Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: biosorption

58 Studies on Optimization of Batch Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Wastewater Using Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati


The objective of this present study is to optimize the process parameters for batch biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions by Bacillus subtilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Batch biosorption studies were conducted under optimum pH, temperature, biomass concentration and contact time for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions using Bacillus subtilis. From the studies it is noticed that the maximum biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) was by Bacillus subtilis at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 minutes, pH of 4.0, biomass concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, the temperature of 32°C in batch biosorption studies. Predicted percent biosorption of the selected heavy metal ions by the design expert software is in agreement with experimental results of percent biosorption. The percent biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in batch studies is 80% and 78.4%, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metal ions, response surface methodology, biosorption, wastewater

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57 Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Plant Biomass

Authors: Yamina Zouambia, Khadidja Youcef Ettoumi, Mohamed Krea, Nadji Moulai Mostefa


Environment pollution through various wastes (particularly by heavy metals) is a major environmental problem due to industrialization and the development of various human activities. Considerable attention has been focused, in recent years, upon the field of biosorption which represents a biotechnological innovation as well as an excellent tool for removal of metal ions from aqueous effluents. So the purpose of this study is to valorize by-product which are orange peels and an extract of these peels (pectin; a heteropolysaccharide) in treatment of water containing heavy metals. All biosorption experiments were carried out at room temperature, an indicated pH, a precise amount of biosorbent and under continuous stirring. Biosorption kinetic was determined by evaluating the residual concentration of the metal ion at different time intervals using UV spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the orange peels and pectin are interesting biosorbents with maximum biosorption capacity of up to 140 mg/g.

Keywords: orange peels, pectin, heavy metals, biosorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
56 Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

Authors: Y. Laidani, G. Henini, S. Hanini, A. Labbaci, F. Souahi


In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.

Keywords: biosorption, Pb (+II), pomegranate skin, wastewater

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55 Biosorption of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from Real Wastewater onto Cajanus cajan Husk

Authors: Mallappa A. Devani, John U. Kennedy Oubagaranadin, Basudeb Munshi


In this preliminary work, locally available husk of Cajanus cajan (commonly known in India as Tur or Arhar), a bio-waste, has been used in its physically treated and chemically activated form for the removal of binary Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions from the real waste water obtained from an electroplating industry in Bangalore, Karnataka, India and from laboratory prepared binary solutions having almost similar composition of the metal ions, for comparison. The real wastewater after filtration and dilution for five times was used for biosorption studies at the normal pH of the solutions at room temperature. Langmuir's binary model was used to calculate the metal uptake capacities of the biosorbents. It was observed that Cu(II) is more competitive than Zn(II) in biosorption. In individual metal biosorption, Cu(II) uptake was found to be more than that of the Zn(II) and a similar trend was observed in the binary metal biosorption from real wastewater and laboratory prepared solutions. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups in the industrial wastewater and EDAX for the elemental analysis of the biosorbents after experiments.

Keywords: biosorption, Cajanus cajan, multi metal remediation, wastewater

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54 Bioremoval of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae: Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanistic Study

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian


This study reports the removal of Malachite Green (MG) from simulated wastewater by using marine macro algae Ulva lactuca. Batch biosorption experiments were carried out to determine the biosorption capacity. The biosorption capacity was found to be maximum at pH 10. The effect of various other operation parameters such as biosorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time and agitation was also investigated. The equilibrium attained at 120 min with 0.1 g/L of biosorbent. The isotherm experimental data fitted well with Langmuir Model with R² value of 0.994. The maximum Langmuir biosorption capacity was found to be 76.92 mg/g. Further, Langmuir separation factor RL value was found to be 0.004. Therefore, the adsorption is favorable. The biosorption kinetics of MG was found to follow pseudo second-order kinetic model. The mechanistic study revealed that the biosorption of malachite onto Ulva lactuca was controlled by film diffusion. The solute transfer in a solid-liquid adsorption process is characterized by the film diffusion and/or particle diffusion. Thermodynamic study shows ΔG° is negative indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature for the biosorption of malachite green. The biosorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (CHNS: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulphur). This study showed that Ulva lactuca can be used as promising biosorbent for the removal of MG from wastewater.

