and long term adaptation strategy. It promotes soil fertility and diversity at all levels and makes soils less susceptible to erosion. It is also reported to be climate change resilience farming systems as it promotes the proper management of soil, water, biodiversity and local knowledge and provides producers with ecologically sound management decisions. A field experiment was carried out at the Model Farm of National Research Centre, El Tour, South Sinai to study the impact of (Mycorrhiza 1kg/fed., charcoal 4 tons/fed., chicken manure 5 tons/fed., in addition to control treatment) on some growth characters, photosynthetic pigments content, and some physiological aspects i.e. prolind and soluble carbohydrates content, succulence and osmotic pressure values, as well as nutritive values i.e. Crude fat (CF), Acid detergent fiber (ADF), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), Ether extract (EE) and Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) of five halophytic plant species (Leptochloa fusca, Kochia indica, Sporobolus virginicus and Spartina patens). Our results showed that organic fertilizer treatment enhanced all the previous character as compared with control with superiority to chicken manure over the other treatments.

Keywords: organic agriculture, halophytic plants, saline environment, water security

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2 Genetic Variations of Two Casein Genes among Maghrabi Camels Reared in Egypt

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Amira M. Nowier, Medhat El-Denary

Abstract:

Camels play an important socio-economic role within the pastoral and agricultural system in the dry and semidry zones of Asia and Africa. Camels are economically important animals in Egypt where they are dual purpose animals (meat and milk). The analysis of chemical composition of camel milk showed that the total protein contents ranged from 2.4% to 5.3% and it is divided into casein and whey proteins. The casein fraction constitutes 52% to 89% of total camel milk protein and it divided into 4 fractions namely αs1, αs2, β and κ-caseins which are encoded by four tightly genes. In spite of the important role of casein genes and the effects of their genetic polymorphisms on quantitative traits and technological properties of milk, the studies for the detection of genetic polymorphism of camel milk genes are still limited. Due to this fact, this work focused - using PCR-RFP and sequencing analysis - on the identification of genetic polymorphisms and SNPs of two casein genes in Maghrabi camel breed which is a dual purpose camel breed in Egypt. The amplified fragments at 488-bp of the camel κ-CN gene were digested with AluI endonuclease. The results showed the appearance of three different genotypes in the tested animals; CC with three digested fragments at 203-, 127- and 120-bp, TT with three digested fragments at 203-, 158- and 127-bp and CT with four digested fragments at 203-, 158-, 127- and 120-bp. The frequencies of three detected genotypes were 11.0% for CC, 48.0% for TT and 41.0% for CT genotypes. The sequencing analysis of the two different alleles declared the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (C→T) at position 121 in the amplified fragments which is responsible for the destruction of a restriction site (AG/CT) in allele T and resulted in the presence of two different alleles C and T in tested animals. The nucleotide sequences of κ-CN alleles C and T were submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers; KU055605 and KU055606, respectively. The primers used in this study amplified 942-bp fragments spanning from exon 4 to exon 6 of camel αS1-Casein gene. The amplified fragments were digested with two different restriction enzymes; SmlI and AluI. The results of SmlI digestion did not show any restriction site whereas the digestion with AluI endonuclease revealed the presence of two restriction sites AG^CT at positions 68^69 and 631^632 yielding the presence of three digested fragments with sizes 68-, 563- and 293-bp.The nucleotide sequences of this fragment from camel αS1-Casein gene were submitted to GenBank with the accession number KU145820. In conclusion, the genetic characterization of quantitative traits genes which are associated with the production traits like milk yield and composition is considered an important step towards the genetic improvement of livestock species through the selection of superior animals depending on the favorable alleles and genotypes; marker assisted selection (MAS).

Keywords: genetic polymorphism, SNP polymorphism, Maghrabi camels, κ-Casein gene, αS1-Casein gene

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1 Effect of Amiodarone on the Thyroid Gland of Adult Male Albino Rat and the Possible Protective Role of Vitamin E Supplementation: A Histological and Ultrastructural Study

Authors: Ibrahim Abdulla Labib, Medhat Mohamed Morsy, Gamal Hosny, Hanan Dawood Yassa, Gaber Hassan

Abstract:

Amiodarone is a very effective drug, widely used for arrhythmia. Unfortunately it has many side effects involving many organs especially thyroid gland. The current work was conducted to elucidate the effect of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and the possible protective role of vitamin E. Fifty adult male albino rats weighed 200 – 250 grams were divided into five groups; ten rats each. Group I (Control): Five rats were sacrificed after three weeks and five rats were sacrificed after six weeks. Group II (Sham control): Each rat received sunflower oil orally; the solvent of vitamin E for three weeks. Group III (Amiodarone-treated): each rat received an oral dose of amiodarone; 150 mg/kg/day for three weeks. Group IV (Recovery): Each rat received amiodarone as group III then the drug was stopped for three weeks to evaluate recovery. Group V (Amiodarone + Vitamin E-treated): Each rat received amiodarone as group III followed by 100 mg/kg/day vitamin E orally for three weeks. Thyroid gland of the sacrificed animals were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic studies. Amiodarone administration resulted in loss of normal follicular architecture as many follicles appeared either shrunken, empty or contained scanty pale colloid. Some follicles appeared lined by more than one layer of cells while others showed interruption of their membrane. Masson's Trichrome stained sections showed increased collagen fibers in between the thyroid follicles. Ultrastructurally, the apical border of the follicular cells showed few irregular detached microvilli. The nuclei of the follicular cells were almost irregular with chromatin condensation. The cytoplasm of most follicular cells revealed numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum with numerous lysosomes. After three weeks of stopping amiodarone, the follicles were nearly regular in outline. Some follicles were filled with homogenous eosinophilic colloid and others had shrunken pale colloid or were empty. Some few follicles showed exfoliated cells in their lumina and others were still lined by more than one layer of follicular cells. Moderate amounts of collagen fibers were observed in-between thyroid follicles. Ultrastructurally, many follicular cells had rounded euchromatic nucleui, moderate number of lysosomes and moderately dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. However, few follicular cells still showing irregular nucleui, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and many cytoplasmic vacuoles. Administration of vitamin E with amiodarone for three weeks resulted in obvious structural improvement. Most of the follicles were lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells and the lumina were filled with homogenous eosinophilic colloid with very few vacuolations. The majority of follicular cells had rounded nuclei with occasional detection of ballooned cells and dark nuclei. Scanty collagen fibers were detected among thyroid follicles. Ultrastructurally, most follicular cells exhibited rounded euchromatic nuclei with few short microvilli were projecting into the colloid. Few lysosomes were also noticed. It was concluded that amiodarone administration leads to many adverse histological changes in the thyroid gland. Some of these changes are reversible during the recovery period however concomitant vitamin E administration with amiodarone has a major protective role in preventing many of these changes.

Keywords: amiodarone, recovery, ultrastructure, vitamin E.

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