Keywords: biosorption, Ulva lactuca, wastewater, malachite green, isotherm, kinetics

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53 Optimization Studies on Biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from Wastewater Using Pseudomonas putida in a Packed Bed Bioreactor

Authors: K.Narasimhulu, Y. Pydi Setty


The objective of this present study is the optimization of process parameters in biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions by Pseudomonas putida using Response Surface Methodology in a Packed bed bioreactor. The experimental data were also tested with theoretical models to find the best fit model. The present paper elucidates RSM as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions using Pseudomonas putida. In packed bed biosorption studies, comparison of the breakthrough curves of Ni(II) and Cd(II) for Agar immobilized and PAA immobilized Pseudomonas putida at optimum conditions of flow rate of 300 mL/h, initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and bed height of 20 cm with weight of biosorbent of 12 g, it was found that the Agar immobilized Pseudomonas putida showed maximum percent biosorption and bed saturation occurred at 20 minutes. Optimization results of Ni(II) and Cd(II) by Pseudomonas putida from the Design Expert software were obtained as bed height of 19.93 cm, initial metal ion concentration of 103.85 mg/L, and flow rate of 310.57 mL/h. The percent biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) is 87.2% and 88.2% respectively. The predicted optimized parameters are in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: packed bed bioreactor, response surface mthodology, pseudomonas putida, biosorption, waste water

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52 Biosorption Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) on Spirogyra sp.

Authors: Diwan Singh


The ability of non-living Spirogyra sp. biomass for biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions was explored. The effect of contact time, pH, initial copper ion concentration, biosorbent dosage and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherms were found applicable on the experimental data (R2>0.98). Qmax obtained from the Langmuir Isotherms was found to be 28.7 mg/g of biomass. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔGº) and enthalpy change (ΔHº) suggest that the sorption is spontaneous and endothermic at 20ºC-40ºC.

Keywords: biosorption, Spirogyra sp., contact time, pH, dose

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51 Influence of the Low Frequency Ultrasound on the Cadmium (II) Biosorption by an Ecofriendly Biocomposite (Extraction Solid Waste of Ammi visnaga / Calcium Alginate): Kinetic Modeling

Authors: L. Nouri Taiba, Y. Bouhamidi, F. Kaouah, Z. Bendjama, M. Trari


In the present study, an ecofriendly biocomposite namely calcium alginate immobilized Ammi Visnaga (Khella) extraction waste (SWAV/CA) was prepared by electrostatic extrusion method and used on the cadmium biosorption from aqueous phase with and without the assistance of ultrasound in batch conditions. The influence of low frequency ultrasound (37 and 80 KHz) on the cadmium biosorption kinetics was studied. The obtained results show that the ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhances and improves the efficiency of the cadmium removal. The Pseudo first order, Pseudo-second-order, Intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models were evaluated using the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that biosorption process is best described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich, in both the absence and presence of ultrasound.

Keywords: biocomposite, biosorption, cadmium, non-linear analysis, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
50 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese


The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

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49 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan


Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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48 Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves

Authors: Srinivasulu Dasaiah, Kalyan Yakkala, Gangadhar Battala, Pavan Kumar Pindi, Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala


Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.

Keywords: biosorption, contact time, fluoride, isotherms

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47 Box-Behnken Design for the Biosorption of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Zero-Valent Iron Nano Algal Composite

Authors: V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold


The advancement of adsorption is the development of nano-biocomposite for the sorption dyes and heavy metal ions. In fact, Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is cost-effective reducing agent and a most reliable biosorbent for the dye biosorption. In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite, a novel marine algal based biosorbent, was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch mode of operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.

Keywords: algae, biosorption, zero-valent, dye, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
46 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy


Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, heavy metal ions, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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45 ANN Modeling for Cadmium Biosorption from Potable Water Using a Packed-Bed Column Process

Authors: Dariush Jafari, Seyed Ali Jafari


The recommended limit for cadmium concentration in potable water is less than 0.005 mg/L. A continuous biosorption process using indigenous red seaweed, Gracilaria corticata, was performed to remove cadmium from the potable water. The process was conducted under fixed conditions and the breakthrough curves were achieved for three consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. A modeling based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to fit the experimental breakthrough data. In addition, a simplified semi empirical model, Thomas, was employed for this purpose. It was found that ANN well described the experimental data (R2>0.99) while the Thomas prediction were a bit less successful with R2>0.97. The adjusted design parameters using the nonlinear form of Thomas model was in a good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones. The results approve the capability of ANN to predict the cadmium concentration in potable water.

Keywords: ANN, biosorption, cadmium, packed-bed, potable water

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44 A Comparison of Biosorption of Radionuclides Tl-201 on Different Biosorbents and Their Empirical Modelling

Authors: Sinan Yapici, Hayrettin Eroglu


The discharge of the aqueous radionuclides wastes used for the diagnoses of diseases and treatments of patients in nuclear medicine can cause fatal health problems when the radionuclides and its stable daughter component mix with underground water. Tl-201, which is one of the radionuclides commonly used in the nuclear medicine, is a toxic substance and is converted to its stable daughter component Hg-201, which is also a poisonous heavy metal: Tl201 → Hg201 + Gamma Ray [135-167 Kev (12%)] + X Ray [69-83 Kev (88%)]; t1/2 = 73,1 h. The purpose of the present work was to remove Tl-201 radionuclides from aqueous solution by biosorption on the solid bio wastes of food and cosmetic industry as bio sorbents of prina from an olive oil plant, rose residue from a rose oil plant and tea residue from a tea plant, and to make a comparison of the biosorption efficiencies. The effects of the biosorption temperature, initial pH of the aqueous solution, bio sorbent dose, particle size and stirring speed on the biosorption yield were investigated in a batch process. It was observed that the biosorption is a rapid process with an equilibrium time less than 10 minutes for all the bio sorbents. The efficiencies were found to be close to each other and measured maximum efficiencies were 93,30 percent for rose residue, 94,1 for prina and 98,4 for tea residue. In a temperature range of 283 and 313 K, the adsorption decreased with increasing temperature almost in a similar way. In a pH range of 2-10, increasing pH enhanced biosorption efficiency up to pH=7 and then the efficiency remained constant in a similar path for all the biosorbents. Increasing stirring speed from 360 to 720 rpm enhanced slightly the biosorption efficiency almost at the same ratio for all bio sorbents. Increasing particle size decreased the efficiency for all biosorbent; however the most negatively effected biosorbent was prina with a decrease in biosorption efficiency from about 84 percent to 40 with an increase in the nominal particle size 0,181 mm to 1,05 while the least effected one, tea residue, went down from about 97 percent to 87,5. The biosorption efficiencies of all the bio sorbents increased with increasing biosorbent dose in the range of 1,5 to 15,0 g/L in a similar manner. The fit of the experimental results to the adsorption isotherms proved that the biosorption process for all the bio sorbents can be represented best by Freundlich model. The kinetic analysis showed that all the processes fit very well to pseudo second order rate model. The thermodynamics calculations gave ∆G values between -8636 J mol-1 and -5378 for tea residue, -5313 and -3343 for rose residue, and -5701 and -3642 for prina with a ∆H values of -39516 J mol-1, -23660 and -26190, and ∆S values of -108.8 J mol-1 K-1, -64,0, -72,0 respectively, showing spontaneous and exothermic character of the processes. An empirical biosorption model in the following form was derived for each biosorbent as function of the parameters and time, taking into account the form of kinetic model, with regression coefficients over 0.9990 where At is biosorbtion efficiency at any time and Ae is the equilibrium efficiency, t is adsorption period as s, ko a constant, pH the initial acidity of biosorption medium, w the stirring speed as s-1, S the biosorbent dose as g L-1, D the particle size as m, and a, b, c, and e are the powers of the parameters, respectively, E a constant containing activation energy and T the temperature as K.

Keywords: radiation, diosorption, thallium, empirical modelling

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43 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo


In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: bioprocess, bioremediation, biosorption, copper

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42 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Lead Acid Battery Industry Wastewater by Immobilized Dead Isolated Bacterial Biomass

Authors: Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru, Narasimhulu Korrapati


Over the past many years, many sites in the world have been contaminated with heavy metals, which are the largest class of contaminants. Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals contaminated in the environment. Lead is not biodegradable, that’s why it is accumulated in the human body and impacts all the systems of the human body when it has been taken by humans. The accumulation of lead in the water environment has been showing adverse effects on the public health. So the removal of lead from the water environment by the biosorption process, which is emerged as a potential method for the lead removal, is an efficient approach. This work was focused to examine the removal of Lead [Pb (II)] ions from aqueous solution and effluent from battery industry. Lead contamination in water is a widespread problem throughout the world and mainly results from lead acid battery manufacturing effluent. In this work, isolated bacteria from wastewater of lead acid battery industry has been utilized for the removal of lead. First effluent from the lead acid battery industry was characterized by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP – AES). Then the bacteria was isolated from the effluent and used it’s immobilized dead mass for the biosorption of lead. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies clearly suggested that the Lead (Pb) was adsorbed efficiently. The adsorbed percentage of lead (II) from waste was 97.40 the concentration of lead (II) is measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). From the result of AAS it can be concluded that immobilized isolated dead mass was well efficient and useful for biosorption of lead contaminated waste water.

Keywords: biosorption, ICP-AES, lead (Pb), SEM

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41 Uptake of Copper by Dead Biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia Isolated from a Metal Mine in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Ingrid R. Avanzi, Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Elen A. Perpetuo, Claudio Auguto Oller do Nascimento


In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process.

Keywords: biosorption, dead biomass, biotechnology, copper recovery

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40 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan


Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: biosorption, copper, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake, purification

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39 Biosorption of Manganese Mine Effluents Using Crude Chitin from Philippine Bivalves

Authors: Randy Molejona Jr., Elaine Nicole Saquin


The area around the Ajuy river in Iloilo, Philippines, is currently being mined for manganese ore, and river water samples exceed the maximum manganese contaminant level set by US-EPA. At the same time, the surplus of local bivalve waste is another environmental concern. Synthetic chemical treatment compromises water quality, leaving toxic residues. Therefore, an alternative treatment process is biosorption or using the physical and chemical properties of biomass to adsorb heavy metals in contaminated water. The study aims to extract crude chitin from shell wastes of Bractechlamys vexillum, Perna viridis, and Placuna placenta and determine its adsorption capacity on manganese in simulated and actual mine water. Crude chitin was obtained by pulverization, deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorization of shells. Biosorption by flocculation followed 5 g: 50 mL chitin-to-water ratio. Filtrates were analyzed using MP-AES after 24 hours. In both actual and simulated mine water, respectively, B. vexillum yielded the highest adsorption percentage of 91.43% and 99.58%, comparable to P. placenta of 91.43% and 99.37%, while significantly different to P. viridis of -57.14% and 31.53%, (p < 0.05). FT-IR validated the presence of chitin in shells based on carbonyl-containing functional groups at peaks 1530-1560 cm⁻¹ and 1660-1680 cm⁻¹. SEM micrographs showed the amorphous and non-homogenous structure of chitin. Thus, crude chitin from B. vexillum and P. placenta can be bio-sorbents for water treatment of manganese-impacted effluents, and promote appropriate waste management of local bivalves.

Keywords: biosorption, chitin, FT-IR, mine effluents, SEM

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38 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee


Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

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37 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption Using Macadamia Nutshells: Effect of Different Treatment Methods

Authors: Vusumzi E. Pakade, Themba D. Ntuli, Augustine E. Ofomaja


Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different methods (raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)) were investigated for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent dosage 0.2 g L-1, and concentration 100 mg L-1. The different treatment methods altered the surface characteristics of the sorbents and produced different maximum binding capacities of 42.5, 40.6 and 37.5 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively. The data was fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms. No single model could clearly explain the data perhaps due to the complexity of process taking place. The kinetic modeling results showed that the process of Cr(VI) biosorption with Macadamia sorbents was better described by a process of chemical sorption in pseudo-second order. These results showed that the three treatment methods yielded different surface properties which then influenced adsorption of Cr(VI) differently.

Keywords: biosorption, chromium(VI), isotherms, Macadamia, reduction, treatment

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36 Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Textile Dye (Yellow Bemacid) onto Brahea edulis

Authors: G. Henini, Y. Laidani, F. Souahi, A. Labbaci, S. Hanini


Environmental contamination is a major problem being faced by the society today. Industrial, agricultural, and domestic wastes, due to the rapid development in the technology, are discharged in the several receivers. Generally, this discharge is directed to the nearest water sources such as rivers, lakes, and seas. While the rates of development and waste production are not likely to diminish, efforts to control and dispose of wastes are appropriately rising. Wastewaters from textile industries represent a serious problem all over the world. They contain different types of synthetic dyes which are known to be a major source of environmental pollution in terms of both the volume of dye discharged and the effluent composition. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption is a promising technique due to the ease of use and low cost compared to other applications in the process of discoloration, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The focus of the present study was to assess the potentiality of Brahea edulis (BE) for the removal of synthetic dye Yellow bemacid (YB) from aqueous solutions. The results obtained here may transfer to other dyes with a similar chemical structure. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The biosorption kinetic data of the material (BE) was tested by the pseudo first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH, and entropy ΔS have revealed that the adsorption of YB on the BE is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin isotherm models. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g: 12 mg/g; 1.5 g: 47.44 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at around pH value of 2 for the YB. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution (Co = 120 mg/l; q = 35.97 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.998) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.97 mg/g for YB.

Keywords: adsorption, Brahea edulis, isotherm, yellow Bemacid

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35 Biosorption of Phenol onto Water Hyacinth Activated Carbon: Kinetics and Isotherm Study

Authors: Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of phenol from its aqueous solution using water hyancith activated carbon (WHAC) as an adsorbent. The sorption kinetics were analysed using pseudo-first order kinetics and pseudo-second order model, and it was observed that the sorption data tend to fit very well in pseudo-second order model for the entire sorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Freundlich model with a maximum biosorption capacity of 31.45 mg/g estimated using Langmuir model. The adsorption intensity 3.7975 represents a favorable adsorption condition.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, kinetics, phenol

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34 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column

Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi


Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, bacillus thuringiensis, biosorption, cu and mn ions, fixed bed

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33 Acceleration of Adsorption Kinetics by Coupling Alternating Current with Adsorption Process onto Several Adsorbents

Authors: A. Kesraoui, M. Seffen


Applications of adsorption onto activated carbon for water treatment are well known. The process has been demonstrated to be widely effective for removing dissolved organic substances from wastewaters, but this treatment has a major drawback is the high operating cost. The main goal of our research work is to improve the retention capacity of Tunisian biomass for the depollution of industrial wastewater and retention of pollutants considered toxic. The biosorption process is based on the retention of molecules and ions onto a solid surface composed of biological materials. The evaluation of the potential use of these materials is important to propose as an alternative to the adsorption process generally expensive, used to remove organic compounds. Indeed, these materials are very abundant in nature and are low cost. Certainly, the biosorption process is effective to remove the pollutants, but it presents a slow kinetics. The improvement of the biosorption rates is a challenge to make this process competitive with respect to oxidation and adsorption onto lignocellulosic fibers. In this context, the alternating current appears as a new alternative, original and a very interesting phenomenon in the acceleration of chemical reactions. Our main goal is to increase the retention acceleration of dyes (indigo carmine, methylene blue) and phenol by using a new alternative: alternating current. The adsorption experiments have been performed in a batch reactor by adding some of the adsorbents in 150 mL of pollutants solution with the desired concentration and pH. The electrical part of the mounting comprises a current source which delivers an alternating current voltage of 2 to 15 V. It is connected to a voltmeter that allows us to read the voltage. In a 150 mL capacity cell, we plunged two zinc electrodes and the distance between two Zinc electrodes has been 4 cm. Thanks to alternating current, we have succeeded to improve the performance of activated carbon by increasing the speed of the indigo carmine adsorption process and reducing the treatment time. On the other hand, we have studied the influence of the alternating current on the biosorption rate of methylene blue onto Luffa cylindrica fibers and the hybrid material (Luffa cylindrica-ZnO). The results showed that the alternating current accelerated the biosorption rate of methylene blue onto the Luffa cylindrica and the Luffa cylindrica-ZnO hybrid material and increased the adsorbed amount of methylene blue on both adsorbents. In order to improve the removal of phenol, we performed the coupling between the alternating current and the biosorption onto two adsorbents: Luffa cylindrica and the hybrid material (Luffa cylindrica-ZnO). In fact, the alternating current has succeeded to improve the performance of adsorbents by increasing the speed of the adsorption process and the adsorption capacity and reduce the processing time.

Keywords: adsorption, alternating current, dyes, modeling

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32 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai


This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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31 Covalent Binding of Cysteine to a Sol-Gel Material for Cadmium Biosorption from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Claudiu Marcu, Cristina Paul, Adelina Andelescu, Corneliu Mircea Davidescu, Francisc Péter


Heavy metal pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades as a result of its toxicity and insusceptibility to the environment. Methods for removing metal ions from aqueous solution mainly consist of physical, chemical and biochemical procedures. Biosorption is defined as the removal of metal or metalloid species, compounds and particulates from solution by a biological material. Biosorption represents a very attractive method for the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous effluents because it uses the ability of various biomass to bind the metal ions without the risk of releasing other toxic chemical compounds into the environment. The problem with using biomass or living cells as biosorbents is that their regeneration/reuse is often either impossible or very laborious. One of the most common chelating group found in biosorbents is the thiol group in cysteine. Therefore, we immobilized cysteine using covalent binding using glutaraldehyde as a linker on a synthetic sol-gel support obtained using 3-amino-propyl-trimetoxysilane and trimetoxysilane as precursors. The obtained adsorbents were used for removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions and the removal capacity was investigated in relation to the composition of the sol-gel hybrid composite, the loading of the biomolecule and the physical parameters of the biosorption process. In the same conditions, the bare sol-gel support without cysteine had no Cd removal effect, while the adsorbent with cysteine had an adsorption capacity up to 25.8 mg Cd/g adsorbent at pH 2.0 and 119 mg Cd/g adsorbent at pH 6.6, depending on cadmium concentration and adsorption conditions. We used atomic adsorption spectrometry to assess the cadmium concentration in the samples after the biosorbtion process. The parameters for the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms where calculated from plotting the results of the adsorption experiments. The results for cysteine immobilization show a good loading capacity of the sol-gel support which indicates it could be used to immobilize metal binding proteins and by doing so boosting the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the biosorbent.

Keywords: biosorbtion, cadmium, cysteine covalent binding, sol-gel

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30 Biosorption of Ni (II) Using Alkaline-Treated Rice Husk

Authors: Khanom Simarani


Rice husk has been widely reported as a good sorbent for heavy metals. Pre treatment of rice husk minimizes cellulose crystallinity and increases the surface area thus ensuring better adsorption capacity. Commercial base and natural base-treated rice husk were used to investigate the potential of Ni(II) adsorption from synthetic solutions and waste water in batch systems. Effects of process variables such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial Ni (II) concentration were studied. Optimum Ni (II) adsorption was observed at pH 6 within 60 min of contact time. Experimental data showed increased amount of adsorbed Ni(II) with increasing adsorbent dose and decreased percent of adsorption with increasing initial Ni(II) concentration. Kinetic isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich) were also applied. Biosorption mechanism of rice husk was analyzed using SEM/EDS, FT-IR, and XRD. The results revealed that natural base produced from agroindustrial waste could be used as efficient as commercial bases during pre treatment rice husk in removing Ni(II) from waste waters within 15 min.

Keywords: Nickel removal, adsorbent, heavy metal, biomass

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29 Banana Peels as an Eco-Sorbent for Manganese Ions

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


This study was conducted to evaluate the manganese removal from aqueous solution using Banana peels activated carbon (BPAC). Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial metal ion concentrations and contact times on the biosorption process. From these investigations, a significant increase in percentage removal of manganese 97.4 % is observed at pH value 5.0, biosorbent dose 0.8 g, initial concentration 20 ppm, temperature 25 ± 2 °C, stirring rate 200 rpm and contact time 2 h. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium of the experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Langmuir isotherm was found to well represent the measured adsorption data implying BPAC had heterogeneous surface. A raw groundwater samples were collected from Baharmos groundwater treatment plant network at Embaba and Manshiet Elkanater City/District-Giza, Egypt, for treatment at the best conditions that reached at first phase by BPAC. The treatment with BPAC could reduce iron and manganese value of raw groundwater by 91.4 % and 97.1 %, respectively and the effect of the treatment process on the microbiological properties of groundwater sample showed decrease of total bacterial count either at 22°C or at 37°C to 85.7 % and 82.4 %, respectively. Also, BPAC was characterized using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: biosorption, banana peels, isothermal models, manganese

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